Shkolnikov, V., F. Meslé, and J. Vallin 1994a Life expectancy and causes of death in Russia: The overview of trends in 1970-1992. Paper presented at the Conference on Geodemography of the Former Soviet Union. Radford, Virginia.

1994b Recent trends in life expectancy and causes of death in Russia (1970-1993). Paper presented at the Workshop on Mortality and Adult Health in the Newly Independent States, Washington, D.C.

Shkolnikov, V., and S. Vassin 1994 Spatial differences in life expectancy in European Russia in the 1980s. Pp. 379-402 in W. Lutz, A.Volkov and S.Scherbov, eds., Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991. New York-London: Routledge-IIASA.

Treml, V. 1982 Alcohol in the USSR; A Statistical Study. Durham: Duke University Press.

Zaigrayev, G.G. 1992 Obshestvo I Alkogol' [Society and Alcohol]. NIIMVD [Research Institute of the Ministry of Interior Affairs], Moscow.


  • 1.  

    Here and below we use the old European population standard of the World Health Organization. The direct method of age adjustment is applied.

  • 2.  

    Actually it was a "half-dry" law, because only drinks stronger than 20 percent alcohol content were forbidden for distillation and sale.

  • 3.  

    This was probably the case because Goskomstat evaluated only the samogon produced from sugar. Actually, some proportion of samogon has been made from other products (e.g., potatoes or grits).

  • 4.  

    Recorded state alcohol sales per capita is equivalent to annual alcohol consumption officially reported by Goskomstat.

  • 5.  

    The trend in male expectation of life at birth in the period 1980-1992 looks like a mirror image of the alcohol consumption trend (Nemtsov and Shkolnikov, 1994).

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement