nuclear physics archive (nucl-ex), and only now is there substantial activity on the electronic archive in theoretical condensed-matter physics, which is much more closely connected to laboratory science than is high-energy theory. The users of and contributors to the HEP e-print archives include about 6,000 high-energy physicists (experimentalists and theorists), most of whom belong to the American Physical Society.
The success of the HEP e-print archives in high-energy theory could be due to several advantages shared in the subdiscipline:
Data in materials science describe a wide variety of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, thermal, and structural) of all types of materials (e.g., metals, insulators, and semiconductors) under many different conditions. The data also relate to differences in methods for preparing and refining materials, and, in processes such as the doping of semiconductors, to difference in methods for achieving desired levels of controlled impurity. They have little or no timeliness, except insofar as up-to-date data may replace older, less confirmed data. Hence the databases have moderate permanence, but grow largely as new materials are added and conditions and properties are extended. 4
Although most of the collaborations involve the developed countries, international involvement in data activities is increasingly significant. Examples in materials science include the following: