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Appendixes

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Appendix A List of Materials Reviewed ANS-~.1 Working Group. 1993. Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissile Materials Outside Reactors. ANSI/ANS-~.1-1983(Rl988~. La Grange Park, Ill.: American Nuclear Society. Benedict, M., T. Pigford, and H. Levi. 1981. Nuclear Chemical Engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Cagle, C. D., and L. P. Pugh. 1977. Decommissioning Study for the ORNL Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). ORNL/CF-77/391. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Compere, E. L., S. S. Kirslis, E. G. Bohimann, F. F. Blankenship, and W. R. Grimes. 1975. Fission Product Behavior in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. ORNL-4865. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Crume, C. 1994. Nuclear Criticality Safety Issues Associated with Uranium Migration in the MSRE. Viewgraphs from presentation to the Independent Review Panel, Oak Ridge, Tenn. October ~ T. Eller, Phillip G., I. G. Malm, and R. A. Penneman. 1988. Method for fluorination of actinide fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof using O2F2. U.S. Patent No. 4,783,322. November. Frolov, V. V., B. G. Ryazanov, V. I. Sviridov, and G. S. Starodubtsev. 1995. A review of criticality accidents which occurred in the Russian industry. Pp. 23-30 in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Nuclear Criticality, Albuquerque, N.Mex., September 17-21. Goff, S. I., Y. Bussod, K. Wohietz, A. Dick, and I. C. Rowley. Rock melting: A specialty drilling system for improved hole stability in geothermal wells. Los Alamos, N.Mex.: Los Alamos National Laboratory. Goldman, A. E., and A. P. Litman. 1961. Corrosion Associated with Hydrofluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride A.1

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A.2 AN EVALUATION OFDOE ALTERNATIVES FOR MSRE Volatility Process. ORNL-2833. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Guymon, R. H. 1971. MSRE Procedures for the Period Between Examination and Ultimate Disposal (Phase Ill of the Decommissioning Program9. ORNL/TM-3253. Union Carbide Corp., Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Haubenreich, P. N., and R. B. Lindauer. 1972. Consideration of Possible Methods of Disposal of MSRE Salts. ORNL CF 72- 1- 1. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hollenbach, D. F., and C. M. Hopper. 1994. Criticality Safety Study of the MSRE Fuel Drain Tank Cell in Building 7503. ORNL/TM- 12642. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hollenbach, D. F., and C. M. Hopper. 1996. Criticality Safety Study of the MSRE Auxiliary Charcoal Bed. ORNL/M-5450. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Holmes, I. T., L. B. Koppel, J. D. Gabor, R. Devabhaktuni, and A. A. Jonke. 1969. Engineering-scale studies of the fluorination of uranium oxide with bromine pentafluoride. Industrial Engineering Chemistry, Process Design and Development 8:43-51. International Nickel Company, Inc. 1968. Corrosion resistance of nickei- containing alloys in hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen fluoride and fluorine. Corrosion Engineering Bulletin CEB-5. New York. Jarry, R. L., and M. I. SteindIer. 1967. Reaction of gaseous bromine pentafluoride with uranium compounds, I: The kinetics of the reactions with uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) and difluorodioxo uranium (UO2F2~. Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry 29:1591- 1597. Jarry, R. L., and M. I. Steindler. 1968. Reaction of gaseous bromine pentafluoride with uranium compounds, II: Kinetics of the reaction with U3O~, uranium IV oxide and uranium V} oxide. Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry 30: 127- ~ 32. Jensen, R. I. 1995. Correspondence to L. M. Toth, March 2, transmitting material on rock melters: Target Technologies fact sheet, Rock Melting: An "Aseptic" Drilling Technology; Los Alamos News bulletin, Melting rock holds promise of hot environmental remediation process, volume 14~44~; Goff, S. J., Y. Bussod, K. WohIetz, A. Dick, and J. C. Rowley. Rock melting: A specialty

