separate the effects of supply factors from those related to increased household income.

This chapter uses existing post-World War II data in combination with current survey information to explore both the shift in diet over the post-World War II period and more recent patterns of body composition in Russia and Kyrgyz. In particular, we focus on the use of body composition data to examine the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency and obesity. Dietary data are used to examine the macronutrient intake of energy, protein, and fat, in particular the proportion of energy derived from fat and protein. Data from Kyrgyz are used to supplement detailed information from Russia. Data on current dietary and body composition patterns are based on results from two nationally representative sample surveys-the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey and the Kyrgyz Multipurpose Poverty Survey. As is shown, problems of dietary excess and obesity are common among adults even in Kyrgyz, which is one of the poorest of the NIS countries. The next section reviews the data and methods used for the analysis; this is followed by sections presenting the analysis results and discussion of their implications.

Data and Methods

Historical Data

Before the 1990s, there were no nationally representative surveys of food consumption in Russia. There were, however, surveys of food expenditures that included detailed measures of quantities of food purchased, and these data are discussed below. To understand dietary patterns for Russia during the post-World War II period, we rely primarily on food balance sheets and food expenditure survey data.

Food Balance

Food balance (often termed food disappearance) data are frequently interpreted as food consumption data, but they are not. Rather, they reflect the food supply available for human consumption at the national level during 1 year (the food available per capita at the retail level), based on imports, exports, usage of food for livestock and seed, and extraction or milling rates. These data are not adjusted for loss and waste that occurs during shipment and handling; during storage at the wholesale, retail, and household levels (e.g., due to spillage or damage by insects and pests); during commercial and household processing of the food; or during consumption at the table (plate waste). As a result, estimates of energy intake based on food balance sheets tend to be high.

However, these food balance data, which are collected on an annual basis, are useful for examining food trends when there have not been large changes in

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