Station hazard reports, for example, should be modified to reflect the fact that some debris larger than 10 cm in diameter are not tracked and cataloged. Particular concern should be taken to address issues that may not fall within the purview of either the overall International Space Station program risk management approach or that of the safety office.

Recommendation 2. The International Space Station program should strive to improve the shielding for areas of the International Space Station that do not meet required probabilities of no penetration. In particular, improving the protection of the service module must receive a very high priority.

Recommendation 3. Further efforts—such as exchanging on-site engineering representatives and augmenting the schedule of technical interchange meetings and video conferences —to improve coordination with the Russian Space Agency and hasten agreement on meteoroid and orbital debris issues should be explored.


Winfield, D. 1996. Briefing presented to the NRC Committee on International Space Station Meteoroid/Debris Risk Management, Houston, Texas, April 3, 1996.

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