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vocabulary of materials technology, and the international character of materials information give special importance to the subjects. See J.H. Westbrook and W. Grattidge (1992), "Terminological Standards for Materials Databases," in Computerization and Networking of Materials Databases, Vol. 3, T.J. Barry and K.W. Reynard, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 15-33.
D.L. Hawksworth, B.C. Sutton, and G.C. Ainsworth (1983), Dictionary of the Fungi (including the Lichens), seventh edition, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England.
College of American Pathologists, Committee on Nomenclature and Classification of Disease (1965), Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology, first edition, American Cancer Society and American Medical Association, Chicago.
A reference with numerous examples from the field of chemistry is J.H. Westbrook (1993), "Problems in the Computerization of Chemical Information: Capture of Tabular and Graphical Data," Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences 33:6-17.
See the recommendations in National Research Council (1995), Preserving Scientific Data, note 3.
For example, the American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsors the Project for African Research Libraries in partnership with U.S. scientific societies to provide subscriptions for core scientific and technical journals in 35 sub-Saharan African countries (see <http://www.aaas.org/international/ssa-l.htm> for general information on international programs). For UNESCO's programs on the advancement, transfer, and sharing of knowledge in the natural sciences, see also <http://www.unesco.org/ch-intern/programmes/science/highlights.html>.
These statistics vary over time and according to country and discipline, and are available for only a few major countries. See Science & Engineering Indicators (1996), National Science Board, Washington, D.C., pp. 2-28 to 2-30. The statistics indicate that 35 to 75 percent of foreign graduate students surveyed intend to stay in the United States upon completion of their studies.
For an overview of potential educational activities to improve the management of scientific and engineering data, see National Research Council (1986), Improving the Treatment of Scientific and Engineering Data Through Education, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
This is not an exhaustive list of organizations that provide assistance to scientists in developing countries. Several organizations, such as the International Development Research Centre Library, provide extensive links to Internet sites related to international development (see <http://www.irdc.ca/library/world/world.html>).
USAID focuses on regional activities, such as the African Data Dissemination Service (ADDS), which is conducted in conjunction with several private organizations, the Office of Arid Land Studies at the University of Arizona, NASA, and NOAA. An example of an ADDS project is the Famine Early Warning System, which, with the help of the USGS EROS Data Center, provides information about potential famine situations to allow for proactive initiatives to prevent famine (see <http://edcsnw4.cr.usgs.gov/adds/general/> for additional information on ADDS). Other USAID activities, such as AfricaLink and the Leland Initiative, provide network connections and information management to Africa (see <http://www.info.usaid.gov/regions/afr/> for a description of these and other regional programs in Africa). The USAID sponsored U.S.-Russian NGO Cooperation Project provides small grants and equipment for individuals and institutions to link to an environmental e-mail network in Central Asia and the West Newly Independent States (see <gopher://gaia.info.usaid.gov:70/00...enis_reg/nis. factsheet/enviro3.txt>).
For example, the NASA Pathfinder project uses Landsat images to determine forest land cover and change for three quarters of the world. The USDA Foreign Agriculture Service provides support to the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) through the prediction of global production of major grains. For additional information on both programs, see the Proceedings of a Workshop on the Use of Remote Sensing Technologies and GIS