collapse of socialist regimes, and the worldwide emergence of people 's organizations are part of historic change, not isolated events.

  • Unless the full context of the dynamics of development is kept in view, development perspectives become narrow and are likely to miss critical issues that bear importantly on health.

  • Analysis of countries ranked according to the HDI found that:

    • There is no automatic link between income and human development; poor distribution of income, however, does have a major impact on human development.

    • Improvement in a country's HDI is as meaningful as its absolute level: Starting at similar levels, some countries have advanced their HDIs far more than others.

    • When the HDI is adjusted for gender disparity, no country improves its ranking; that is, no country treats its women as well as it treats its men.

    • Startling divergences from averages are revealed when the HDI is disaggregated for purposes of intraregional and intranational comparison so that, simultaneously, there may be great progress and great persistent deprivation.

  • Given major cuts in global military expenditures, the numbers of nuclear warheads, and the sizes of armies and defense industry workforces, there needs to be a significant redefinition of the concept of national securityas in food, employment, and environmental security.

  • Despite the assumption that pursuing economic growth would necessarily increase employment, there is a new and disturbing economic phenomenon growth that does not generate new jobs, that is, “jobless growth.”

  • Concentration and centralization of power and resources are still more the rule than the exception because of the centralization of nation building derived from the colonial experience, weak democracy, low levels of social spending, urban bias, and the composition and directions of foreign aid.

  • Nongovernmental organizations are effective in advocating for the disadvantaged, empowering marginalized groups, reaching the poorest, and providing emergency assistance. Still, they reach only one-fifth of the 1.3 billion people living in absolute poverty in developing countries and receive only 2.5 percent of the total resources that flow to those countries.



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