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  • 1.  

    The views expressed in this chapter are entirely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policies of the World Health Organization. Richard Peto (Oxford University) collaborated closely on all aspects of this work.

  • 2.  

    For example, the probability of death before age 70 of a man aged 35 years in 1985 was 34 percent for the United States as a whole, but only 13 percent and 32 percent for nonsmokers and smokers, respectively, in the ACS cohort.

  • 3.  

    For a comprehensive review of these studies, see International Agency for Research on Cancer (1986:200-244).

  • 4.  

    The ethnic composition of Kazakstan, as enumerated by the 1989 census, may be one explanation of its high lung cancer rates. Only about 40 percent of the population were Kazakstanis, compared with 45 percent who were either ethnic Russians, Ukranians, or Belarusians, populations among whom lung cancer rates are comparatively high (Goskomstat U.S.S.R., 1989)

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