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--> Fostering Industry-Initiated Environmental Protection Efforts Report of the Committee on Industrial Competitiveness and Environmental Protection Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources and Manufacturing Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1997
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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this study was provided by the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency both under subcontract no. C93-160544 and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences under grant no. 02-170-000-92093. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. A limited number of copies of this report are available from the National Academy of Sciences, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20418. Printed in the United States of America.
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--> COMMITTEE ON INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVENESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION HENRY J. HATCH (Chair), Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C. PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania HOPE M. BABCOCK, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. SCOTT BERNSTEIN, Center for Neighborhood Technology, Chicago, Illinois RICHARD O. HOMMEL, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania FRANCES H. IRWIN, World Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C. STEVEN D. JELLINEK, Jellinek, Schwartz & Connolly, Inc., Arlington, Virginia ROBERT A. LAUDISE, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey LESTER B. LAVE, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MICHAEL J. LEAKE, Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, Texas EVE L. MENGER, Coming, Inc., Coming, New York WARREN R. MUIR, Hampshire Research Institute, Alexandria, Virginia ROBERT C. REPETTO, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL J. WRIGHT, United Steelworkers of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Staff LEE R. PAULSON, Project Director RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director BONNIE A. SCARBOROUGH, Research Assistant KATHRINE IVERSON, Project Assistant ROBERT SCHAFRIK, Director, National Materials Advisory Board
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--> BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY PAUL G. RISSER (Chair), Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon MAY R. BERENBAUM, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio PAUL BUSCH, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, New York EDWIN H. CLARK II, Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia ELLIS COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina GEORGE P. DASTON, The Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio PETER L. DEFUR, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia DAVID L. EATON, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington DIANA FRECKMAN, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts DANIEL KREWSKI, Health & Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario RAYMOND C. LOEHR, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas WARREN MUIR, Hampshire Research Institute, Alexandria, Virginia GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, South Carolina BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey MARGARET STRAND, Bayh, Connaughton and Malone, Washington, D.C. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts TERRY F. YOSIE, E. Bruce Harrison Co., Washington, D.C.
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--> Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Program Director for Natural Resources and Applied Ecology CAROL A. MACZKA, Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering
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--> NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD ROBERT A. LAUDISE (Chair), Lucent Technologies Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey REZA ABBASCHIAN, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida JAN D. ACHENBACH, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois MICHAEL I. BASKES, Sandia/Livermore National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico I. MELVIN BERNSTEIN, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts JOHN V. BUSCH, IBIS Associates, Inc., Wellesley, Massachusetts HARRY E. COOK, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cyprus Amax Minerals Company, Denver, Colorado ROBERT EAGAN, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico ANTHONY G. EVANS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts CAROLYN HANSSON, University of Waterloo, Canada MICHAEL JAFFE, Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Summit, New Jersey LIONEL C. KIMERLING, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts RICHARD S. MULLER, Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center and University of California, Berkeley, California ELSA REICHMANIS, Lucent Technologies Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey EDGAR A. STARKE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan JAMES WAGNER, The John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland JOSEPH WIRTH, Raychem Corporation, Menlo Park, California ROBERT SCHAFRIK, Board Director
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--> COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER (Chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin, Texas JERRY F. FRANKLIN, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. PERRY L. McCARTY, Stanford University, Stanford, California JUDITH E. McDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland ELLEN SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Reports Officer JAMES MALLORY, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate SUSAN SHERWIN, Project Assistant
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--> COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS ALBERT R. C. WESTWOOD (Chair), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico NAOMI F. COLLINS, Association of International Educators, Washington, D.C. NANCY R. CONNERY, Woolwich, Maine RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia SAMUEL C. FLORMAN, Kreisler Borg Florman Construction Company, Scarsdale, New York TREVOR O. JONES, Libbey-Owens-Ford Company, Cleveland, Ohio NANCY G. LEVESON, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington BRADFORD W. PARKINSON, Stanford University, Stanford, California ALTON D. SLAY, Slay Enterprises, Inc., Warrenton, Virginia JAMES J. SOLBERG, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana BARRY M. TROST, Stanford University, Stanford, California GEORGE L. TURIN, Berkeley, California WILLIAM C. WEBSTER, University of California, Berkeley, California DEBORAH A. WHITEHURST, Arizona Community Foundation, Phoenix, Arizona ROBERT V. WHITMAN, Lexington, Massachusetts
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--> The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William Wulf is acting president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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--> Contents Executive Summary 1 Chapter 1. Introduction 7 Overview 8 Scope of the Report 12 Chapter 2. Examples of Industry Environmental Programs 15 Evaluating Industry Environmental Programs 18 Next Steps 20 Chapter 3. Promoting Industry-initiated Environmental Programs 21 EPA'S 33/50 Program 21 Next Steps 24 References 29 Appendix A: Descriptions of Industry-initiated Environmental Programs 33 3M: Pollution Prevention Pays Program 33 Dow: Waste Reduction Always Pays 34 Lucent: Steamlined Life-Cycle Assessment 35 Ford: Manufacturing Environmental Leadership Program 36 Corning Incorporated: Materials Substitution and Process Modification 37 Jamestown Paint Company: Pollution Prevention Program 38 Cerdec Corporation/Drakenfeld Products: Reducing Pollution and Worker Exposure 39
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--> Appendix B: Descriptions Of Programs To Promote Industry-Initiated Efforts 41 Environmental Management Standards 41 Environmental Product Certification (Labelling) 43 Industrial Consortia 45 Partnerships Between Industry and Other Organizations 47 Nonregulatory Federal Programs 50 Regulatory Federal Programs 57