TABLE 3.2 Summary of Actual and Projected Data Volumes Archived in the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center, 1994 to 2000

Data Volumes (gigabytes/year)

Data Source

Number of Instrumentsa

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

GSN

100

1,159

2,359

3,959

6,003

8,047

10,091

12,281

FDSN

146

370

670

1,070

1,530

2,050

2,670

3,416

JSP arrays

5

1,095

2,190

3,650

5,475

7,300

9,125

10,950

OSN

30

0

0

15

58

218

498

936

PASSCAL-BB

500

1,318

2,277

3,556

5,154

7,073

9,312

11,867

PASSCAL-RR

500

542

885

1,341

1,912

2,597

3,397

4,310

Regional-Trig

500

150

290

490

730

1,030

1,390

1,755

TOTAL

1,781

4,634

8,671

14,081

20,862

28,315

36,483

45,515

NOTE: Abbreviations are as follows:

GSN—Global Seismic Network (IRIS)

FDSN-Federation of Digital Seismic Networks

JSP-Joint Seismic Program (with the former Soviet Union) (IRIS)

OSN-Ocean Seismic Network

PASSCAL-BB—Program for Array Studies of the Continental Lithosphere-Broadband (IRIS)

PASSCAL-RR-Program for Array Studies of the Continental Lithosphere

Regional Recordings (IRIS) Regional-Trig-Regional Triggered Recordings

a Projected for the year 2000.

SOURCE: IRIS Data Management Center, private communication, 1994.

Recent years have seen several new multibillion-dollar international projects, and multimillion-dollar international efforts have become almost commonplace. These "megaprojects" or "megascience" programs have a number of common characteristics. They require long-term funding commitments; they may necessitate the building of new large facilities or instruments, which then require large expenditures for operating funds; they typically involve teams of researchers working on different aspects of the project, with the consequent requirement for international communication and data exchange; and, with the current state of technology, their scientific objectives cannot be fulfilled by using a smaller-scale research format.13

In 1991 the U.S. Congressional Budget Office identified 80 projects funded by the U.S. government that each cost at least $25 million (in 1984 dollars) during the period from 1980 to 1986.14 Many of these involved significant international participation. In contrast, there were only a handful of such nonmilitary large-scale research projects in the 1950s and 1960s.



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