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The transtheoretical model of change has been conceptualized to assess the readiness of an individual to change a problem behavior and provide more efficient intervention strategies. The model defines five stages of change: precontemplation (not intending to change the behavior in the foreseeable future), contemplation (intending to change the behavior in the foreseeable future), preparation (intending to change the behavior in the immediate future), action (undertaking overt behavioral modification for a period of 6 months or less), and maintenance (keeping the modified pattern for longer than 6 months) (Prochaska and DiClemente, 1982).

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