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Index A Abilities of workers, 81-82 Access to jobs, 6, 18- 19, 74-79, 103, 124-125, 135, 156 Affirmative action, 6, 17, 156 effects, 116- 119, 124- 135 see also Antidiscrimination measures AFSCMEv. State of Washington, 4 Age groups labor force composition, 143 (table) labor force participation, 141 (table), 142, 161 Agricultural work, 149, 151 (table), 154 (table) American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), 107 Antidiscrimination measures, 108- 110 (see also Affirmative action) Antitrustlaws, 110-112 1/1 AT&T, job evaluation committee, 17 Australia, comparable worth policy, 14, 83, 105-107 Availability bias, 10, 12,53, 55-57,65,67 B Baby boom cohort, 140, 142, 143, 149 Behavior of workers, 7 (see also Job preferences) Belief systems (see Cultural beliefs) Bias, 3n, 9-10, 11-12, 43-45, 53-68 availability, 10, 12, 53,55-57, 65, 67 current salary, 45 egocentric, 56 expectancy, 12,53, 60-64, 67 halo, 10, 12,53,57-60, 64-65, 66-67

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172 labeling, 11-12 research, 9-12, 66-68 self-enhancement, 10, 61 sex,11,12,19,43-45,58,61, 62-63, 67-68, 135 vividness, 58-59 Blacks labor force composition, 143 (table) labor force participation, 140, 141 (table) see also Minority workers; Race Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 138-140, 144, 150-151 Bureau ofthe Census, 139, 143 C Career paths, 19, 20,25-26, 129-130 Cartelization, 110-112 Chase Econometrics, 139 Child care, access to, 161 Childbearing, effect on labor force, 25, 142, 145-147 Children, occupational aspirations, 23-24 Choices, workers' (see Behavior of workers; Job preferences) Civil Rights Act of 1964,28 TitleVII,4, 14-15,71, 112, 137, 160 Title IX, 14-15 Civil service jobs,4 Clerical work, 22, 96, 151 (table), 154 (table), 155 College graduates effect on promotion, 131 (table), 133 (table) effect on salary, 127 (table), 128 (table) College majors, sex differences, 99-100 INDEX Communications Workers of America, 17 Comparable worth alternatives to, 108-113 Australian policy, 14, 83, 105-107 background, 3-6 comparability of jobs,9-12, 53, 83-84, 87 compliance, 88-89 coverage, 88 definition, 3, 86-89 economics of,71-115 implementation, 12-18, 82-83, 88, 160 research issues, 6-31 see also specific topics Compensable factors, 10-12, 39-44,58, 64-66 Construction industry, 149 Corporate employers, 118-119 affirmative action programs, 119-120 creation and dissolution of jobs, 120-122 promotion opportunities 129-132 sex composition ofjobs, 124-129 wage stability, 122-124 Craft work, 22, 151 (table), 154 (table) Cultural beliefs, 7, 11,26-30 D Demand See Supply and demand) Demography, effects on labor force, 140-144, 156 Denver nurses' case, 12-13, 100 Discrimination, 18-21, 74-79, 99, 102 See also Employer discrimination; Wage discrimination)

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INDEX Disemployment, 6,13, 83, 151 (see also Joblessness) E Earnings (see Wages) Earnings trajectories (see Career paths) Economic outlook, industry and occupation, 148-152 Economics of comparable worth 71-115, 137-162 consequences of comparable worth policy, 7-8, 12- 15, 79-85, 101-108 research, 12-15, 85 Education effect on promotion, 131 (table), 133 (table) effect on salary, 127 (table), 128 (table) Educational attainment of labor force,148, 149 (table) Egocentric bias, 56 Employer cartels, 110-112 Employer discrimination, 74-76, 89-93,99, 100, 156 Employment by major occupational group, 151 (table) see also Job headings Employment displacement, 6, 13, 83, 151 Employment histories (see Career paths) Equal employment opportunity (EEO) (see Affirmative action; Antidiscrimination measures) Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC),3,5 Equal Pay Act of 1963,28, 112n, 137 173 Equal pay policies, 14, 79-81, 102-107,109 Equity theory, 43 Expectancy bias, 12,53, 60-64, 67 F Family responsibilities, effect on labor force, 24, 99, 157, 161 (see also Marital status) Farmers (see Agricultural work) Females (see Women) Fertility, effect on labor force, 140, 156 Foremen-level jobs, 121, 124- 128 (tables), 131 (table), 133 (table) Full-time employment trends, 144- 147, 146- 147 (tables) G Gender (see Sex) Government-sector employment, 107-108, 149 Greenspan, Alan,91 Gross national product (GNP) growth rates, 139 Gunther v. County of Washington, Oregon, 4, 160 H Halo bias, 10, 12,53,57-60, 64-65, 66-67 Hay System, 84 High-technology manufacturing industry, 149, 151 Hours worked, 106,144-147, 160 by sex, 144 (table) Human capita!, 22 effect on promotion, 131 (table), 133 (table)

