Barriers to access, 3, 4, 8, 76, 89.

    See also Economic factors and trends;

    International access to scientific data;

    Legal infrastructure

Basic research, 1-2, 7, 9, 17-18, 97, 133, 163-164

Beilstein databases, 61, 211

Belgium, 205

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works , 9, 135, 145, 155, 160-161, 170, 183

"Big science." See "Megascience" programs

Bilateral agreements, 81

Biological data, 56, 72-74, 84

Biological sciences, 1, 5, 11, 19, 56-57, 73, 83-88

Books. See Publishers, commercial

Brazil, 54

Broadband transmission, 28, 30, 197

Bromley Principles, 79, 82

Brookhaven National Laboratory, 63, 205

"Browsing," 29, 143, 197

C

Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, 211, 219

Canada, 206

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), 71, 105, 215, 219

Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis (CINDAS), 119

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 120

Chemical Abstracts Service, 211, 219

Chemical sciences, 50-51, 210

Chile, 41

China. See People's Republic of China

Circular A-130, 126, 131, 163, 187

Climate. See Global climate change

CODATA. See Committee on Data for Science and Technology

CODATA Commission on Standardized Terminology for Access to Biological Data Banks, 11, 85, 88, 101

CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants, 88

CODATA Task Group on Outreach, Education, and Communication, 108

Cold War, end of, 4, 21, 77, 111, 214

Collaborative research, 6, 14, 21, 29, 31-32, 45, 63, 97-100, 207 -208

Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), 207, 218

Commercialization of data, 29, 31, 99, 111, 168-169.

    See also Markets

Commercial users, 120, 167

Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 8, 145-148, 154-155 , 164

Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), viii, 1-2, 19, 88, 219

Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), 94-95

Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data, 79

Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries (COSTED) , 108

Communications.

    See also Wireless communication

    costs of, 27-28, 41, 42, 44

    two-way, 6, 13

Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM), 34, 45, 64, 98, 126, 141

Competitiveness, 7, 9, 116, 148, 162.

    See also Exclusive property rights;

    Unfair competition laws

Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, 60, 81

Compulsory license, 147, 159, 169

Computational Materials Science,67

Computer science research, 13, 43

Computers, 13, 40-42, 44, 102, 110.

    See also Personal computers

    hybrid analog/digital, 26

    scientific requirements for, 36, 39

Computing, costs of, 27-28

Conflicts of law.

    See Legislation

Congressional Budget Office, 58-61, 104

Consortium for International Earth Sciences Information Network (CIESIN) , 94, 99, 108

Constants. See Fundamental constants;

    Natural constants

Constitution. See U.S. Constitution

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 107-108

Contracts, 135

    harsh terms of, 159

Copying. See Photocopying

Copyright Act of 1976, 140, 143-144

Copyright law, 16, 48, 136-140, 143-144, 156.

    See also Fair use;

    Noncopyrightable databases;

    Royalties



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