females. Distinct age patterns are also evident outside these predominant patterns. A summary of the cluster patterns and their regional affiliations is given in Tables 3-3a and 3-3b. The predominant urban clusters cover most of the urban population of both the European and Asian parts of Russia. However, there is a distinct urban age pattern for females in the Northern and Far Eastern regions. For males, there is an additional urban cluster, covering areas of the North Caucasus and Western Siberia regions, that is closest of all the profiles to the Russian average. The predominant rural cluster for females extends throughout all of Russia. Of the two male rural clusters, one is centered in a diagonal from northwest to southeast European Russia; the other includes some provinces of the above regions, as well as the majority of rural clusters in other regions of Russia.

In the predominant male and female urban mortality patterns, there is low mortality up to ages 50-55 and high mortality thereafter, relative to the Russian average. Features of typically urban age patterns are low mortality from injuries up to age 55 and from respiratory disease in infancy and in older adult ages, relative to the Russian average. Mortality from neoplasm and cardiovascular disease at older adult ages is higher than the Russian average.

The rural age pattern of mortality is characterized by high young mortality relative to older adult mortality. The shape of mortality in the younger adult ages differs across clusters. Rural mortality generally differs from urban in its low and sometimes very low adult mortality from neoplasm and in its high mortality from injuries and respiratory disease in childhood and young and middle adult ages. In two of the three rural profiles, early increased risk from cardiovascular disease is evident. However, at older adult ages, mortality due to cardiovascular disease and neoplasm is low compared with overall Russia, and mortality due to respiratory disease is high.

The two rural male clusters differ in the pattern of injuries across the middle adult ages and the presence of increased risk due to cardiovascular disease in the younger and middle adult ages. This difference is also indicated by rural-urban differentials in mortality levels due to injuries and cardiovascular disease. In the Northwestern, Central, Volga-Vyatka, and Central Blackearth regions, the rural-urban injury differential is large. These same regions contribute most to the rural pattern evident in European Russia. At the same time, the overall level of mortality is not high in these regions. This indicates that the pronounced impact of injury and cardiovascular disease on rural middle-age adult mortality is not captured by the level of mortality, since the impact is counterbalanced by relatively low mortality due to cardiovascular disease and neoplasm at older ages.

The two female urban patterns differ primarily in the excessively high risk of cardiovascular disease mortality among older females, which is found in the North and Far Eastern regions. Features of the other exceptional age patterns, and the associated regions, are given in Table 3-3. Of all the regions, provinces in the North Caucasus and Far Eastern regions contribute most to the exceptional patterns and to outliers.

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