of data quality. We use it instead to provide a more readily interpretable metric for comparing mortality at different age levels and for different populations.18
Figure 4-1a shows the expectation of life at birth, e(0), associated with age-specific mortality rates for females in Russia in 1978-1979, 1990, and 1992, while Figure 4-1b shows the values for females in Latvia in 1978-1979 and 1990. In Russia, mortality rates for females declined between the late 1970s and 1990; this mortality decline was lost between 1990 and 1992. For females in Latvia, mortality was quite low at all ages even in 1978-1979; between the late 1970s and 1990, mortality declined at some ages and increased at others.
Figure 4-2a shows the expectation of life at birth for males in Russia associated with age-specific mortality rates, while Figure 4-2b shows the values for males in Latvia. The implied expectation of life is sharply lower for Russian men at the older working ages as compared with what would be expected if their mortality were consistent with the Coale-Demeny ''level" of that found among younger men. A similar, although less extreme, pattern by age is seen for men in Latvia.
This pattern for males in Russia and Latvia is probably due partly to deaths related to smoking and alcohol consumption. After a period of rising mortality among men from the mid-1960s through 1980, mortality fell until 1990. Shkolnikov and Vassin's (1994) examination of mortality change in Russia by