Index

A

Accident mortality.

See also Motor vehicle accidents;

Poisoning

alcohol-related, 22, 23, 157, 207, 226, 230, 257

drowning, 18, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 216-219

falls, 59, 201, 207, 216-219

fires, 201, 216-219

by NIS, 166, 168-173, 217

occupational, 40

quality of data, 42, 231

sex differentials, 167, 168-173

trends, 166

years of life lost, 168-173

Adolescents.

See also Young adult mortality tobacco use and controls , 25, 276, 280, 284-285, 289, 290-291, 293, 298-300, 302-303, 304-305, 307, 311-312

Age

and body composition, 322-323, 326

heaping and exaggeration, 19-20, 124, 126-127, 138, 146, 154

and lung cancer, 265, 273-274

misstatement/misreporting, 37, 120-121, 124, 126, 144, 146, 191-192

and smoking, 207, 289, 348

working, 130, 132, 136, 142, 251

Age patterns of mortality.

See also Child mortality:

Infant mortality;

Life tables;

Old-age mortality: individual countries and regions

alcohol consumption and, 240, 245-254, 259, 260

anti-alcohol campaign and, 245, 246, 247-251

assessment methods, 68, 75-100, 101-102, 106, 129-130

cancer, 15, 46, 52-53, 69, 80, 81, 82-87, 89, 90, 91, 102, 255, 259

cardiovascular diseases, 15, 46, 51-54, 66, 69, 80-91, 102, 103, 254, 255, 259, 260

by cause of death, 15, 46, 49-52, 53, 66-67, 69, 79-90, 203, 247-251, 253-254, 259

cluster analysis, 68, 75-100, 101-102, 106

digestive diseases, 46, 52-53, 81, 259

Eastern Europe, 13, 185

excess years of life lost, 203-204

European NIS, 3, 13, 79, 89, 102

Former Socialist Economies, 184-185, 193, 199, 203-204, 268

infectious diseases, 46, 49, 52-53, 80, 82-87, 89, 90, 255, 259

injury and poisoning, 15, 46, 51, 52-54, 66, 69, 80-87, 88, 89, 90 , 98, 102, 203, 254, 255, 259, 260

international comparisons, 96-100, 103, 189, 210

and life expectancy estimates, 49-52, 53, 69, 89-90, 132, 134, 136 , 137-138, 142, 143, 246



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--> Index A Accident mortality. See also Motor vehicle accidents; Poisoning alcohol-related, 22, 23, 157, 207, 226, 230, 257 drowning, 18, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 216-219 falls, 59, 201, 207, 216-219 fires, 201, 216-219 by NIS, 166, 168-173, 217 occupational, 40 quality of data, 42, 231 sex differentials, 167, 168-173 trends, 166 years of life lost, 168-173 Adolescents. See also Young adult mortality tobacco use and controls , 25, 276, 280, 284-285, 289, 290-291, 293, 298-300, 302-303, 304-305, 307, 311-312 Age and body composition, 322-323, 326 heaping and exaggeration, 19-20, 124, 126-127, 138, 146, 154 and lung cancer, 265, 273-274 misstatement/misreporting, 37, 120-121, 124, 126, 144, 146, 191-192 and smoking, 207, 289, 348 working, 130, 132, 136, 142, 251 Age patterns of mortality. See also Child mortality: Infant mortality; Life tables; Old-age mortality: individual countries and regions alcohol consumption and, 240, 245-254, 259, 260 anti-alcohol campaign and, 245, 246, 247-251 assessment methods, 68, 75-100, 101-102, 106, 129-130 cancer, 15, 46, 52-53, 69, 80, 81, 82-87, 89, 90, 91, 102, 255, 259 cardiovascular diseases, 15, 46, 51-54, 66, 69, 80-91, 102, 103, 254, 255, 259, 260 by cause of death, 15, 46, 49-52, 53, 66-67, 69, 79-90, 203, 247-251, 253-254, 259 cluster analysis, 68, 75-100, 101-102, 106 digestive diseases, 46, 52-53, 81, 259 Eastern Europe, 13, 185 excess years of life lost, 203-204 European NIS, 3, 13, 79, 89, 102 Former Socialist Economies, 184-185, 193, 199, 203-204, 268 infectious diseases, 46, 49, 52-53, 80, 82-87, 89, 90, 255, 259 injury and poisoning, 15, 46, 51, 52-54, 66, 69, 80-87, 88, 89, 90 , 98, 102, 203, 254, 255, 259, 260 international comparisons, 96-100, 103, 189, 210 and life expectancy estimates, 49-52, 53, 69, 89-90, 132, 134, 136 , 137-138, 142, 143, 246

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-->   Moslem NIS countries, 136-143, 145 political/economic changes and, 67, 254 quality of data, 18, 35, 36-39, 126, 162, 191-192 by region, 13, 19, 70, 80-81, 86, 87, 88-96, 100, 101-102, 199, 203 , 205 respiratory diseases, 49, 52-53, 80, 81-91, 102, 167, 255, 259 rural-urban variation, 15, 69, 76-96, 101, 102, 142-143 sex differentials, 13, 15, 38, 50-54, 76-81, 88, 89-101, 102, 103, 132, 168-173, 203-205, 246 shape of curve, 75-76, 88-91, 101, 102 smoking-related, 207, 267, 268, 270 standard for comparison, 131-132 trends, 131 violence-related deaths, 79, 98 AIDS, 55, 192 Air pollution, 4, 271 Alcohol abuse. See Alcohol consumption and abuse Alcohol abuse prevention/control cost-effectiveness, 23 law enforcement measures, 223-224, 229, 230 mass media messages, 24 perceptions and beliefs about, 221 registration of alcoholics, 228 regulations, 24, 241, 261 taxes and revenues, 24, 220-221, 229, 236, 241-242, 244, 261 treatment, 24, 221, 229, 244 U.S. policy instruments, 23-25 Alcohol consumption and abuse and accidents, 22, 23, 157, 202, 203, 226, 230, 257 anti-alcohol campaign and, 22, 222, 224-225, 228-232, 240, 241-245, 257 availability of data, 236 benefits of moderate, 22-23 and cardiovascular disease, 22, 23, 227 chronic alcoholics/alcoholism, 229, 231, 256 collection and analysis of data, 220, 222-223 drinking patterns, 22, 23, 27, 226, 241, 242 economic crisis and, 244-245 energy intake from, 318, 320, 331 estimation of, 257-258 ethnic differentials, 142, 225, 236 expenditures on, 320-321 and hypertension, 23 impacts of, 227-232 and injury rates, 22, 23 international comparisons. 22, 99 lethal levels, 237-238 and life expectancy at birth, 239, 240, 261 per capita, 22, 222-227, 229, 236, 242, 243-244, 249 perceptions and beliefs about, 221 productivity losses, 22, 23 quality of data, 22, 62, 220, 222-227, 228, 242-243 rural-urban differentials, 224 in Russia, 22, 222-227, 233, 241-245 samogon, 22, 221, 223-225, 226, 230, 232, 236, 238, 242, 243, 244, 257, 261, 320, 321 sex differentials, 22, 225, 237, 320, 321 sober movement, 241 state-produced beverages, 223, 224, 229, 243-244 surrogates and substitutes, 224, 232, 236 temporal trends, 56, 223, 224, 226, 239-243, 253 and violence, 22, 59-60, 62, 226, 228 vodka and other hard liquor, 22, 200, 207, 223, 226, 242, 244. 320 wine and beer, 223, 244, 320 Alcohol-related deaths age patterns of, 240, 245-254, 259, 260 anti-alcohol campaign and, 207, 245-247 cancer, 22, 248, 250, 259 cardiovascular diseases, 22-23, 59, 231, 240, 245, 249, 250, 251, 254, 259, 260 by causes of death, 240, 248-251, 259 chronic alcoholism, 227, 228 cirrhosis, 22, 56, 59, 200, 207, 227, 228, 231 coding problems, 59, 207 digestive diseases. 59, 249, 250, 259 estimation of, 258-260 ethnic differentials, 225, 232 falls, 207 homicides, 59-60, 207 hypertension, 22 infant mortality, 247 infectious/parasitic diseases, 259 injury, 22, 23, 58-62, 240, 245, 249, 250, 251, 254, 259, 260 intestinal cancer, 22 levels of mortality, 157, 166 motor vehicle accidents, 59-60, 207 neuropsychiatric. 200, 201, 207, 227, 228, 231 poisoning, 12, 22, 58-62, 168-173, 200, 207, 226, 227-228, 231, 232-234, 237-238, 256-257 quality of data, 231, 232 by region, 234

