poverty; population growth and rapid urbanization; inability to read, write, and acquire technical skills; new diseases and endemic ailments; environmental damage; and absence of democracy.

  • Americans cannot isolate themselves from these conditions, which, in one way or another, sooner or later pose a perhaps costly strategic challenge to the United States.

  • Effectively delivered, development assistance is a powerful means of addressing, ameliorating, and even eliminating the problems of rapid population growth, environmental degradation, endemic poverty, debilitating hunger, mass migration, and anarchy.

  • This work is both altruistic and self-interested. Successful development creates new markets for exports and promotes economic growth in the United States, and America's poor increasingly benefit from development methods that have been pioneered abroad.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND ACTION
  1. Operational approaches

    • Sustainable development. Sustainable development is economic and social growth that does not exhaust the resources of a host country; respects and safeguards its economic, cultural, and natural environments; creates incomes and chains of enterprises; and builds indigenous institutions that involve and empower the citizenry.

    • Partnerships. Sustainable development is built on a sense of ownership and participation. It will be increasingly implemented by nongovernmental organizations, whose effectiveness depends in large measure on their institutional autonomy and protection from USAID micromanagement. The active participation of private enterprise will also be encouraged.

    • Integrated approaches and methods. The fundamental building block of USAID's programs will be integrated country strategies that take into account the totality of the development problems confronting a society, developed in close cooperation with host governments, local communities, and other donors.

    • Areas of concentration. USAID programs will focus on three kinds of countries: (1) sustainable development countries, where assistance is based on an integrated country strategy with clearly defined program objectives; (2) transitional countries, which have recently experienced a national crisis or a significant political transition, where timely assistance is needed to reinforce institutions and national order; and (3) countries where aid to nongovernmental sectors



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