Index

A

Access to scientific data. See International access to scientific data;

    Data, unrestricted access

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), 58, 123

Africa, 42, 46, 70, 107

African Data Dissemination Service (ADDS), 107

Agencies. See Federal government science agencies

Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 150, 154-156, 161, 170, 178, 183-184

Alloy Phase Diagram International Commission, 209

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 92, 94, 109

American Astronomical Society, 66

American Geophysical Union, 64

American Institute of Physics, 64

American Meteorological Society, 64

American Society for Mechanical Engineers, 96

Animation, 4, 57, 65, 67-68, 196

Anticompetitive exclusive property rights. See Exclusive property rights

Antitrust law, 142, 164

Applied research, 1, 18, 20, 133

Archives, 5, 59-60, 72, 82-83, 196.

    See also Long-term data sets;

    Retention, long-term;

    Retrospective data sets

Argentina, 54

Association for Progressive Communications, 42, 46

Association of American Geographers, 64

Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), 117, 213

Astronomical Data Center, 66

Astronomical sciences, 1, 19, 34, 53-54, 66

Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 66

Astronomy and Astrophysics,66

Astrophysical Journal, 66

Astrophysics Data System (ADS), 66, 71

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), 25, 32, 35, 196

Atmospheric sciences, 55, 57, 78, 216-218

Australia, 66

Australian Oceanographic Data Centre, 118

Authentication issues, 13, 43

Automatic license, 164

B

Balancing divergent interests, 2, 139-145, 162, 164-170



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--> Index A Access to scientific data. See International access to scientific data;     Data, unrestricted access Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), 58, 123 Africa, 42, 46, 70, 107 African Data Dissemination Service (ADDS), 107 Agencies. See Federal government science agencies Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 150, 154-156, 161, 170, 178, 183-184 Alloy Phase Diagram International Commission, 209 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 92, 94, 109 American Astronomical Society, 66 American Geophysical Union, 64 American Institute of Physics, 64 American Meteorological Society, 64 American Society for Mechanical Engineers, 96 Animation, 4, 57, 65, 67-68, 196 Anticompetitive exclusive property rights. See Exclusive property rights Antitrust law, 142, 164 Applied research, 1, 18, 20, 133 Archives, 5, 59-60, 72, 82-83, 196.     See also Long-term data sets;     Retention, long-term;     Retrospective data sets Argentina, 54 Association for Progressive Communications, 42, 46 Association of American Geographers, 64 Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), 117, 213 Astronomical Data Center, 66 Astronomical sciences, 1, 19, 34, 53-54, 66 Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 66 Astronomy and Astrophysics,66 Astrophysical Journal, 66 Astrophysics Data System (ADS), 66, 71 Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), 25, 32, 35, 196 Atmospheric sciences, 55, 57, 78, 216-218 Australia, 66 Australian Oceanographic Data Centre, 118 Authentication issues, 13, 43 Automatic license, 164 B Balancing divergent interests, 2, 139-145, 162, 164-170