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-->   respiratory diseases, 47, 59, 167, 249, 250, 259 rural-urban variation, 170-173 in Russia, 22, 35, 56, 58-62, 132-133, 166, 232, 233 sex differentials, 22, 23, 168-173, 234, 246 stroke, 22 suicides, 59-60, 207 temporal trends, 22, 227, 228, 233, 239-241, 246, 250, 253-256 violent, 22, 59-60, 62, 226, 228, 242-243 years of life lost, 168-173 American Cancer Society, 262-263, 264, 358 Anemia, 201, 216-219 Anti-alcohol campaign and age patterns of mortality, 245, 246, 247-251 and alcohol consumption, 22, 222, 240, 241-245, 257 and cancer mortality, 23 and cardiovascular disease mortality, 23, 46, 57, 231, 253 causes of death, 245, 247-251 and cirrhosis mortality, 56 components of, 228-230, 244 and digestive disease mortality, 23 effectiveness, 67, 129, 134, 180, 207, 237, 245-246 and injury mortality, 23 and life expectancy at birth, 23, 245, 246 post-campaign abuse and mortality trends, 251-257 prevented deaths, 245-247 quality of data, 231-232 and respiratory disease mortality, 23, 47, 167 revenue losses, 236, 237 and samogon production and consumption, 225 and sex differentials in mortality, 245, 246 and violence-related deaths, 59-60, 61 Armenia age structure, 10 health expenditures, 11 life expectancy at birth, 11, 194-195 population, 10 tobacco use, 25, 276 Armenian mortality adult rates, 11, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 13, 14, 194-195, 268 cancer, 17, 218, 268, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16-17, 218 infant and child, 11, 14, 20, 162, 188, 194-195, 198, 218 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 218 injury and poisoning, 16, 218 registration, 190, 191 respiratory diseases, 17, 218 sex differentials, 14, 16-17, 194-195, 198, 267, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related, 25, 267, 268, 270, 278 years of life lost, 16-17, 218 Arteritis, 56 Asian Russia. See also Central Asian NIS age patterns of mortality, 102 life expectancy at birth, 70 Assessment methods for age patterns of mortality, 68, 75-100, 101-102, 106, 129-130 limitations of, 3, 28, 29-30 for spatial variation, 68 Atherosclerotic heart diseases, 42, 43 Australia, 273-274, 307, 361 Austria, 273-274 Azerbaijan age structure, 10, 183 centenarians, 183 health expenditures, 11 life expectancy at birth, 11, 137-138, 141-142, 162, 164, 194-195 population, 10 Azerbaijan mortality adult, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 13, 142, 143, 168, 170, 172, 194-195, 268 alcohol-related, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178 cancer, 17, 168. 170, 172, 175, 177, 179, 219, 264, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16-17, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 219 by cause of death, 168, 170, 172, 175, 177, 179, 219 infant and child, 11, 20, 124, 162, 168, 170, 172, 183, 188, 194-195, 198, 219 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 166, 168, 170, 172, 175, 177 , 179, 219 injury and poisoning, 16, 168, 170, 172, 175, 177, 179, 219 quality of data, 124, 128, 130, 137-138 rates, 11, 14 registration, 190, 191, 192 respiratory diseases, 17, 166, 168, 170, 172, 175, 177, 179, 219 rural-urban variation, 137-138, 143, 162, 163, 164-165, 170, 172, 177, 179, 183 sex differences in, 11, 16-17, 141-143, 162-163, 164-165, 168, 170 , 172, 175, 177, 179, 183, 194-195, 198, 264, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related deaths, 268-269, 270

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-->   temporal trends, 163 years of life lost, 16-17, 162-163, 165, 168, 170, 172, 175, 177, 179, 219 B Baltic Region alcohol consumption, 22, 232, 242 countries, 8-9 ethnic composition, 7 Baltic Region mortality age patterns, 13 alcohol-related, 234 cancer, 112-113, 118-119, 270 cardiovascular diseases, 112-113, 118-119 causes of death, 18 definitional issues, 124 injury, 71, 112-113, 118-119 quality of data, 130, 131 registration of deaths, 189 rural-urban differences, 73, 112-113, 118-119 sex differentials, 112-113, 118-119, 267, 268, 270 smoking-related, 267, 268, 270, 278 years of life lost, 163 BAT, 277 Belarus anti-smoking campaigns, 282 demographic, economic, and social indicators, 10-11 life expectancy at birth, 194-195 Belarus (Minsk) mortality adult, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 268 cancer, 17, 216, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16-17, 216 causes of death, 157, 192, 216 congenital malformations, 4 digestive diseases, 157 infant and child, 20, 162, 188, 194-195, 198 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 157, 216 injury and poisoning, 16, 216 quality of data, 41, 42, 43, 130 rates, 11 registration, 190, 191, 192 respiratory diseases, 17, 157, 216 sex differentials, 16-17, 194-195, 198, 267, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related deaths, 267, 268, 270 years of life lost, 16-17, 216 Belgium, lung cancer, 268, 273-274 Births live, 37, 124, 154 seasonal patterns, 155 Body composition age and, 322-323, 325, 326, 327 patterns, 315, 322-327 sex and, 322-323, 326, 327 weight changes, 324-325, 331 Brass child mortality questions, 147 Brass model of mortality, 106 Breast cancer mortality diet and, 356 in Former Socialist Economies, 201, 216-219 international comparisons, 55 quality of data, 43 years of life lost, 17, 200, 201, 216-219 Bulgarian mortality adult, 194-195, 198 causes of death, 219 infant and child, 185, 194-195, 198, 219 life expectancy at birth, 194-195 lung cancer, 273-274 sex differentials, 194-195, 198, 273-274 years of life lost, 219 C Canada, 273-274, 307 Cancer epidemic, 11 event registries, 123 risk factors, 27, 208, 270 Cancer mortality age patterns, 15, 46, 52-53, 55, 69, 80, 81, 82-87, 89, 90, 91, 102 , 255, 259 alcohol-related, 22, 248, 250, 255, 259 anti-alcohol campaign and, 23 availability of data, 40, 41 Central Asian NIS, 201, 202 environmental pollution and, 4 excess years of life lost, 208 female genital organs, 43 in Former Socialist Economies, 200, 201, 216-219 infectious diseases and, 55 international comparisons, 55-56 and life expectancy, 48-49, 50, 74, 80, 82-87, 108-119 prevention, 336, 338, 340, 341 by province/NIS, 17, 168-173, 216-219 quality of data, 42, 43 regional variation, 70, 73-74, 89, 101, 108-119 respiratory organs, 43

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-->   rural-urban variation, 69, 70, 73-74, 80, 82-87, 88, 90, 101, 102, 108-119, 170-173, 176-179 Russian trends, 35, 55-56, 256 sex differences, 17, 46, 48-49, 50-51, 52-53, 55, 69, 70, 73-74,80, 81-87, 89, 90, 100, 101, 108-119, 168-173, 269, 270 temporal trends, 256 tobacco use and, 17-18, 266, 270, 278 years of life lost, 17, 168-173, 200, 201, 202, 216-219 Cardiac arrhythmias, 22 Cardiosclerosis, 43 Cardiovascular disease diet and, 21, 26, 27, 208, 210, 355-356 Framingham Study, 336 incidence rates, 343 interventions, 335-342 risk factors, 21, 27, 28, 207, 208, 336, 343 Seven Countries Study, 336 smoking and, 207, 271 Cardiovascular disease mortality. See also specific diseases age patterns, 15, 46, 51-54, 66, 69, 80-91, 102, 103, 254. 255, 259, 260 alcohol-related, 22-23, 59, 231, 240, 245, 249, 250, 254, 255, 259, 260 anti-alcohol campaign and, 23, 46, 57, 231, 253 availability of data, 40, 41 Central Asian NIS, 16, 201, 202 classification problems, 20-21, 200, 202 early, 66, 88 European NIS, 2, 4, 16, 166 excess years of life lost, 18, 206 Former Socialist Economies, 200, 201, 202, 206, 216-219 health care system deficiencies and, 5 and life expectancy, 12, 48-49, 50, 56-57, 74, 80, 82-87, 108-119 by NIS, 168-173, 216-219 quality of data, 20-21, 42, 43, 192, 200, 202, 231 regional variation, 73-74, 81, 89, 90, 101, 108-119 rural-urban variation, 15, 69, 70, 71, 73-74, 80-81, 82-87, 88, 89, 90, 101, 102, 108-119, 170-173, 176-179 Russian trends, 11, 35, 45, 56-58, 254-256 sex differences, 11, 12, 16, 45-46, 48-49, 50, 51-54, 69, 70, 71, 73-74, 80-87, 89, 90, 100, 101, 108-119, 167, 168-173, 231, 344 smoking-related, 21, 25, 27, 207, 264, 267, 278 years of life lost, 16, 18, 168-173, 200, 201, 202, 216-219 Caucasus Region mortality, See also Northern Caucasus Region mortality age patterns, 80-81, 90, 100 cancer, 80, 90 cardiovascular, 81, 90 infectious diseases, 80, 90 injury, 81, 90 life expectancy at birth, 80 respiratory diseases, 81, 90 rural-urban variation, 90 sex differences in, 80-81, 90 Causes of death. See also individual causes by age, 15, 46, 49-52, 53, 66-67, 69, 79-90, 203, 247-251, 253-254, 259 alcohol consumption and, 248-251, 253-254 anti-alcohol campaign and, 247-251 availability of data, 40-41, 156-157 Central Asian NIS, 4, 16-17, 18, 146, 154, 157, 166, 192, 199-201, 202-203, 205 certification, 158, 258 classifications, 20-21, 40, 44-45, 65, 105, 158, 192-193 coding practices, 42, 45, 57, 59, 192, 200, 202, 206-207 correspondence tables, 44, 65 diagnostic error, 192-193 European NIS, 2, 3, 89 excess years of life lost, 202-203, 205, 206 Former Socialist Economies, 184-185, 192-193, 198-203, 206, 210 immediate, 39, 65 international trends, 54-62 large groups of causes, 45-47, 65, 199, 203 and life expectancy estimates, 47-54, 69, 89-90 quality of data, 20-21, 39-45, 192, 200, 202, 231, 264, 270 regional variation, 73-74, 89-90, 101, 108, 119, 167 rural-urban variation, 15, 69, 70-71, 73-74, 80-87, 88-90, 101, 102 , 108-119, 167, 170-173, 176-179 Russian, 15, 34-35, 39-54, 56-62 sex differentials, 48-49, 69, 89-90, 167, 168-179, 203 transition coefficients, 44-45 trends, 11-12, 54-62, 65, 167, 174-180, 256 underlying, 39, 65 years of life lost, 16-18, 166, 167, 168-173, 180, 198-201

