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Aggregation

ethical issues, 117–118, 119

quality-adjusted life years, 2, 56

AIDS, see Human immunodeficiency virus

American Academy of Pediatrics, 45, 126

American College Health Association, 49

Americans with Disabilities Act, 112–113

Animal models, 419, 423, 425, 426–427, 436

adjuvants, 373–374, 375, 376

antigen delivery, 378–379, 380

autoimmune diseases, 386–387, 388–395, 399–403, 404–407

chlamydia, 349, 350–351

cholera, 376

Coccidiodes immitis, 357, 358–359

costimulation 408

diabetes, 386–387, 388–395

DNA vaccines, 382–383

Epstein-Barr virus, 333–334

gonorrhea, 368–369, 371

Helicobacter pylori, 365–366

hepatitis C virus, 335, 336, 337, 338

herpes simplex virus, 328–329

Histoplasma capsulatum 357–358

papillomaviruses, 340–341

programmed T-cell death, 397

streptococcus, group A, 361–362, 363

Antigens, 18, 20, 26–27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, 40, 377–381, 412, 417, 420–424, 432

acellular, 11, 18, 20, 28, 30, 129, 446

autoimmune disease, 35–38

chlamydia, 350–351

Coccidiodes immitis, 358–359

dengue virus, 346

diabetes, 387–388

DNA vaccines, 381–386

gonorrhea, 368–371

Helicobacter pylori, 367

hepatitis B virus, 378

hepatitis C virus, 337

Helicobacter pylori, 364

Histoplasma capsulatum 358

influenza virus, 223

multiple sclerosis, 399, 400

polio, 24

programmed T-cell death, 37, 395–399, 409, 410–411

streptococcus, group A, 360

see also B cells; T cells

Apoptosis, 37, 395–399, 409, 410–411

Attenuated live viruses, 19, 20, 379

herpes simplex virus, 328–329

mycobacterium tuberculosis, 352

polio, 24–25

Attitudes

physicians, 47

public complacency and fear, 9, 46, 73–74, 130

vaccine acceptance, 11, 20

Autoimmune diseases, 1, 12, 35–38, 45, 380, 399–407

animal models, 386–387, 388–395, 399–403, 404–407

antigens, 35–38

diabetes mellitus, 6, 35, 37, 37, 54, 67, 87, 90, 233–238, 386–389, 391, 392, 393–395, 403

cancer therapy, 427–429, 431

multiple sclerosis, 6, 35, 54, 87, 245–249, 397, 399–400

programmed T-cell death, 397–399

rheumatoid arthritis, 6, 35, 54, 67, 87, 285–290, 403

T cells, 35–38, 233, 245, 389–391, 392–395, 399–406 (passim)

B

Barriers to research and development, 11, 13, 90, 130–131

see also Litigation; Market forces

B cells, 28, 32, 35, 380, 381, 436

adjuvants, 372, 376

autoimmune disease, 36, 37

diabetes, 387, 391

Epstein-Barr virus, 330, 332, 334

Helicobacter pylori, 364

streptococcus, group A, 362

see also Mucosal immunity



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