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--> Barriers to access, 3, 4, 8, 76, 89.     See also Economic factors and trends;     International access to scientific data;     Legal infrastructure Basic research, 1-2, 7, 9, 17-18, 97, 133, 163-164 Beilstein databases, 61, 211 Belgium, 205 Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works , 9, 135, 145, 155, 160-161, 170, 183 "Big science." See "Megascience" programs Bilateral agreements, 81 Biological data, 56, 72-74, 84 Biological sciences, 1, 5, 11, 19, 56-57, 73, 83-88 Books. See Publishers, commercial Brazil, 54 Broadband transmission, 28, 30, 197 Bromley Principles, 79, 82 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 63, 205 "Browsing," 29, 143, 197 C Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, 211, 219 Canada, 206 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), 71, 105, 215, 219 Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis (CINDAS), 119 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 120 Chemical Abstracts Service, 211, 219 Chemical sciences, 50-51, 210 Chile, 41 China. See People's Republic of China Circular A-130, 126, 131, 163, 187 Climate. See Global climate change CODATA. See Committee on Data for Science and Technology CODATA Commission on Standardized Terminology for Access to Biological Data Banks, 11, 85, 88, 101 CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants, 88 CODATA Task Group on Outreach, Education, and Communication, 108 Cold War, end of, 4, 21, 77, 111, 214 Collaborative research, 6, 14, 21, 29, 31-32, 45, 63, 97-100, 207 -208 Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), 207, 218 Commercialization of data, 29, 31, 99, 111, 168-169.     See also Markets Commercial users, 120, 167 Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 8, 145-148, 154-155 , 164 Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), viii, 1-2, 19, 88, 219 Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), 94-95 Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data, 79 Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries (COSTED) , 108 Communications.     See also Wireless communication     costs of, 27-28, 41, 42, 44     two-way, 6, 13 Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM), 34, 45, 64, 98, 126, 141 Competitiveness, 7, 9, 116, 148, 162.     See also Exclusive property rights;     Unfair competition laws Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, 60, 81 Compulsory license, 147, 159, 169 Computational Materials Science,67 Computer science research, 13, 43 Computers, 13, 40-42, 44, 102, 110.     See also Personal computers     hybrid analog/digital, 26     scientific requirements for, 36, 39 Computing, costs of, 27-28 Conflicts of law.     See Legislation Congressional Budget Office, 58-61, 104 Consortium for International Earth Sciences Information Network (CIESIN) , 94, 99, 108 Constants. See Fundamental constants;     Natural constants Constitution. See U.S. Constitution Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 107-108 Contracts, 135     harsh terms of, 159 Copying. See Photocopying Copyright Act of 1976, 140, 143-144 Copyright law, 16, 48, 136-140, 143-144, 156.     See also Fair use;     Noncopyrightable databases;     Royalties

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--> Costs. See Computing;     Data;     Reproduction and distribution Council of Ministers, 148, 152, 154-156 Cyberspace, 9, 143, 145, 161, 197 D Data, 4-6, 21-22.     See also Networks     accessing (See International access to scientific data;     Full and open exchange of data)     acquiring, 82     analog, 196     collecting, 27-28, 30, 62, 198     compatibility of, 5, 88-90     cost of, 6     (See also Data, pricing)     declassification of, 77-78     describing, 36, 38, 49-51     digitizing, 2, 11, 73, 101, 111     distributing, 4, 6-7, 62-64, 114-116, 129     evaluating, 199     exchanging, 21, 83, 198     growing volume of, 4, 58     historical, 11, 71, 101     indexing, 36, 38     interfacing, 75     managing, 10, 11, 13, 61-64, 198     modeling, 65, 70     nondiscriminatory availability, 79     nonproprietary, 79     preserving, 57, 61-62, 71     pricing, 7, 14, 124-126     primary, 21, 49, 202     privatizing, 6-7, 14, 111, 116, 120-124, 202     (See also Intranets)     processing, 50, 198     providing (See Sole-source data providers)     purging, 82     raw, 202     remote access, 203     rescuing, 13, 98     retaining (See Data, storing)     retrieval, 83, 206     sources of, 11     spectral, 203     storing, 4, 21, 38, 82, 110     transferring, 198     transnational exchange of, 19, 21, 83, 97-100     unique, 163     universality of, 48     unrestricted access, 83     using (See Documentation of data sets)     validating, 198, 204     verifying, 100, 204 Database industry, 153 Database publishers. See Publishers Databases, 199.     See also Genome databases;     Noncopyrightable databases     commercial value of, 168     converting, 89     electronic, 8     "insubstantial parts of," 152, 157-158     managing, 198     relational, 203     vulnerability of, 140-142 Data centers, 5, 21, 60, 83 Data integrity, 198 Data Management Center (DMC), 216 Decryption, 198.     See also Encryption Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 48, 56, 73, 212 Derivative work rights, 139, 151 DETHERM, 211 Developing countries, 6, 12, 40-42, 90-100     accessing data from, 97-100 Digital versus analog data, 20 Digital versatile disk (DVD), 34, 45 Digitizing. See Data Directive on the Legal Protection of Databases, European, 9, 142, 148-160 Distributed networks of data centers, 83 Documentation of data sets, 5, 11, 76-77, 106 E eApJ. See Astrophysical Journal Earth Interactions, 64 Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT), 121 Earth Observing System (EOS), 30, 45, 80 Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS), 57, 58, 62, 106, 118, 215, 219 Earth sciences, 5, 54-56, 69, 75 Earth system processes, 6, 54, 97 Earthquakes, 55.     See also Seismic arrays and stations Ecological Society of America, 64 Economic factors and trends, 1, 6-8, 110-131, 132-133     decreasing computing costs, 3, 27     restrictions and barriers, 3, 91-92 Education. See Science education Electronic publication, 64-65, 142, 165, 199