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--> Censuses age exaggeration in, 138 age heaping in, 126 China, 126 microdata availability, 123, 148-149 planning recommendations, 148-149 quality of data, 125 responsibility for, 124 Centenarians, 126, 183 Central Asian NIS. See also individual states age heaping and exaggeration, 19-20, 126-127, 146 collection of data, 147 countries, 8-9 economy, 7, 197 ethnic composition, 7 fertility rate, 197, 202 health expenditures, 197 health profile, 5, 7 life expectancy at birth, 14, 142, 197 microdata needs, 147 social indicators, 7 Central Asian Region mortality age patterns, 13, 19, 199, 203, 205 alcohol-related, 234 causes of death, 4, 16-17, 18, 146, 154, 157, 166, 192, 199-201, 202-203, 205, 219 excess years of life lost, 18, 202, 203, 205 infant and child mortality, 4, 37, 124, 128, 144, 145, 154, 159-160, 202, 203, 205, 219 international comparisons, 202 levels, 146-147, 162 life table, 146 quality of data, 15, 19, 29, 124, 126-127, 130, 146, 154, 160, 163 , 192 rural-urban variation, 163 registration and data collection system, 19-20, 146, 189, 191, 192 sex differentials, 163, 196, 197, 203, 205 trends, 146, 163 years of life lost, 16-17, 162-163, 199-201, 202, 203, 219 Central Blackearth (Chernozem) Region mortality age patterns, 80-81, 86, 89, 90 cancer, 71, 74, 80, 86, 89, 90, 108-109, 114-115 cardiovascular, 71, 74, 81, 86, 89, 90, 108-109, 114-115 infectious diseases, 80, 86, 90 injury, 71, 74, 81, 86, 89, 90, 108-109, 114-115 life expectancy at birth, 73, 80, 86, 108-109, 114-115 respiratory diseases, 81, 86, 89, 90 rural-urban differences, 86, 89, 90, 102, 108-109, 114-115 sex differences in, 73, 80-81, 86, 89, 90, 108-109, 114-115 Central Europe violence-related deaths, 59 Central Region mortality age patterns, 80-81, 85, 89 cancer, 71, 80, 85, 89, 108-109, 114-115 cardiovascular, 71, 81, 85, 89, 108-109, 114-115 infectious diseases, 80, 85 injury, 71, 81, 85, 89, 108-109, 114-115 life expectancy at birth, 80, 85, 108-109, 114-115 quality of data, 41, 192 respiratory diseases, 81, 85, 89 rural-urban differences, 73, 85, 89, 108-109, 114-115 sex differences, 80-81, 85, 89, 108-109, 114-115 Cerebrovascular disease diet and, 26 mortality, 17, 18, 42, 43, 57-58, 200, 201, 202, 206, 216-219, 254-256 Cervical cancer, 122, 201, 216-219 Child mortality causes, 167, 180, 200, 202 Central Asian NIS, 4, 202 as country health indicator, 252 digestive diseases, 252 in Eastern Europe, 185 European NIS, 3 excess years of life lost, 202 Former Socialist Economies, 200, 202, 210 income per capita and, 196 infectious diseases, 252 intestinal infections and, 75 quality of data, 154 rates, 14 respiratory infections, 200, 252 rural-urban variation, 90 scatter diagrams, 13 survey questions, 147 trends, 131 years of life lost, 200, 202 Chile, 186 China age heaping, 126-127, 154 microdata, 147, 148-149 Cholesterol, 27, 208, 209, 338, 339, 347, 356, 357-358, 366, 368

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--> Chronic disease prevention challenges to, 350-352 Finnish experience, 335-354 health databases, 343-344 lifestyle changes and, 336-337, 350-351 practical actions, 351-352 recent initiatives, 341-342 Chronic disease risk factors, 28-29, 347, 355 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 266 Cigarette smoking. See Smoking-related mortality Circulatory. See Cardiovascular disease Cirrhosis of the liver, 56, 59, 200, 201, 202, 207, 216-219, 227, 228, 256 Cohort effects, 186, 207 Collection of data. See also Censuses; Surveys; Vital registration system collapse of Soviet Union and, 123-124 recommended improvements in, 146, 148-149 Colon/rectal cancer, 200, 201, 216-219, 256, 356 Commonwealth of Independent States, 8 Communism, and mortality rates, 99, 103, 209 Communist Party Central Committee, 73, 242, 281 Composition of population, 146-147. See also Ethnic population data Congenital abnormalities, 4, 18, 43, 81, 88, 168-173, 201, 205, 216-219 Coronary heart disease, 25, 27, 264, 267, 328, 336, 338, 340, 341, 355, 356, 368 Correction of data Bennett-Horiuchi technique, 189-191, 192 decomposition of differences, 52, 105-106 growth balance method, 189-191, 214 infant and child mortality, 19, 20-21, 38, 39, 154, 158, 159-160, 186-188 life tables, 125, 158-159 old-age mortality, 20-21, 39, 52, 125 for underregistration, 189 violent death, 59 Crossover effects, 19, 70, 127-128, 138, 146 Czech Republic, 4, 208 Czechoslovakian mortality adult, 194-195, 198 alcohol production, 244 causes of death, 217 infant and child, 185, 194-195, 198, 217 life expectancy at birth, 194-195 lung cancer, 273-274 sex differentials, 194-195, 198, 273-274 years of life lost, 217 D Death certificates, 41 Definitional issues comparability across NIS countries, 123-124, 154 family, 154 infant death, 19, 124, 154, 186-187, 189 live birth, 19, 37, 124, 154, 157-158, 252 Degenerative disease mortality control of, 180 by NIS, 168-173 rates, 158 rural-urban variations, 15, 167, 170-173 sex differentials, 168-173 years of life lost, 168-173 Demographic and epidemiological data access to/availability of, 3, 30, 40, 41, 66, 123, 148-149, 156-157, 236 aggregate, 123 comparability across NIS countries, 123-124, 125-126 error patterns in, 122-123 ''faked," 122 microdata, 123, 148-149 Denmark, 273-274 Diabetes, 56, 47, 201, 216-219 Diagnoses, quality of, 41-42 Diarrheal diseases, 18, 201, 202, 203, 205, 216-219 Diet. See also Cholesterol; Fat consumption; Food age and, 319 alcohol consumption, 318, 320, 331 and cardiovascular disease, 21, 26, 208, 210 changes in, 314-315 and chronic disease, 314, 328, 355 current survey information, 316-317 economic reforms and, 322 energy intake, 318-319, 321-322, 328 and FSE mortality, 208 high-fat, 26, 314, 331, 336 historical data, 315-316 protein intake, 26, 318-320, 321-322 Diet modification community health interventions, 28, 368-369 components, 369 effectiveness of interventions, 338 employer role, 28, 363-364 endorsement and advocacy, 28, 367-368 fat and cholesterol intake, 357-369 food industry role, 359, 362-363 government role, 358-361

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-->   health professionals and, 28, 367-368 health-related group role, 359, 366-368 importance of, 350 mass media role, 28, 360, 366-367 military role, 363-364 opportunities for, 358 school-based programs, 28, 364-366 screening programs, 368 voluntary health organizations and, 28, 366-367 Dietary measures, 318 patterns, 318-322 recommendations, 358, 360 Digestive disease mortality age patterns, 46, 52-53, 81, 259 alcohol-related, 59, 249, 250, 259 anti-alcohol campaign and, 23 in Central Asian NIS, 157, 201, 205 excess years of life lost, 205 in Former Socialist Economies, 201, 202, 216-219 and life expectancy, 48-49, 50 quality of data, 42, 43 rural-urban differences, 81 sex differences, 46, 47, 48-49, 50, 52-53, 8 temporal trends, 253, 256 years of life lost, 18, 201, 202, 216-219 Diphtheria, 203 Disability, 3, 30, 122 Disease prevention, See Chronic disease prevention Drowning, 18, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 216-219 E Eastern Europe countries, 8-9 tobacco consumption and control, 288, 306, 307 Eastern European mortality adult, 185 age patterns, 13, 185 cerebrovascular, 57-58 infant and child, 185 lung cancer, 268, 271 registration of deaths, 185 risk factors, 186 sex differences in, 185 Eastern Siberia Region mortality cancer, 74, 110-111, 116-117 cardiovascular disease, 74, 101, 110-111, 116-117 classification of causes of death, 192 injury, 74, 101, 110-111, 116-117 life expectancy at birth, 70, 110-111, 116-117 rural-urban variations, 110-111, 116-117 sex differences in, 74, 101, 110-111, 116-117 Energy deficiency, chronic, 26, 315, 322, 324, 325, 331 England cause-of-death trends, 54-56, 59, 65 life expectancy at birth, 56-57 Environmental pollution, 4, 186, 208, 297, 305 Epidemiological transitions analyses, 3 in causes of death, 156, 182 in Former Socialist Economies, 184-219 Errors in data age exaggeration, 124, 126-127, 138, 146 assessment of, 67, 121-122 classification, 40, 192-193 coding, 40, 41, 57, 59, 192 crossover effects, 19, 70, 127-128, 138, 146 detection of, 19, 41-43, 154 infant mortality, 128, 154 life expectancy at birth, 129 measurement, 158 underregistration of deaths, 121, 138 Esophageal cancer, 43, 201, 216-219, 256 Established Market Economies, 13, 193, 200, 202, 214 Estonia alcohol consumption, 27 chronic disease prevention, 27, 335, 342-350 demographic, economic, and social indicators, 10-11 diet, 27 general health, 345-346 health behavior, 348-349 health databases, 343-344 health expenditures, 11 life expectancy at birth, 11, 194-195 life tables, 155 National Health Education Center, 349 tobacco use, 275 Estonian mortality adult, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 268 cancer, 17, 122, 216, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16, 216 infant and child, 11, 20, 37, 154, 155, 160, 162, 188, 194-195, 198 , 216 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 216 injury and poisoning, 16, 216