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174 effect on salary, 127 (table), 128 (table) Immigration, effect on labor force, 140, 142-143, 156 Industry and occupation, economic outlook, 148-152 Integration (see Access to jobs; Job integration) J Job descriptions, 9-10, 46, 54-55 bias, 9-10, 53-68 Job evaluation, 5, 7, 8-12, 30, 37~8, 117 acceptability, 38 bias,11-12,43-45,53-68 bias-free, 97n convergence between evaluation systems, 40 (table) criteria, 41~3 market-oriented, 87, 97n point systems, 10-11,39,40 "policy capturing," 41-42,43 process of, 45-46 ratercharacteristics,40~1 reliability, 10,39-40 research, 8-12,37-52, 66-68 Job growth, projected, 153 (table) Jobintegration,124-125, 135, 156 (see also Access to jobs) Job ladders (see Career paths) Job preferences, 21-24, 29, 81 -82, 93, 94,99, 100, 101-102 Job pricing (see Wage determination) Job salaries (see Wages) Job segregation, 3-4, 19,152- 157, INDEX 159 (see also Access to jobs; Sex segregation) Jobstatus,116-117, 120, 128, 132-134 effect on promotion, 133 (table) effect on salary, 128 (table) Job tenure (see Tenure) Job titles, bias, 59 Job turnover (see Turnover) Joblessness, 104, 106, 139-140, 148 Jobs accessto,6, 18-19,74-79,103, 124-125, 135, 156 creation and dissolution of, 120-124 definition, 22n female-dominated, 22' 92, 156 male-dominated, 22, 92, 156 sex composition, 10, 19,21,30, 44,72-76, 124-129, 125-128 (tables), 154 (table) sex-neutral, 155, 156, 161 worth,11-12,42 see also Occupations Johns Hopkins Life History Survey (1968),25 L Labeling bias, 11-12 Labor force attachment, 25, 147-148 composition, 143 (table) demographic characteristics, 140-144, 156 participation,25, 138-148, 141-147 (tables), 158,161 Labor supply (see Supply and demand) Laborers,151 (table), 154 (table) Legislative activity, 4

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INDEX Lemons v. City and County of Denver, 12-13, 100 Longitudinal studies, 25 Lower-management j obs, 126- 127 (tables) M Males (see Men) Management Position Description Questionnaire, 39-40 Management-union negotiation, 17 Managerial work, 151 (table), 154 (table), 155 Manufacturing industry, 149, 151 Marital status, effect on labor force, 24, 140-142, 145 (table), 146 (table), 147 (table) see also Family responsibilities Men college majors, 99-100 earnings growth, 160-161 educational attainment, 149 (table) greater earnings, justification, 22-23,28 hours worked, 144 (table) labor force composition, 143 (table) labor force participation, 141 (table) male-dominatedjobs, 22, 156 women in, 92 part-time employment, 144 (table) self-enhancement, 61 work-life expectancy, 147 year-round work experience, 146 (table) Minority workers, 6, 141 (table), 143 (table), 156 (see also Blacks; Race) 175 N National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Force Experience, 25 National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis, 5, 8, 26, 134 comparable worth report, 99 Nonmanagement-level jobs, 124-127 (tables) Norton, Eleanor Holmes, 3 Nursing, 22, 107, 108 cartelization, 110- 111 disemployment, 6 litigation, 12-13, 100, 108 pay scares, 20 supply-and-demand effects, 110-111 o Occupational choice (see Job preferences) Occupational segregation (see Job segregation; Sex segregation) Occupations definition, 22n employment outlook, 150-157 fastest growing, 152 (table) job growth, projected, 153 (table) percentage distribution of women, 154 (table) see also Jobs Office automation, effect on clerical work, 151 p Panel Study on Income Dynamics, 25