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--> Electronic storage media, 4, 21     rapid obsolescence of, 36, 38, 72, 74 Encryption, 43, 156, 159-160, 199 Engineering applications, 51 England. See United Kingdom Environmental sciences, 5.     See also Observational environmental sciences E-print archive, 199, 208-209 European Bioinformatics Institute, 212 European Community, 93, 134, 145-148, 154 European Dictionaire Automatique, 33 European Directive on Databases. See Directive on the Legal Protection of Databases European Molecular Biology Organization, 212 European Southern Observatory, 54 European Space Agency (ESA), 54, 118, 213 European Space Information System, 117 Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B (ENDF/B), 119, 206 Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), 52, 205-206 Exclusive property rights, 136-137, 146 Extraction, 157-158     unauthorized, 158     unfair, 147 ''Extraction right," 154     social costs, 154, 162 F Fair use, 8-9, 12, 15-16, 143-144, 167-168, 171 Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) system, 120 Federal government science agencies, 2-3, 13, 20, 44.     See also individual agencies Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks (FDSN), 59, 216 Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co.,8, 16, 139 , 154 Fiber-optic communication, 24, 26 Fidonet, 42 File transfer protocol (FTP), 131 First Amendment. See U.S. Constitution Flexible image transport system (FITS), 34 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 86, 93 Foreign aid, 12-13, 44, 92 France, 206 Freedom of scientific inquiry, 2, 17     Full and open exchange of data, 3, 7, 9-10, 15, 17, 22, 81-82, 101, 199 Fundamental constants, 56 Fundamental research. See Basic research G Gemini project, 54 Genbank, 117 Genome databases, 56, 117, 212-213 Geographic Information System (GIS), 75-76 Geological sciences, 1, 19.     See also Earth sciences;     Environmental sciences;     Observational environmental sciences Geophysical data, 75, 214-218 Global Atmospheric Research Program, 218 Global Atmospheric Watch, 69 Global Change Research Information Office, 55, 69, 79, 82 Global climate change, 6, 55 Global Climate Observing System, 69, 105 Global data sharing. See International access to scientific data Global observational data sets, 97 Global Ocean Observing System, 69, 105 Global Terrestrial Observing System, 69-70, 105 Government science agencies. See Federal government science agencies Great Britain. See United Kingdom "Group of Seven" nations, 10, 101 H High density-read only memory (HD-ROM), 45 High Energy Astrophysical Observatory2, 60 High-energy physics (HEP), 206-208 High-performance parallel interface (HIPPI), 30 Historical data. See Data House. See U.S. House of Representatives H.R. 3531. See U.S. Database Investment and Intellectual Property Antipiracy Act Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 4, 60, 110, 113, 117, 120, 213-214, 219 Human Genome Project, 4, 23, 27, 120, 213, 219 HyperText Mark-up Language (HTML), 33-34 I Icarus, 66 Iceland, 183 Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), 214 Incompatibilities. See Standardization