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-->   quality of data, 37, 131, 160 registration, 190 respiratory diseases, 17, 216 risk factors, 347 sex differentials, 194-195, 198, 267, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related deaths, 267, 268, 270 trends, 11, 344-345 years of life lost, 16-17, 216 Ethnic population data alcohol consumption, 225 alcohol-related deaths, 142 composition of NIS, 7-8 fertility rates, 146-147 life expectancy at birth, 134 life tables, 123 religious affiliations, 8 rural-urban mortality variation, 138, 142, 146-147 Europe age patterns of mortality, 99 homicide rates, 40 levels of mortality, 10 life expectancy at birth, 97 European NIS alcohol consumption, 22-23 countries, 8-9 life expectancy at birth, 13, 66, 70, 72, 101 European NIS mortality age patterns, 3, 13, 79, 89, 102 alcohol-related, 22-23 by cause of death, 2, 3, 4, 16-17, 18, 71, 89, 166 infant and child, 3 levels, 162 preventable, 18 quality of data, 3, 144-145 rates, 14 rural-urban variation, 102, 167 sex differences in, 3, 144-145 years of life lost, 16-17, 18, 163 External causes of death, 41, 166, 167, 180, 240, 245. See also Injury and poisoning mortality F Family structure definitional issue, 154 and mortality, 136 Far Eastern Region mortality age patterns, 80-81, 87, 90, 91, 100, 102 cancer, 71, 73-74, 80, 87, 90, 112-113, 118-119 cardiovascular disease, 73-74, 81, 87, 90, 102, 112-113, 118-119 infectious diseases, 80, 87 injury, 73-74, 81, 87, 112-113, 118-119 life expectancy at birth, 13, 70, 72, 80, 87, 101, 112-113, 118-119 life tables, 99, 103 migrants/migration, 72 respiratory diseases, 81, 87 rural-urban differences, 73-74, 87, 90, 102, 112-113, 118-119 sex differences, 73-74, 80-81, 87, 90, 91, 100, 102, 112-113, 118-119 Fat consumption and cardiovascular disease, 21, 26, 27, 210, 355-356 energy from, 319 320, 321-322 international comparisons, 357-358 modification of diet, 357-369 recommended, 356 temporal trends, 357-358 Fertility rates, 146-147, 156, 183, 197, 202, 269 Finland alcohol consumption, 23, 27, 99 chronic disease prevention, 335-354 diet, 27 general health, 345-346 health behavior, 348-349 life tables, 15, 98-99, 100, 103, 106 mortality and disease patterns, 23, 27, 122, 189, 273-274, 335, 336, 344-345 risk factors, 27, 336, 343, 347 Finnish chronic disease prevention adaptation for other countries, 351-352 effectiveness, 27 Estonia-Republic of Karelia collaboration, 27, 335, 342-350 health challenges and potential for, 350-351 health databases, 343-344 North Karelia Project, 27, 335, 336-342 Food availability, 329-330, 360-361 balance data, 315-316, 333 composition table, 317, 333 costs, 328, 360-361 low-fat, low-cholesterol alternatives, 27, 360, 361, 362 policies, 331-332, 360-361 subsidies. 331, 361 Food consumption. See also Diet Consumer Budget Survey, 316, 330 economic reforms and, 331, 356-357 historical patterns of, 26, 327-328 vegetables, 348-349

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--> Former Socialist Economies (FSE). See also Central Asian NIS; FSE mortality countries of, 8 economy, 196, 197, 210 fertility rate, 197 health expenditures, 197 health risk factors, 28-29 Former Socialist Economies of Europe, 8-9 France alcohol consumption, 22, 99 cause-of-death trends, 54-57, 59, 65 life expectancy at birth, 34-36, 56-57, 98 life tables, 15, 100, 103, 106 lung cancer, 273-274 FSE mortality. See also Central Asian NIS; Eastern Europe; individual countries adult, 189-192, 194-196, 210 age specific, 184-185, 193, 199, 203-204, 268 alcohol and, 207 calculation, 195, 198 cancer, 270 causes of death, 184-185, 192-193, 198-203, 206, 207, 216-219 classification of causes of death, 192-193, 206-207, 210 cohort effects, 207 communism and, 209 data sources and methods, 186-193, 195 diet and, 208 excess years of life lost, 193, 202-207 geographic patterns, 193-198 health system and, 208-209, 210-211 infant and child, 185, 186-189, 194-196, 210 international comparisons, 186, 210 life expectancy at birth, 193, 197 life tables, 195-196, 198 Northern region, 194, 195-204, 206, 207-209, 210, 216-217 occupational exposures and, 208 pollution and, 208 risk factors, 207-209, 210 sex differences in, 185, 193, 194-198, 203-204, 210, 268, 270 smoking-related, 207, 268, 270 Southern Region, 194, 196-204, 218-219 trends, 184 underregistration of deaths, 186-192, 196 years of life lost, 193, 198-202, 216-219 G Genito-urinary diseases, 43, 201, 216-219 Georgia age structure, 10 health expenditures, 11 life expectancy at birth, 11, 194-195 population, 10 tobacco use, 25, 276 Georgian mortality, 16-17 adult, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 268 cancer, 270, 273-274 causes of death, 218 infant and child, 11, 20, 162, 188, 194-195, 198 registration of deaths, 190, 191, 192 sex differentials, 194-195, 198, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related deaths, 268-269, 270 years of life lost, 218 Germany, 160, 161, 273-274 Gorbachev policies, 41, 59-60, 67, 123, 163, 185, 220, 224-225. See also Anti-alcohol campaign Goskomstat statistics, 40, 41, 68, 124, 125, 128, 157, 158, 182, 183, 222, 242, 244, 257, 261, 316, 328, 330, 333 Greece, 273-274 Guangxi Province, 147 H Han Chinese, 138, 154 Health behavior monitoring system, 343-344 Health care system access to, 3, 5, 57-58, 127-128 expenditures, 7, 10, 21, 30, 197 Former Socialist Economies, 208-209, 210-211 infectious disease control, 180 infrastructure and personnel, 7 deficiencies, 186, 208-209 and excess years of life lost, 208-209 priorities, 18, 21, 30 quality of care, 5 Health databases, 343-344 Health professionals anti-smoking role, 30-31, 283-284, 285, 293, 297-298, 299 diet modification role, 28, 30-31, 367-368 Heart Smart Program, 365 Hepatitis, 18, 201, 203, 205, 216-219

