hence, although there may well be a contribution by measurement error to these apparent effects within some of the studies, overall it appears that measurement error of itself does not account for the existence of these effects."
There was marked variation among the cohorts in the approaches used to estimate exposures and in the extent of data available (see Annex to this chapter). All exposure estimates are subject to measurement error. Within cohorts, the degree of measurement error likely depends on the calendar years during which exposures were incurred; across cohorts, there is likely a varying impact of measurement error. Some work has addressed the consequences of error, both in individual cohorts and more generally. These analyses show that error would generally blunt exposure-response relationships. Time-dependent errors pose an additional constraint in interpreting time-dependence of effect, such as the inverse dose-rate effect. The substantial variation in methods for exposure assessment among the cohorts undoubtedly contributes to the heterogeneity of risk estimates from the individual studies.