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--> Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), 57-59, 119, 215-216, 219 Incremental cost pricing, 14, 125-126 Indonesia, 42 Information Infrastructure Task Force (IITF) White Paper, 143, 155-156, 159-161 Information Market Policy Action (IMPACT) program, 145 Information technology, 3-4, 24, 110     trends in, 24-46 Infrared Astronomical Satellite, 60 Innovations, 1, 133, 136, 140     subpatentable, 137 In situ measurements, 75, 97 Institute of Physics (U.K.), 64 "Insubstantial parts." See Databases Intangible property, 161 Integrated services digital network (ISDN) services, 32 Intellectual property rights (IPR), 5, 8-10, 48, 132-188 Interdisciplinary research, 74-76 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 70 Intergovernmental organizations, 63, 93.     See also individual organizations International access to scientific data, 2, 40-42, 90-100     developments affecting, 2-10, 17     safeguarding, 7-10, 166-169 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 52, 205 International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses, 85 International cooperation, 19, 83 International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), 10-13, 44, 55, 88, 99, 101-103, 108, 214, 219 International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction, 75 International Foundation for Science (IFS), 108 International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), 4, 22, 27, 55, 69, 77, 106 International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 46 International organizations, 6, 12, 93.     See also individual organizations International research, 58-61 International Research and Exchange Board (IREX), 94, 109 International Science Foundation, 109 International Telecommunications Union, 13, 44 International Ultraviolet Explorer, 60 International Union of Biological Sciences, 85 International Union of Microbiological Sciences, 88 International Union of Pharmacology, 85 Internet, 3, 29, 31, 42, 65, 68, 200.     See also World Wide Web     congestion on, 8, 26, 35-37, 126-128 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 12, 32, 34, 43 Internet Protocol Next Generation (IPng), 35, 45 Internet II, 13, 35     Intranets, 4, 29, 35, 200 Investment, 9, 154, 168.     See also Profit;     Return on investment;     "Substantial investment" incentives for, 141 Italy, 207 J Japan, 205 Journals. See Scientific journals K Kenya, 42 "Knowbots," 26, 33, 200 Kuwait, 205 L Laboratory physical sciences, 5, 51-52, 205     data compatibility in, 88-90     data exchanges in, 205-212 Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, 121 Landsat, 77, 111, 121-123, 163 Language translation, 33 Large research programs. See "Megascience" programs LaTeX, 65, 88, 200, 207-208 Laws. See Legislation Legal infrastructure, 1, 8-10, 139     restrictions and barriers, 3, 9, 136 Legislation, 132.     See also Antitrust law;     Copyright law;     Trade secret law;     Trademark laws;     Unfair competition laws;     individual laws

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-->     conflicts in, 161     pending, 9-10, 160-161, 171 Legislative process, 8, 15 Liability principles, 137, 148, 164 Liability regime, 136 Libraries, 8, 145 Licenses, 151,154.     See also Automatic license;     Compulsory license Licensing fees, 165 Liechtenstein, 183 Long-term data sets, 82.     See also Archives;     Retention, long-term;     Retrospective data sets Los Alamos National Laboratory, 30-31, 45, 208 M Machine translation, 29 Manufacturing applications, 18, 51 Marginal cost pricing, 7, 14, 126 Market forces, 3, 162-164, 168 Market power, 151, 164     abuses of, 154 Market price system, 113 Markets, 9, 111-114, 139, 140, 162-164.     See also Competitiveness Materials sciences, 67, 106-107, 211 Media. See Electronic storage media;     Print media "Megascience" programs, 19, 23, 58-61 Metadata, 106, 201.     See also Documentation of data sets Metals Information Analysis Center (MIAC), 119 Meteorology, 79, 216 Mexico, 76, 98 Microbiology, 96 Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), 25 Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), 193 Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering,67 Molecular biology, 67, 212 Monopolies     profit-making, 7, 151-152, 158, 162     public, 116     regulated, 124     unrestricted, 7 Moore's Law, 28, 44, 201 Multicast broadcast backbone network (MBone), 31-32, 45 Multinational authorship, 21 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 34, 45, 54, 64, 80-81, 93, 117, 213-214     data availability policy, 80-81 National Cancer Institute, 41 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 117 National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 212, 219 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), 72, 119, 217 National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), 72, 214 National Human Genome Research Institute, 22 National information infrastructure, 193 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 89 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 41, 117 National Land Remote Sensing Satellite Data Archive, 62 National Library of Medicine (NLM), 41 National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), 52, 63-64, 206 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 62, 98, 116 , 119, 121, 214, 217-218 National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), 98, 217-218 National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 214 National Research Council (NRC), 20, 38, 45-46, 54, 68-69, 7475, 103-109 National Science Foundation (NSF), 31, 54, 85 National security issues, 77 National Space Policy 1996, 62, 79 National Space Sciences Data Center, 117 Natural constants, 50 Natural language processing, 4, 29, 32-33 Natural sciences, 1, 4, 16, 19, 111, 201 Netherlands, 205 Networks, 13, 28-30, 83.     See also Fidonet;     InternetII;     Real-time monitoring and controlling, 4, 29, 34-35     vulnerability of, 36, 39, 140-142 NGOs. See Nongovernmental organizations Niche markets, 139 Nomenclature, 11, 83-88.     See also Taxonomic definitions;     Terminology Noncopyrightable databases, 146-147 Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 81, 94-96.     See also individual organizations