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--> Homicides alcohol-related, 59-60, 207 Central Asian NIS, 202 in European NIS, 18 excess years of life lost, 206, 207 in Former Socialist Economies, 201, 206, 216-219 by NIS, 168-173 rates, 12, 40, 166, 256 rural-urban variation, 167 sex differentials, 167, 168-173, 206 socioeconomic conditions and, 180 temporal trends, 256 years of life lost, 168-173, 200, 201, 202, 216-219 Hungarian mortality adult, 194-195, 198 cause of death, 217 infant and child, 185, 194-195, 198, 217 life expectancy at birth, 194-195 life tables, 15, 98-99, 103, 106 lung cancer, 273-274 risk factors, 208 sex differentials, 194-195, 198 violence-related deaths, 59, 217 years of life lost, 217 Hungary, food subsidies, 361 Hypercholesterolemia, 356 Hypertension/hypertensive diseases alcohol abuse and, 23 and cardiovascular disease, 21, 23 cholesterol and, 27, 208, 209 interventions, 338, 339 quality of data, 42, 43 sex differentials, 208, 209, 347 temporal trends, 256 I Iceland, 273-274 Immunization programs, 203 Income per capita, and mortality, 7, 10, 196, 210 India, 1, 193 Infant mortality. See also individual countries age misreporting, 37, 120-121 alcohol consumption and, 247 availability of data, 41 baseline data, 124 calculation, 29-30, 182 causes, 81, 89, 90, 102, 128, 154, 167, 202, 203 Central Asian NIS, 4, 18, 37, 124, 128, 144, 145, 154, 159, 202, 203, 205 corrections to data, 19, 20-21, 38, 39, 154, 158, 159-160, 182-183, 186-188 definitional issues, 19, 37, 124, 154, 157-158, 186-187, 189, 252 excess years of life lost, 202, 203, 205 European NIS, 3 falsification of data, 128 in Former Socialist Economies, 185, 186-189, 201, 203, 216-219 Hogan's model, 182-183 international comparisons, 100, 160, 161 intervention design, 144 and life expectancy, 38, 39, 49, 183, 252-253 neonatal, 38, 81, 88, 89, 90, 158, 186-189 by NIS, 162, 168-173, 188 perinatal, 18, 168-173, 201, 202, 203, 205, 216-219 postneonatal, 81, 88, 186-187 publication of data, 185 quality of data, 19, 36-38, 120-121, 124, 128, 144, 158, 185 rates, 20, 162, 188 regional variation, 89, 90 registration issues, 19, 38, 128, 144, 158, 159, 185, 186-189 rural-urban variation, 88-90, 128, 138, 170-173, 176-179, 183 sex differences, 162, 168-173, 183 trends, 131, 185, 252 years of life lost, 168-173, 201, 202, 216-219 Infectious and parasitic disease mortality age patterns, 46, 49, 52-53, 80, 82-87, 89, 90, 255, 259 alcohol consumption and, 255, 259 cancer and, 55 in Central Asian NIS, 18, 157, 180, 201, 202 Former Socialist Economies, 201, 216-219 international trends, 54-55 and life expectancy at birth, 34-35, 48-49, 50, 58, 80, 82-87 by province/NIS, 17, 168-179 quality of data, 43 rates, 157 by region, 15, 89, 90, 166 respiratory, 166, 168-173 rural-urban variation, 15, 82-87, 89, 90, 167, 170-173, 176-179 sex differences, 17, 46, 47, 48-49, 50-51, 52-53, 54, 58-59, 69, 70, 74, 80, 82-87, 89, 90, 168-179 temporal trends, 253, 256 years of life lost, 17, 18, 168-179, 201, 216-219

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-->   injury and poisoning mortality and, 48-49, 58, 74, 101 international comparisons, 1-2, 97-98 life table construction and, 125 Moslem NIS countries, 137-138, 141-143 provincial/regional differences, 70, 73, 74, 89-90, 101, 108-119 quality of data and, 38, 39, 129, 162 by republic, 164 rural-urban variation, 69, 70-71, 72, 80-87, 101, 108-119, 137-138, 139-140, 164 sex differences, 12, 34, 38, 48-49, 50-51, 52, 54, 70-71, 89-90, 101, 108-119, 129, 132-143, 162, 163, 164, 240-241 trends, 1-2, 10-13, 129-130, 164, 240-241 Life tables accuracy of, 124-125 Central Asian populations, 146 classification by shape, 106 cluster analysis, 76-78, 91, 106 Coale-Demeny, 15, 36, 75, 76, 91, 96, 98, 99, 100, 103, 131 construction of, 91, 105, 124-126, 129, 138, 145 Estonia, 155 by ethnic group, 123 Far Eastern, 103 Finland, 98-99, 100, 103, 106 France, 100, 103, 106 Gompertz-Makehan function, 125, 158-159 Hungary, 98-99, 103, 106 and life expectancy estimates, 125 multiple decrement, 161 North model, 15, 100, 100, 195-196, 198 OECD models, 91 regional model, 75, 96, 103, 106 rural-urban, 123 Russian, 76-78, 130 South model, 75 standard, for developing regions, 98, 103 two-year multiple decrement for 1988-1989, 68 U.N. model, 76, 98, 99, 103, 131 U.S. nonwhites, 98-99, 103, 106 West model, 15, 91, 96, 97-98, 100, 131 Lithuania economy, 10 health expenditures, 11 life expectancy at birth, 11, 163, 164, 194-195 immigration, 191 population, 10 tobacco use, 283-284 Lithuanian mortality adult, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 268 cancer, 17, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 216, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16-17, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 216 infant and child, 11, 20, 37, 160, 162, 168, 170, 172, 188, 194-195, 198, 216 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178 , 216 injury and poisoning, 16, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 216 levels, 162 quality of data, 37, 160 rates, 11 registration, 190, 191 respiratory diseases, 17, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 216 risk factors, 28-29, 208 rural-urban variations, 164-165, 170, 172, 176, 178 sex differentials, 16-17, 163, 164-165, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 194-195, 198, 267, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related, 267, 268, 270 years of life lost, 16-17, 163, 165, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 216 Lung cancer age and, 265, 273-274 air pollution and, 271 diet and, 356 excess years of life lost, 206 in Former Socialist Economies, 200, 201, 202, 206, 207, 210, 216-219, 268 international comparisons, 56, 262-263, 264, 270-271, 273-274 nonsmoker rates, 264, 270, 271 occupational exposures and. 271 prevention, 340 quality of data, 267, 270 sex differentials, 56, 206, 268, 269, 273-274 smoking and, 18, 25, 207, 263, 264, 267, 270-271, 283, 296-297 temporal trends, 256 years of life lost, 17-18, 200, 201, 202, 216-219 Luxembourg, 273-274 Lymphoma/leukemia, 200, 201, 202, 216-219 M Malta, 273-274 Maternal mortality, 18, 79, 201, 216-219

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--> Measles, 203 Measurement issues. See Correction of data; Errors in data Measures of mortality. See Life expectancy at birth; Years of life lost Meningitis, 201, 216-219 Mental disease, 59 Methods. See Assessment methods; Correction of data Microdata, 123, 147, 148-149 Migrants and migration, 72, 73, 146-147, 180, 191, 224 Moldova health expenditures, 11 life expectancy at birth, 11, 164, 194-195 population, 10 tobacco use, 25, 276 Moldovan mortality accidents, 166, 217 adult, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 268 alcohol-related, 234 cancer, 17, 217, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16-17, 217 by cause of death, 169, 171, 173, 174, 176, 178, 217 infant and child, 11, 20, 37, 128, 162, 188, 194-195, 198, 217 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 217 injury and poisoning, 16, 217 quality of data, 37 rates, 11 registration, 190, 191 respiratory diseases, 17, 217 rural-urban variations, 164-165, 171, 173, 176, 178 sex differentials, 16-17, 163, 164-165, 169, 171, 173, 174, 176, 178, 194-195, 198, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related, 268-269, 270 years of life lost, 16-17, 163, 165, 169, 171, 173, 174, 176, 178, 217 Monitoring and Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA), 21 , 23, 207, 208, 338, 342, 343, 345 Mortality data. See also Age patterns of mortality: Causes of death; Infant mortality: Quality of mortality data baseline, 67 importance of profiles, 2 reference population, 7 Moscow, 61, 80-81, 84, 108-109, 114-115, 207, 256, 276 Moslem NIS countries. See also individual countries access to medical care, 127-128 age patterns of mortality, 136-143, 145 quality of data, 136, 137-138, 145-147 recommended policy initiatives, 145-147 Motor vehicle accidents alcohol-related, 59-60, 207, 230, 231 in European NIS, 18 excess years of life lost, 206. 207 Former Socialist Economies, 201, 202, 206, 216-219 quality of data, 231 registration problems, 61 Russia, 35, 59-60, 256 trends, 12, 256 years of life lost, 200, 201, 202, 216-219 Muslims, 225, 236 Myocardial infarction, 42, 43, 338, 343, 345 N National Center for Preventive Medicine (Moscow), 283 Nechernozem zone, 73 Neoplasms. See Cancer; individual sites The Netherlands lung cancer, 268, 273-274 risk factors, 28 Neuropsychiatric disorders, 200, 201, 207, 216-219, 227, 228 New Independent States (NIS). See also Central Asian NIS; European NIS; individual states accidents by, 166, 168-173, 217 demographic indicators, 5, 10-11 economic conditions, 5, 7, 8-9, 10-11 geographic designations, 5, 8-9 map, 6 social indicators, 8-9 New Zealand, 273-274 Ninth World Conference on Tobacco and Health, 280 North Karelia Project effectiveness, 31, 335, 338-342, 351 evaluation and national applications, 31, 337-340 overview, 27, 336-337 North Karelia Youth Project, 365 Northern Caucasus Region mortality age patterns, 89, 90, 91, 102 cancer, 89, 90, 110-111, 116-117 cardiovascular diseases, 71, 74, 90, 110-111, 116-117

