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To protect nonsmokers in society.
To reduce prevalence
by encouraging smokers to quit and
by discouraging nonsmokers from starting to smoke.
The objective of this chapter is to identify generalizable elements from existing tobacco control programs in Western developed countries that might usefully be employed in the NIS.
The next section of the chapter reviews the current situation and trends in tobacco use in the NIS. This is followed by a look at the context for a tobacco control program, including the natural history of smoking behavior and the role of advertising in increasing tobacco consumption. The chapter then examines the various components of a tobacco control program. The final section addresses the application of these components to the NIS.
Current Situation and Trends in Tobacco Use in the New Independent States
Tobacco Use in the New Independent States
The history of tobacco in Eastern Europe throughout the major part of this century has been marked by government-controlled production and sale of tobacco products. Throughout the 1980s, cigarette production in the region grew by around 1 percent per year. However, per capita consumption was relatively stable at around 1,600 smoking pieces per person per year between 1982 and 1988. This is approximately half the per capita consumption level of the United States.
In the 1980s, approximately half the adult men in the Soviet Union smoked, compared with less than 15 percent of the women (Zaridze et al., 1986); however, there were marked differences by age, as shown in Figure 11-1. The highest prevalence was among men aged 20 to 39, over 60 percent of whom were smokers. Prevalence among men between ages 40 and 70 was around 40 percent. There appeared to be an educational gradient, with the better-educated men smoking less than the less educated (30 vs. 60 percent). The highest prevalence among women also occurred in the age group 20 to 39 years, at 20 percent. By comparison, in the United States in 1987, around 31 percent of men and 26 percent of women smoked. There was also a marked difference in prevalence for the better and less educated (16 vs. 35 percent).1
Tobacco Products in the New Independent States
The tobacco industry in Central and Eastern Europe has changed markedly in recent years in both structure and ownership (see also Prokhorov, in this volume).