Now more than half of developing country exports are manufactured goods, up from 26 percent in 1965.

  • Underlying economic and social advances are progress in science and technology. To capitalize on these opportunities for developing countries, much more widespread application of science and technology is needed in the manufacturing and service sectors and in the creation of an educated, skilled workforce.

  • U.S. interests include a range of factors:

    • Moral interests. Generosity and humanitarian concerns are a hallmark of American values; global partnerships lead to learning and action, at home and abroad.

    • Economic interests. Global prosperity is crucial to continued prosperity in the United States. In 1950, exports and imports accounted for less than 5 percent of the U.S. gross national product; in 1990 they made up 28 percent. Between 1986 and 1990, exports accounted for 41 percent of growth in the gross domestic product; in 1990 alone, they accounted for 88 percent.

    • Security interests. These are linked to four core, interactive, and interdependent areas: advances in democracy; economic and social progress; reduction of conflicts within and between nations; and environmental security.

    • Scientific interests. The progress of science requires cooperation. Though science and technology have had limited roles in past cooperation for development, they will be necessary factors in the future.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND ACTION
  1. Principles of balanced institutional development. The most fundamental principle of cooperation for development is to foster the balanced development of the public, private, and independent sectors; pluralism within these sectors; and creative interaction among them.

  2. A balanced approach. For much of its history, development assistance has emphasized only one sector or approach, with predictable shortcomings in the results. Cooperation for development must encourage balanced evolution in societies of the knowledge, organizations, and decision-making processes used in each of the above sectors. In all of these, science and technology play essential roles.



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