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-->   infectious diseases, 90 injury, 74, 90, 110-111, 116-117 life expectancy at birth, 70, 110-111, 116-117 quality of data, 72-73 respiratory diseases, 90 rural-urban variations, 90, 91, 102, 110-111, 116-117 sex differences, 90, 91, 110-111, 116-117 Northern Region mortality age patterns, 80-81, 87, 90, 91, 100, 102 cancer, 74, 80, 87, 90, 108-109, 114-115 cardiovascular diseases, 18, 71, 74, 81, 87, 90, 101, 102, 108-109, 114-115 differentials, 72, 108-109, 114-115 health priorities, 18 infectious diseases, 80, 87 injury, 18, 71, 74, 81, 87, 101, 108-109, 114-115 life expectancy at birth, 70, 72, 80, 87, 101, 108-109, 114-115 migrants/migration, 72 registration of deaths, 189 respiratory diseases, 81, 87 rural-urban differences, 73, 87, 90, 108-109, 114-115 sex differences in, 80-81, 87, 90, 91, 100, 102, 108-109, 114-115 Northwestern Region mortality cardiovascular diseases, 71, 108-109, 114-115 differentials, 108-109, 114-115 injury, 71 life expectancy at birth, 72, 101, 108-109, 114-115 rural-urban differences, 73, 102, 108-109, 114-115 sex differences, 108-109, 114-115 Norway, lung cancer, 269, 273-274 Nutritional endocrine disorders, 201, 216-219 outcome measures, 318 status, 315, 323 Nutritional risk factors in Soviet Union data and methods, 315-318 O Obesity and overweight, 21, 26, 322, 323, 325-327, 331, 347, 356 Occupational exposures, 186, 208, 271 Old-age mortality age misstatement and, 120-121, 158, 191 alcohol consumption and, 247, 255 cancer, 15, 55, 90, 102, 255 cardiovascular diseases, 51, 57-58, 90, 102, 255 corrections to data, 20-21, 39, 52, 125 infectious diseases, 255 injury and poisoning, 51, 255 international comparisons, 100 and life expectancy, 38, 39, 50-51 Moslem NIS countries, 145 by NIS, 168-173 quality of data, 38, 120-121, 145, 158, 162 respiratory diseases, 102, 255 rural-urban variation, 90, 170-173 Russian, 38, 39 sex differences, 38, 50-51, 90, 100, 168-173 years of life lost, 168-173 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 4, 7, 13, 91, 301, 312 Oslo Youth Study, 365 P Parasitic diseases, 81. See also Infectious and parasitic disease mortality Peptic ulcer, 267 Perestroyka, 163, 220 Perinatal mortality, 88 Philip Morris, 277, 312 Physical activity data, 332, 349 Poisoning. See also Injury and poisoning mortality alcohol, 12, 22, 58-62, 200, 207, 227-228, 237-238, 256-257 excess years of life lost, 206, 207 Former Socialist Economies, 200, 201, 206, 216-219 sex differentials, 206 years of life lost, 200, 201, 216-219 Poland mortality adult, 194-195, 198 cause of death, 217 infant and child, 185, 194-195, 198, 217 life expectancy at birth, 194-195 lung cancer, 271, 273-274 risk factors, 28-29, 208 sex differentials, 194-195, 198 smoking-related deaths, 267, 269 years of life lost, 217 Portugal, 273-274 Potential years of life lost, 67 Preventable loss of life, 18 Prisoners, 72 Prostate cancer, 56

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--> Provincial mortality data. See also individual provinces life expectancy at birth, 13, 15 life tables, 76-78 quality, 68, 70, 73 Proximate determinants of mortality, 3 Q Quality of data alcohol consumption and abuse, 22, 62, 220, 222-227, 228, 242-243 census, 125 Quality of mortality data. See also Correction of data: Errors in data accidents, 42, 231 age patterns, 18, 35, 36-39, 162 alcohol-related, 231, 232 anti-alcohol campaign, 231-232 Azerbaijan, 124, 128, 130, 137-138 Baltic Region, 130, 131 Belarus, 41, 42, 43, 130 cancer, 42, 43, 267, 270 cardiovascular diseases, 20-21, 42, 43, 192, 200, 202, 231, 264, 270 cause of death, 20-21, 39-45, 264 Central Asian states, 15, 19, 29, 124, 126-127, 130, 146, 154, 160 , 163, 192 Central Region, 41, 192 child mortality, 154 digestive diseases, 42, 43 Estonia, 37, 131, 160 European NIS countries, 3, 144-145 infant, 19, 36-38, 120-121, 124, 128, 144, 158, 185 infectious diseases, 43 for intervention design, 121, 144, 145, 271 Kazakstan, 124, 130 Kyrgyz, 127, 130 Latvia, 37, 122-123, 131 and life-expectancy estimates, 38, 39, 129, 162 Lithuania, 37, 160 measures of, 155 microdata availability, 123 Moldova, 37 Moslem NIS countries, 136, 137-138, 145-147 Northern Caucasus Region, 72-73 official statistics, 121 at old ages, 38, 120-121, 145, 158, 162 provincial-level, 68, 70, 73 respiratory diseases, 42, 43, 192 rural-urban differentials, 15, 127-128, 154 Russia, 35-45, 67, 122-123, 130, 131, 144-145, 192 sex differentials, 127-128, 144-145 smoking-related deaths, 271 Tajikistan, 19-20, 127-128, 130, 142, 189 Turkmenistan, 41, 42, 43, 127-128, 130, 192 Ukraine, 130 Uzbekistan, 130, 137-143 violence-related, 42 vital registrations, 19, 41, 189-192 R Regional variation in mortality age patterns, 13, 19, 70, 80-81, 88-96, 100, 101-102, 199, 203, 205 cause-specific, 73-74, 89-90, 101, 108-119, 167 international comparisons with, 96-100 life expectancy at birth, 70, 73, 74, 89-90, 101, 108-119 by province, 101, 108-119 rural-urban differentials, 13, 15, 71-72, 73-74, 80-81, 89-96, 102, 108-119, 167 socioeconomic and sociocultural development and, 163 years of life lost, 162-163 Regions. See also Baltic Region; Central Asian NIS; European NIS; individual regions Registration of deaths. See also Vital registration system adult, 189-192 age misstatement in, 126, 191-192 causes, 39-40, 158 Central Asian NIS, 19-20 estimating underregistrations, 121, 138, 189-191 Former Socialist States, 189-192 infant, 18, 36, 38, 128, 144, 185, 186-189 quality and comparability, 19, 41, 189-192 sex differences in, 51, 190, 191-192 Regression effects, 121, 144 Respiratory disease mortality age patterns49, 52-53, 80, 81-91, 102, 167, 255, 259 alcohol-related, 47, 59, 167, 249, 250, 255, 259 anti-alcohol campaign and, 23 availability of data, 41 in Central Asian NIS, 18, 157, 201, 202, 205 control of, 180 in European NIS, 18

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-->   excess years of life lost, 18, 202, 205 in Former Socialist Economies, 200, 201, 202, 216-219 infant and child, 167, 180, 200, 202 infectious, 166, 168-173 international trends, 54-55 and life expectancy, 48-49, 50, 82-87 pollution and, 4, 208 by province/country, 17, 216-219 quality of data, 42, 43, 192 by region, 88-90 rural-urban differences, 81-87, 88, 89, 90, 102, 170-173, 176-179 sex differences in, 17, 46-47, 48-49, 50, 51, 52-53, 54, 80, 81-87, 89, 90, 168-173 temporal trends, 167, 253, 256 years of life lost, 17, 18, 166, 167, 168-173, 200, 201, 202, 216-219 Romanian mortality adult, 194-195, 198 causes of death, 218 infant and child, 185, 194-195, 198, 218 life expectancy at birth, 194-195 lung cancer, 273-274 sex differentials, 194-195, 198, 273-274 smoking-related, 268-269 years of life lost, 218 Rural-urban differentials in mortality age patterns, 15, 69, 76-96, 98, 101, 102, 142-143 by cause of death, 15, 69, 70-71, 73-74, 80-87, 88-90, 101, 102, 108-119, 167, 170-173, 176-179 Central Asian NIS, 163 crossovers. 127-128, 137, 138 ethnic populations, 138, 142, 146-147 European NIS, 102, 167 health expenditures, 11 infant, 128, 138 international comparisons, 98, 99-100 life expectancy at birth, 69, 70-71, 72, 80-87, 101, 108-119, 137-138, 139-140, 164 life tables, 123 quality of data, 15, 127-128, 154 by region, 13, 15, 71-72, 73-74, 80-81, 89-96. 102, 108-119, 167 sex differences, 13, 15, 66, 69, 70-74, 76-96, 99-101, 102, 106, 108-119, 127-128, 139, 142-143, 163, 167, 170-173, 176-179 years of life lost, 163, 165, 166, 170-173, 176-179 Russia age structure of population, 5, 10 alcohol consumption, 22, 222-227, 233, 241-245 anti-smoking campaigns, 282 body composition, 315, 322-325 censuses, 148 dietary patterns, 26-27, 318-322 ethnic composition, 7 food availability, 329-330 health expenditures, 11 hypertension, 23 life expectancy at birth, 11-13, 34-36, 38, 39, 47-54, 66, 69, 132 -136, 137-138, 139-140, 163, 164, 166-167 Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of, 283 nutrient intakes, 356-357 population, 10 State Archive of Economics, 41 Russian Federation mortality adult, 193, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 268 alcohol consumption, 257 cancer, 270, 273-274 infant and child, 188, 194-195, 198 life expectancy, 163, 194-195 registration of deaths, 189, 190 sex differentials, 163, 193, 194-195, 198, 267, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related deaths, 25, 267, 268, 270 and Soviet Union mortality, 130-131 tobacco use, 275, 276 trends, 136 violence-related, 61 Russian Institute of Nutrition, 317, 333 Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, 315, 316, 317, 318, 320-321, 322, 331-332, 333, 360 Russian mortality. See also Soviet Union (former) age patterns, 13, 15, 19, 35, 36-39, 49-52, 53, 66-67, 69, 75-100, 130-131, 132, 136, 137-138, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178 alcohol-related, 22, 35, 58-62, 166, 167, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 233, 258 anti-alcohol campaign and, 239-241 cancer, 17, 35, 55-56, 69, 167, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 217 cardiovascular diseases, 16, 35, 56-58, 66, 69, 166-167, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 208, 217, 254-256 cause of death, 11-12, 16-17, 39-45, 48-49, 49-52, 54-62, 66-67, 69, 73-74, 79-88, 166-167, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 192, 217