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176 Part-time employment, 144-147, 160 among married women, 146 (table) by marital status of women, 145 (table) by sex, 144 (table) Pay (see Wages) Pay equity (see Wages, realignment) Pay setting (see Wage determination) Pay structures (see Wage determination) Personnel records, 118-119 Political aspects, 8, 16- 17 Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQj, 54-55 Pricing of jobs (see Wage determination) Private household services, 149, 154 (table), 155 Productivity, 26, 158, 159 Professional work, 151 (table), 154 (table) Promotion opportunities, 19, 129-132, 133 human capital effects, 131 (table), 133 (table) job status effects, 133 (table) race effects, 131 (table), 133 (table) sex effects, 131 (table), 133 (table) see also Career paths Proposition 13, 108 R Race bias, 3n effect on promotion, 131 (table), 133 (table) INDEX effect on salary, 127 (table), 128 (table) labor force composition, 143 (table) labor force participation, 141 (table) Recession-proof industries, 148 Retail sales (see Sales work) Role models for women, 156 S Salary (see Wages) Sales work, 22, 151 (table), 154 (table) Segregation (see Job segregation; Sex segregation) Self-deprecation, 61 Self-enhancement bias, 10, 61 Service industry, 22, 148-149, 151 (table), 154 (table) Sex effect on children's aspirations, 23-24 effect on college majors, 99-100 effect on job preference (see Job preferences) effect on promotion, 131 (table), 133 (table) effect on salary, 98, 127 (table), 128 (table) see also Men; Women Sexbias,11,19,43-45,58,61, 62-63, 67-68, 135 Sex composition of jobs, 10, 19,21, 30,44,72-76, 124-129, 125-128 (tables), 154 (table) Sex discrimination (see Discrimination; Employer discrimination; Wage discrimination) Sex segregation, 17, 18-19, 125, 152-157

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INDEX effects on worker supply and demand and wages, 74-79, 159 see also Access to jobs; Job segregation Sex stereotypes (see Sex bias) Sex-neutral occupations, 155, 156, 161 Sex-related labor supply, 97- 101 Smith, Adam, 96 Social judgment bias (see Bias) Status (see Job status) Stereotypes (See Sex bias) Substitutability of workers, 81-82, 89 Success, attitudes toward, 61 Supply and demand, 23, 73-76 89-90, 95, 104-105 Sweden, wage policy, 13 T Tastes of workers (see Job preferences) Teaching, 22, 149 Technological change, impact, 151, 161 Tenure, 126-128, 131 (table), 133 (table), 148 Title VII (see Civil Rights Act of 1964) Title IX (see Civil Rights Act of 1964) Turnover, 14, 80-81, 148 (see also Tenure) U Unemployment rates, 104, 106, 139, 148 (see also Disemployment; Joblessness) Unions, 17 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (see under Bureau) 177 U.S. Bureau of the Census (see under Bureau) V Value of jobs (see Job status; Jobs, worth) Vividness bias, 58-59 W Wage dete~mination,7, 10, 18-30, 37-38,46-47,72-76, 89-101 in an individual firm, 76-79 Wage discrimination, 5, 6-7, 18-30, 84-85, 159 Wage gap, 3-4, 16, 137, 157-161 Wage fixing, 88, 110- 113 Wage structures (see Wage determination) Wages, 124-129 adjustment (see realignment, below) average, by percentage female, 126 (table) criterion for job evaluation, 12, 41-43,58 human capital effects, 127 (table), 128 (table) influence on labor supply, 89-90 job status effects, 128 (table) prediction, 39~0, 158 race effects, 127 (table), 128 (table) realignment, 8- 18, 72, 79-81, 83-84, 88, 102-105 (see also Comparable worth, implementation) sex effects, 127 (table), 128 (table) stability, 122-124, 124 (table)

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178 supply and demand considerations, 73-76, 89-90, 95, 104-105 Washington State, court ruling, 4, 160 Weeks worked, 144-147 Whites labor force composition, 143 (table) labor force participation, 140, 141 (table) Women college majors, 99-100 educational attainment, 148, 149 (table) female-dominated occupations, 22, 92, 156 full-time employment, 147 (table) hours worked, average, 144 (table) in male-dominated occupations, 150, 156 . . . . In nontrad~t~ona . occupations, 155-156 in professional occupations, 156 labor force composition, 143 (table) labor force participation, 25, 138-148, 141-147 (tables), 158 INDEX labor market statue, 152-161 part-time employment, 144-146 percentage distribution in jobs, 124-129 by job level, 125 (table) by occupational group, 154 (table) role models, 156 senior women, affirmative action effects, 119, 120 unemployment rate, 106, 148 wages, 119-120, 124-129, 157-158 by job level, 126 (table) working mothers, 140, 144, 145, 157 year-round work experience, 146 (table) Women, Work, and Wages: Equal Payfor Jobs of Equal Value, 5 "Women's work," 66, 116 Work histories (see Career paths) Work-life expectancy, 147 y Year-round work experience, 146-147 (tables) Youth work force, 142, 143, 156