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--> Nonvoluntary licensing. See Compulsory license Nordic catalogue rule, 146, 179 Norway, 46, 183 Nuclear Database (NUDAT), 206 Nuclear Information Service, 118 O Observational environmental sciences, 69-83 Observational sciences, 5-6, 50, 53, 201 Observations, simultaneous, 53 Obsolescence. See Electronic storage media Oceanographic Society of America, 64, 216 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 126, 131, 159 Office of Science and Technology Policy, 11, 15, 90, 102, 171 Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 176 On-line transmissions, 156 Open publication. See Publication, open Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 10, 20, 27, 101 Organization of American States (OAS), 93, 108 P Paleoclimatology World Data Center, 119 Pan American Health Organization, 93 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 135, 145, 170, 178 Patent and copyright systems, 8.     See also Copyright law;     Subpatentable innovations Patent and Trademark Office (PTO), 156, 160 Peer review, 11, 101 People's Republic of China, 72-73, 205 Personal computers (PCs), 35, 110 Photocopying, 132-134, 155 Physical sciences, 1, 4, 19, 51-52 "Plain old" telephone service (POTS), 32 Policy. See Public policy;     Science policy Population issues, 74 Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments (POSIX) , 33 Post, telephone, and telegraph ministries (PTTs), 40 Predigital status quo, 135-139.     See also Digital versus analog data Price ceiling, 14, 126, 129 Price differentiation, 6-7, 124-126, 129, 167-168 Price discrimination, 14, 116, 124-125, 129 Price of data. See Data Print media, 140.     See also Publishers;     Scientific journals Privacy issues, 48, 103 Private investment, 9     incentives for, 141 Private monopolies, 116, 142 Private sector, 93, 96, 116, 120 Privatizing data. See Data Processing data. See Data Product differentiation, 14, 116 Professional societies, 5, 11, 49 Profit, 132-133, 166 Property rights.     See also Intangible property;     Intellectual property exclusive (See Exclusive property rights)     protectionist, 14 Proprietary period, 11, 79 Proprietary rights, 48, 151, 162.     See also Data, nonproprietary Protectionist strategy, 155-156     possible consequences of, 165 Publication, open, 17.     See also Electronic publication;     Professional societies;     Publishers;     Scientific journals Public domain, 8, 166 Public good, 7, 15, 164-170, 202     defined, 112-113 Public health and safety, 6, 56 Public interest, 5-6, 9, 17-18, 161     exceptions to, 152, 158 Public investment, 14, 115, 128-129, 133 Public monopolies, 116 Public policy, 1, 7, 62, 124.     See also Science policy     debate over, 22 Public rights versus private rights, 8, 139-145 Publicly funded research and data, 3, 7, 17, 110-131, 133 Publishers, 135, 142, 154, 166, 168     commercial, 5, 52, 135     database, 139, 166 Q Quality control and assurance, 5, 11, 71, 101