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-->   congenital malformations, 4, 168, 170, 172, 217 corrections, 38, 39 diabetes, 56, 217 digestive diseases, 56, 217, 253 indigenous population, 134-135 infant and child, 11, 20-21, 36-38, 39, 160, 162, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 217, 252 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 34-35, 54-55, 167, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 217, 253 injury and poisoning, 11-12, 16, 46, 47, 48-49, 50, 52-54, 58-59, 66, 69, 166-167, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 217 international comparisons, 15, 34-35, 54-62, 96-100 life tables, 15, 76-78, 130-131 loss of advantages in, 55-56 old-age, 15, 38, 39, 170-173 provincial variation, 71-73, 76-78 quality of data, 35-45, 67, 122-123, 130, 131, 144-145, 192 rates, 11 regional variation, 71-74, 91-96 registration system, 36, 38, 39-41 respiratory diseases, 17, 54-55, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 217 , 253 risk factors, 35, 208, 28-29 rural-urban variation, 69, 70-71, 88-91, 137-138, 139-140, 164-165, 167, 170-173, 176, 178 sex differences, 11, 15, 16-17, 38, 48-49, 52, 54, 69, 70-71, 96-100, 132-136, 139-140, 144-145, 163, 164-167, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178 smoking-related, 35, 278 sources of data, 68, 70 structure by cause, 45-54 traffic accidents, 35, 217 trends, 70-74, 130-136, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178 violence-related, 58-62 years of life lost, 16-17, 67, 164, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 217 Russian Research Center for Preventive Medicine, 317 S Sex (gender) differentials alcohol consumption, 22, 225, 237, 320, 321 alcohol effects, 22, 23, 231 body composition, 322-323, 326, 327 in life expectancy at birth, 12, 34, 38, 48-49, 50-51, 52, 54, 70-71, 89-90, 101, 108-119, 129, 132-143, 162, 163, 164, 240-241 tobacco use, 25, 275, 276, 288, 289, 290-291, 292, 347, 348 Sex (gender) differentials in mortality. See also individual countries accidents, 167, 168-173 age and, 13, 15, 38, 50-54, 76-81, 88, 89-101, 102, 103, 132, 168-173, 203-205, 246 alcohol-related deaths, 234, 245 cancer, 17, 46, 48-49, 50-51, 52-53, 55, 69, 70, 73-74, 80, 81-87, 89, 90, 100, 101, 108-119, 168-173, 269, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 11, 12, 16, 45-46, 48-49, 50, 51-54, 69, 70, 71, 73-74, 80-87, 89, 90, 100, 101, 108-119, 167, 168-173, 231, 344 by cause of death, 48-49, 69, 89-90, 167, 168-179, 203 Central Asian NIS, 163, 196, 197, 203, 205 digestive diseases, 46, 47, 48-49, 50-51, 52-53 European NIS, 3, 144-145 Former Socialist Economies, 193-194, 196-198, 203-204 infant mortality, 162, 168-173, 183 infectious diseases, 17, 46, 47, 48-49, 50-51, 52-53, 54, 58-59, 69, 70, 74, 80, 82-87, 89, 90, 168-179 injury and poisoning, 46, 47, 48-49, 52-53, 58-59, 69, 70, 74, 100, 101, 108-119, 167, 168-173 international comparisons, 14, 96-100, 103, 136-137, 186 and life table construction, 146 Moslem NIS, 138-142 other causes, 47, 48, 50-51, 52-53 quality of data, 127-128, 144-145 by region, 13, 14, 72, 74, 89-100, 102, 108-119 registration, 51, 190, 191-192 respiratory diseases, 17, 46-47, 48-49, 50, 51, 52-53, 54, 80, 81-87, 89, 90, 168-173 rural-urban differentials, 13, 15, 66, 69, 70-74, 76-96, 99-101, 102, 106, 108-119, 127-128, 139, 142-143, 163, 167, 170-173, 176-179, 183 smoking-related, 267, 268, 269, 270 violence-related, 50-51 years of life lost, 16-17

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--> Siberia mortality. See also Eastern Siberia Region mortality age patterns, 80-81, 89 cancer, 71, 80, 83 cardiovascular diseases, 81, 83, 89 infectious diseases, 80, 83, 89 injuries, 81, 83, 89 life expectancy at birth, 13, 72, 83, 101 respiratory diseases, 81, 83, 89 rural-urban differences, 89 sex differences, 80-81, 83, 89 Slavs, 225-226, 232, 234, 236 Slovak Republic, 267 Smoking-related mortality. See also Lung cancer: Tobacco consumption age patterns, 207, 267, 268, 270 cancer, 17-18, 266, 278 cardiovascular disease, 21, 25, 27, 207, 264, 267, 278 data sources, 207, 208 Eastern European, 186 Former Socialist Economies, 207, 210 lung cancer, 18, 25, 207, 263, 264, 267, 270-271, 283, 296, 307 methods for quantifying, 25, 262-267 by NIS, 25, 267-270, 278 quality of data, 271 rates, 207 Russia, 35, 132-133 sex differentials, 267, 268, 269, 270, 278 United States, 262-263, 287 Social inequality in mortality, 75, 163 Southern Tier mortality. See also Azerbaijan; Central Asian NIS cause of death, 166, 167 infectious diseases, 180 life expectancy at birth, 163 rural-urban variation, 167 temporal trends, 163 years of life lost, 163 Soviet Union (former) alcohol poisoning, 232, 233 availability of data in, 40, 123 classifications of cause of death, 40 coding practices, 40 collapse of, 67, 123 countries, 8-9 food subsidies, 361 Health Care Ministry, 40, 45 health care system, 3 infant mortality, 188 levels of mortality, 10 Ministry of Health, 128 nutritional risk factors, 314-334 quality of data, 123-124 registration of deaths, 190 social welfare system, 1, 5 sources of data, 68-70 Spain, 273-274 Spatial differences in mortality. See also Provincial mortality data; Regional variation in mortality; Rural-urban differentials in mortality assessment methods, 68 availability of data, 66 Stalin era, 241 Stomach cancer, 43, 56, 200, 201, 202, 206, 216-219, 256 Stroke, 22, 23, 25, 201, 264, 267 Suicides alcohol-related, 59-60, 61, 207 Central Asian NIS, 202 in European NIS, 18 excess years of life lost, 206, 207 in Former Socialist Economies, 201, 202, 206, 216-219 by NIS, 168-173 rural-urban variation, 167 sex differentials, 167, 168-173, 206 socioeconomic conditions and, 180 trends, 12, 40, 166, 256 years of life lost, 168-173, 200, 201, 202, 216-219 Surveys questionnaire design, 147 Sweden, 130, 136-137, 162, 273-274 Switzerland, 273-274 T Tajikistan (Tadzhikistan) economy, 7, 10, 138 life expectancy at birth, 11, 138, 141-143, 164, 194-195 population, 10 Tajikistan (Tadzhikistan) mortality adult, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 127-128, 169, 171, 173, 189, 194-195, 268 cancer, 17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16-17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 cause of death, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 infant and child, 11, 20, 154, 160, 162, 169, 171, 173, 188, 194-195, 198, 219 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179 , 219

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-->   injury and poisoning, 16, 18, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 registration, 190, 191 respiratory diseases, 17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 quality of data, 19-20, 127-128, 130, 142, 189 rates, 11 rural-urban variation, 127-128, 142, 164-165, 171, 173, 177, 179 sex differentials, 16-17, 127-128, 138, 143, 164-165, 169, 171, 173 , 175, 177, 179, 194-195, 198, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related deaths, 268, 269, 270 years of life lost, 16-17, 165, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 Tobacco consumption. See also Smoking-related mortality and addiction, 292 adolescents, 25, 276, 280, 284-285, 289, 290-291, 293, 298-300, 302-303, 304-305, 307, 311-312 advertising and, 293, 294-295, 303 age patterns, 207, 289, 348 Eastern Europe, 288, 306 and environmental tobacco smoke, 297, 305 health care costs, 287 by health care providers, 26, 306 health consequences, 278-279, 287 initiation of smoking, 291-292, 297, 300-301 NIS trends, 288-291 per capita, 288, 289 prevalence of smoking, 25, 275-276, 288 quitting smoking, 25-26, 292-293, 295, 297, 298, 299, 306, 312 sex differentials, 25, 275, 276, 288, 289, 290-291, 292, 347, 348 social environment and, 269 United States, 288, 291-292, 294, 295, 301, 306, 311-312 U.S. Surgeon General's report, 282, 283, 295, 296-297, 298, 307 war years, 300-301 Tobacco control and anti-smoking campaigns access by minors, 302-303, 304-305 advertising bans, 280, 289-290, 294-296, 303, 306, 307 application to NIS, 305-307, 350 awareness raising, 26, 280, 282-285 beliefs about health consequences and, 296-297, 299 components of programs, 293-305 context for, 291-293 definition, 287 effectiveness, 294-295, 303, 337, 338, 339 goals, 287-288 health professionals' role, 283-284, 285, 293, 297-298, 299 implementation, 281-282 industry response to, 290, 295-296 mass media counteradvertising, 284, 285, 293-294, 303-305, 307, 312 , 343 national report on health consequences, 283, 285 nonsmokers' rights movement, 295, 312 pricing strategies/taxes, 26, 295, 300-302, 307, 312 priorities, 26, 270, 280-285 regulations, 25-26, 299, 305 school-based prevention programs, 284-285, 293, 298-300, 312 smoking behavior and, 291-293 Soviet anti-smoking programs, 26, 281, 282 transtheoretical model of change, 282, 286 Tobacco industry and products advertising and promotion, 25, 26, 284, 290, 295-296, 312-313 economy of NIS and, 306 noxious substances by brand, 278-279 production, 276-277 profitability per product, 312 response to controls, 290, 295-296 shortages, 277 structural changes in NIS, 288-291, 312 transnational company investments, 290 Western imports and market penetration, 276-277, 280, 289 Traffic accidents. See Motor vehicle accidents Trans-Caucasus Region alcohol-related deaths, 234 countries, 8-9 infant mortality, 159 Trauma. See Injury and poisoning mortality Trends in mortality accidents, 166 by age, 131 from cancer, 35, 55-56 from cardiovascular diseases, 35, 45, 56-58 by cause of death, 111-12, 54-62, 65, 167, 174-180, 256 Central Asian republics, 145 injury-related deaths, 11 international, 54-62, 65 Latvia, 130-136 life expectancy at birth, 1-2, 10-13, 129-130, 164, 240-241 respiratory diseases, 167

