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was clearly adequate. Total energy intake was highest for adults aged 30-39, then decreased slowly with age. The protein intake of adults showed the same age-related pattern. Average energy intake was lower than the energy requirement for each age-gender group. Protein intake was considerably higher than the dietary protein RDA. These data vividly display the imbalance that favors protein over energy intake in the Kyrgyz diet. Energy derived from fat was highest among the middle-aged (30-49 years). The range of energy intake from fat was between 29 and 32 percent for all age groups—a level at the upper end of the recommended range of no more than 30 percent.
Body Composition Patterns
Table 12-4 presents the average weight and BMI measures for the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey sample for both 1992 and 1993. There were increases in both measures during this 1-year period, with larger changes occurring among females than males. Table 12-5 presents the distribution of BMI patterns for different age groups in Russia. Overall, a small proportion had low BMIs indicative of chronic energy deficiency, while close to half were either overweight or obese. Other than young adults, a very small proportion showed evidence of chronic energy deficiency. On the other hand, there was evidence of excessive obesity among all age groups, particularly ages 30 and older. There is a clear, significant difference in the distribution of obesity by gender, as would be expected: females are much more likely to be obese than are males, particularly at ages 30 and older.
There has been a great deal of concern raised about the impact of the economic transformation in Russia and the other NIS countries on the welfare of the population. The specter of famine and extensive hunger has been discussed in the Western press. Examining the distributions of BMI for the 1992 and 1993 Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey data can help in addressing this issue.
TABLE 12-4 Descriptive Statistics, Russia, 1992 and 1993
Body Mass Index
SOURCE: Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, July-October 1992 and 1993.