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--> R Ramsey pricing, 124 Reciprocity clause, 155     Recommendations, 10-15, 22, 43-44, 81, 83, 100-103, 128-129, 171 Regulatory approaches, differing, 145 Remote sensing, 204 Reproduction and distribution.     See also Photocopying     cost of, 79, 91 Research. See Applied research;     Basic research;     Collaborative research;     International cooperation;     International research;     Publicly funded research and data;     Users of research data Retention, long-term, 5.     See also Archives;     Long-term data sets;     Retrospective data sets Retrospective data sets, 78.     See also Archives;     Long-term data sets;     Retention, long-term Return on investment, 48, 168 Reverse-engineering, 147, 156 Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 73, 212 Rights. See Derivative work rights;     Intellectual property rights;     Property rights;     Proprietary rights;     Public rights versus private rights Royalties, 144 Russia, 205, 206 S Sabre Foundation, 94, 109 Satellites, 25, 41, 58, 95, 110 Science agencies. See Federal government science agencies Science and Technology Network International (STN), 211 Science education, 9, 13, 15, 92-93 Science Group Thermodata Europe, 209 Scientific data.     See also Data accessing (See International access to scientific data)     defined, 16     rapid growth of, 3, 17, 57-58 Scientific issues, 47-109     defined, 47-49     progress in, 3 Scientific journals, 5, 12, 48-49, 52 Scientific research. See Applied research;     Basic research;     Collaborative research;     International research;     Publicly funded research;     Users of research data Scientific understanding, 82 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 118 Search capabilities, 89 Secondary users of data, 106, 203     supporting (See Documentation of data sets) Seismic arrays and stations, 215 Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984, 155 Shoemaker-Levy Comet, 36, 54 SIMBAD (set of identifications, measurements, and bibliography for astronomical data), 71 Simple Message Transfer Protocol (SMTP), 33 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), 33-34 Simulations, 52, 65, 67 Soil science, 85 Soil Taxonomy system, 86 Soils and Terrain Digital Database (SOTER), 85-87 Sole-source data providers, 147 Space sciences, 53-54, 66, 71-72 Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), 196, 213-214 Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), 213-214 Specialized Agencies of the United Nations, 10, 13, 44, 101 SPECINFO, 211 Standard Generalized Mark-up Language (SGML), 33 Standardization, 4, 11, 29, 33-34 Storage of data. See Data Stratospheric ozone depletion, 55 Subpatentable innovations, 137 "Substantial investment," 151, 157 Sui generis regime, 137, 145-147, 149-160, 162, 164, 166-169, 203 Sweden, 205 Switzerland, 209 T T-2. See Nuclear Information Service Taiwan, 205 Taxonomic definitions, 11, 84.     See also Nomenclature;     Terminology

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--> Technical factors and trends, 1, 3, 24-40     advances in, 4, 25-26     concerns over, 35-40 Telecommunications. See Communications Terminology, 83-88 TeX, 65, 88, 200, 208-209 Textual format, 20, 45 Thematic Mapper (TM), 122-123 Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), 96, 108 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. See Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Trade secret law, 136 Trademark laws, 150 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), 33, 42 Transnational data flow. See Data, transnational exchange of Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program, 70 Turkey, 183 U Unauthorized use, 158 Unfair competition laws, 139 Uniform resource locators (URLs), 66     problems with, 23 Uniform resource name (URN), 23, 66 United Kingdom, 54, 66 United Nations Commission on Economic Development (UNCED), 44 United Nations Development Programme, 93 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 86, 92-93, 108 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 44, 85, 93, 99 United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 44, 96 U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 46, 93, 96, 107 U.S. Constitution, 8, 172     enabling clause, 157     First Amendment concerns, 139 U.S. Database Investment and Intellectual Property Antipiracy Act (H.R. 3531), 157-160, 185 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 93, 107 U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC), 119 U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), 31 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 73, 215 U.S. Department of State, 93 U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), 118 U.S. federal government science agencies. See Federal government science agencies U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 57-58 U.S. government, 93.     See also individual government agencies U.S. House of Representatives, 8, 155-157 U.S. National Committee for CODATA (USNC-CODATA), x, 23 U.S. Supreme Court, 8, 154 Users of research data, 115-116, 125, 163, 169.     See also Commercial users;     Secondary users of data     size of community, 14, 129 V Value-added products, 7, 133, 140, 152, 164 Vietnam, 96 Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA), 94 W Wireless communication, 4, 24, 28, 30 World Bank, 13, 44, 93 World Data Centers (WDCs), 10, 79, 94, 98, 101, 214-215, 219 World Health Organization (WHO), 93 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 9, 15, 134, 142143, 146, 155-156, 158, 170-171, 184 World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 55, 70, 93, 116, 216-219 World Trade Organization (WTO), 15, 155-156, 161, 170-171 World Weather Watch, 69-70, 216-218 World Wide Web (WWW), 26, 30, 42, 65, 68, 127, 204, 206 X X. 400, 33