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-->   Russia, 35, 130-136 temporal, 70-74, 163, 164-165, 167, 174-180 tobacco use and, 35, 132-133 Tuberculosis, 18, 43, 54, 200, 201, 203, 206, 216-219, 227, 256 Turkey, 13 Turkmenistan (Ashgabat) death rates, 11 health expenditures, 11, 141-142 life expectancy at birth, 11, 164, 194-195 population, 10 tobacco use, 25, 275, 276 Turkmenistan (Ashgabat) mortality adult, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 143, 169, 171, 173, 194-195, 268 cancer, 17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16-17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 causes of death, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 192, 219 infant and child, 11, 20, 162, 169, 171, 173, 187, 188, 194-195, 198, 219 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179 , 219 injury and poisoning, 16, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 quality of data, 41, 42, 43, 127-128, 130, 192 rates, 11 registration, 190, 191 respiratory diseases, 17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 rural-urban variation, 143, 164-165, 171, 173, 177, 179 sex differentials, 16-17, 141-143, 164-165, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177 , 179, 194-195, 198, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related, 268, 269, 270 temporal trends, 163, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179 years of life lost, 16-17, 165, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 Turks, 7 U Uighurs, 126-127, 130, 136-137, 138, 154 Ukraine health expenditures, 11 life expectancy at birth, 11, 163, 164, 194-195 population, 5, 10 tobacco production, 277 tobacco use, 25, 276 Ukraine mortality adults, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 169, 171, 173, 194-195, 268 cancer, 17, 169, 171, 173, 174, 176, 178, 217, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16-17, 169, 171, 173, 174, 176, 178, 217 congenital malformations, 4, 217 infant and child, 11, 20, 162, 169, 171, 173, 188, 194-195, 198, 217 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 169, 171, 173, 217 injury and poisoning, 16, 169, 171, 173, 174, 176, 178, 217 quality of data, 130 rates, 11 registration, 190 respiratory diseases, 17, 169, 171, 173, 174, 176, 178, 217 rural-urban variations, 164-165, 171, 173, 176, 178 sex differentials, 16-17, 163, 164-165, 169, 171, 173, 174, 176, 178, 194-195, 198, 267, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related deaths, 25, 267, 268, 270 years of life lost, 16-17, 165, 169, 171, 173, 217 United Kingdom, 154, 210, 271, 273-274 United Nations COMPAR program, 155 definitions, 157 Economic Commission for Europe, 120 Food and Agriculture Organization, 333 United States adult mortality, 186, 189, 210 alcohol abuse control, 23-24 anti-tobacco campaigns, 282 Bureau of the Census, 159 Centers for Disease Control, 4 cigarette content, 279 Environmental Protection Agency, 305 food subsidies, 361 infant mortality, 161 levels of mortality, 10 life expectancy at birth, 34-36, 97 lung cancer, 268, 270, 271, 273-274 Minnesota Heart Health Program, 364, 367, 368 Minnesota Home Team Program, 365 National Center for Health Statistics, 182, 213

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-->   National Cholesterol Education Program, 366 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 366 nonwhite life tables, 15, 98-99, 103, 106 nutrient intakes, 356-358 Pennsylvania County Health Improvement Program, 364 Project LEAN, 366 smoking-related mortality, 262-263, 264, 270, 272 Stanford Three-Community Study, 366 Surgeon General's report on smoking, 282, 283, 294 tobacco consumption, 288, 291-292, 294, 295, 301, 306, 311-312 tobacco control, 294-305, 306-307 Ural Region mortality age patterns, 80-81 cancer, 74, 80, 101, 110-111, 116-117 cardiovascular, 71, 74, 81, 101, 110-111, 116-117 infectious diseases, 80 injury, 71, 74, 81, 101, 110-111, 116-117 life expectancy at birth, 13, 72, 101, 110-111, 116-117 respiratory diseases, 81 rural-urban differences, 73, 74, 110-111, 116-117 sex differences, 74, 80-81, 110-111, 116-117 Urban-rural crossovers, 19, 127, 146 Uterine cancer, 55 Uzbekistan age structure, 10 economy, 10, 138 health expenditures, 11 life expectancy at birth, 11, 137-142, 164, 194-195 population, 10 tobacco use, 275, 276 Uzbekistan mortality adult, 11, 194-195, 198 age patterns, 137-138, 169, 171, 173, 194-195, 268 cancer, 17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219, 270, 273-274 cardiovascular diseases, 16-17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 infant and child, 11, 20, 154, 162, 169, 171, 173, 188, 194-195, 198, 219 infectious and parasitic diseases, 17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179 , 219 injury and poisoning, 16, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 quality of data, 130, 137-143 registration, 190, 191 respiratory diseases, 17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 rural-urban variations, 137, 139-140, 164-165, 177, 179 sex differentials, 16-17, 139-142, 164-165, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177 , 179, 194-195, 198, 268, 270, 273-274 smoking-related, 268, 269, 270 years of life lost, 16-17, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 219 V Violence-related deaths age patterns, 79, 98 alcohol abuse and, 22, 59-60, 62, 226, 228, 242-243, 257 components, 59-60 international comparisons, 59 and life expectancy at birth, 50 political and ethnic, 61 quality of data, 42 sex differences in, 50 Vital registration system. See also Registration of deaths Central Asian NIS, 19, 146 recommended improvements in, 29-30, 146, 148 responsibility for, 124 Volga Region mortality age differences, 89, 90 cancer, 71, 74, 89, 90, 110-111, 116-117 cardiovascular diseases, 71, 74, 89, 90, 110-111, 116-117 infectious diseases, 90 injury, 74, 89, 90, 110-111, 116-117 life expectancy at birth, 73, 110-111, 116-117 respiratory diseases, 90 rural-urban differences, 73, 89, 90, 110-111, 116-117 sex differences, 73, 89, 90, 110-111, 116-117 Volga-Vyatka Region mortality age patterns, 89 cancer, 71, 89, 108-109, 114-115 cardiovascular diseases, 89, 108-109, 114-115 injury, 71, 89, 108-109, 114-115 life expectancy at birth, 108-109, 114-115 respiratory diseases, 89

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-->   rural-urban variation, 102, 108-109, 114-115 sex differences, 89, 108-109, 114-115 W West Germany, 160 Western Siberia Region mortality age patterns, 89, 102 cancer, 74, 89, 110-111, 116-117 cardiovascular diseases, 110-111, 116-117 injury, 74, 110-111, 116-117 life expectancy at birth, 110-111, 116-117 rural-urban variations, 102, 110-111, 116-117 sex differences in, 74, 89, 102, 110-111, 116-117 World Health Organization chronic disease prevention, 336, 337, 341-342 CINDI program, 337, 342, 347, 349, 350 definitions, 19, 37, 124, 154, 157, 186 INTERHEALTH program, 337 International Classification of Diseases, 40, 65, 158 interpretation of rules, 65 MONICA, 21, 23, 207, 208, 338, 342, 343, 345 X Xinjiang Province, 19, 126-127, 130, 136-137, 138, 146, 147, 154 Y Years of life lost accidents, 168-173 age patterns, 199 alcohol-related, 207 assessment methods, 16, 160-161, 193, 214 by cause of death, 16-18, 166, 167, 168-173, 180, 198-201 excess, 193, 202-207, 208 in Former Socialist Economies, 193, 198-202 international comparisons, 193, 200 and intervention design, 15 by NIS, 16-17, 162-163, 165, 168-179 rural-urban variation, 163, 165, 166, 170-173, 176-179 sex differences, 16-17, 162-163, 165, 168-179 socioeconomic and sociocultural development and, 163 temporal trends, 165 Young adult mortality. See also Adolescents rural differences in, 102 violence-related, 79 Yugoslavian mortality adult, 194-195, 198 causes of death, 218 infant and child, 185, 194-195, 198, 218 life expectancy at birth, 194-195 lung cancer, 273-274 sex differentials, 194-195, 198 years of life lost, 218