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Trends in age-standardized mortality rates for seven large groups of causes, by sex: cardiovascular and digestive diseases, cancer, injury, infection, and other diseases.
mortality rate for this group of causes increased from 1970 until 1984. For males it grew from 8.1 per 1,000 in 1970 to 9.8 in 1984; for females it grew from 5.5 to 6.4. The years 1985 and 1986 were marked by a reduction of about 10 percent, but mortality remained almost constant thereafter until 1992-1993, when the level of 1984 was again reached. The reduction observed in 1985-1986 is related to the effects of the anti-alcohol campaign and does not represent the beginning of any long-term progress. Rather, the benefits gained were subsequently lost.
For both sexes, neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. For females, this group is much more influential than the remaining groups, representing about 15 percent of the total standardized mortality rate. For males, the influence of this group, representing about 16 to 18 percent of the total standardized mortality rate, is not very different from that of injury and poisoning until 1985, when the latter decreased dramatically. From 1970 to 1980, the standardized mortality rate for neoplasms is very stable for men (around 2.8 per 1,000) and decreases slowly for women (from 1.5 to 1.4). However, it increases regularly for both sexes during the most recent years, reaching 3.4 per 1,000 for males and 1.5 for females in 1993.
The third leading group of causes varies according to sex and time period. Early in the 1970s, it is injury and poisoning for men and respiratory diseases (not shown) for females. In the 1990s, it is clearly injury and poisoning for both sexes.
For both sexes, the standardized mortality rate for respiratory diseases de-