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APPENDIX A MATERIALS REVIEWED A.3 drilling system for improved hole stability in geothermal wells. Los Alamos, N.Mex.: Los Alamos National Laboratory. Katz, I. I., and G. T. Seaborg. 1986. The Chemistry of the Actinide Elements, 2nct Ed., I. J. Katz, G. T. Seaborg, and L. R. Morss, editors. New York: Chapman and Hall Ltd. Knief, R. A. 1985. Nuclear Criticality Safety Theory and Practice. La Grange Park, Ill.: American Nuclear Society. Knief, R. A. 1992. Nuclear Engineering: Theory and Technology of Commercial Nuclear Power. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Company. Kolodny, M. 1992. His 1944 laboratory notebook results are quoted by R. A. Penneman and Roger A. Meade in pp. 86-92 in Transuranium Elements, a Half Century, L. R. Morss and I. Fuger, editors. Early chemical contributions in Los Alamos. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. Lai, G. Y. 1990. High-Temperature Corrosion of Engineering Alloys. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International. Lamarsh, J. R. 1975. Introduction to Nuclear Engineering. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. Liebenthal, J. L., M. G. Adamson, F. E. Harrington, T. P. McLaughlin, and R. E. Thoma. 1994. Independent Review Panel Report: Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Uranium Migration Remediation. Report to Martin Marietta Systems, Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Lindauer, R. B. 1969. Processing of the MSRE Flush and Fuel Salts. ORNL-TM-2578. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Litman, A. P. 1962. Corrosion of Volatility Pilot Plant Mark I 1NOR-8 Hydrofluorinator and Mark III L Nickel Fluorinator after Fourteen Dissolution Runs. ORNL-3253. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Litman, A. P., and A. E. Goldman. 1961. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process. ORNL-2832. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Margrave, I. L., K. R. Kunze, R. H. Hauge, and D. Hamill. 1976. TR matrix study of reactions of UF4 with fluorine. Journal of Chemicai Physics 65:2026.

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A.4 AN EVALUATION OF DOE ALTERNATIVES FOR MSRE Margrave, J. L., K. R. Kunze, R. H. Hauge, and D. Hamill. 1977. Studies of matrix-isolated uranium tetrafluoride and its interactions with frozen gases. Journal of Physical Chemistry ~1: ~664. Mills, T. R. 1996. Memo to Robert A. Penneman. NMT-6-DEM-96-033. Los Alamos, N.Mex.: Los Alamos National Laboratory, October 25. Munday, E. B., and D. W. Simmons. 1993. Feasibility of Gas-Phase Decontamination of Gaseous Diffusion Equipment. K/TCD-1048. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge K-25 Site. National Research Council. 1985. The Management of Radioactive Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: A Technical Review. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1995. An Assessment of Continued R&D into an Electrometallurgical Approach for Treating DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1996. Molten Salt Pane! of the Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes. Transcript of September 9 meeting, Garden Plaza Hotel, Oak Ridge, Tenn. National Research Council. 1996. Molten Salt Pane} of the Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes. Transcript of September 10 meeting, Garden Plaza Hotel, Oak Ridge, Tenn. National Research Council. 1996. Molten Salt Panel of the Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes. Transcript of October meeting, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 1996. Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Nero, A. V., Ir. 1979. A Guidebook to Nuclear Reactors. Berkeley and Los Angeles, Calif.: University of California Press. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1995. Basis for interim Operation: Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility. ORNL/BTO/MSRE/R0. Oak Ridge, Tenn. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1995. Hazard Screening: Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility. HS/7503/F/~/R1. Oak Ridge, Tenn.

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APPENDIX A MATERIALSRE VIE WED A.5 Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1995. Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Oak Ridge Reservation. ES/WM-10 Revision I. Oak Ridge, Tenn. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1996. Compendium of Current NCSA and NOSE Data for the MSRE Remediation Project. ORNL/M-5461. Oak Ridge, Tenn. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ~ 996. Conversion of Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) 233UF6 for Permanent Storage. Prepared by Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, 1enn. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1996. Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project: Process Support and Analyses for Fuel Salt Disposition. Prepared by Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tenn. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1996. Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project Reactive Gas Removal System Operations (Attachments A-D). Prepared by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Environmental Restoration Program, Oak Ridge, Tenn., December 16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1996. Program Management Plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ORNL/ER-341. Prepared by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Environmental Restoration Program, Oak Ridge, Tenn. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1996. System Safety Analysis: Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility Reactive Gas Removal System. SSA/7503-ERP/003/R0. Oak Ridge, Tenn. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1996. Technical Safety Requirements: Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility Reactive Gas Removal System. TSR/7503-ERP/001/R0. Oak Ridge, Tenn. Peretz, F. J. 1996. Disposition of the Fluoride Fuel and Flush Salts from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presentation prepared by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., at the American Institute for Chemical Engineering Spring Meeting, New OrIeans, La., February. Peretz, F. J. 1996. Disposition of the Fluoride Fuel and Flush Salts from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presentation to the National Research Council Buried

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A.6 AN EVALUATION OF DOE ALTERNATIVES FOR MSRE and Tank Wastes Committee, prepared by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tenn.,May 23. Peretz, F. I. 1996. Identification and Evaluation of Alternatives for the Disposition of Fluoride Fuel and Flush Salts from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ORNL/ER-380. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. August. Pruvost, N. L., and H. C. Paxton. 1996. Nuclear Criticality Safety Guide. LA-12808. Los Alamos, N.Mex.: Los Alamos National Laboratory. Rushton, I., L. M. Toth, and F. Peretz. 1996. Presentation to the National Research Council Pane} on the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, prepared by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tenn., September 9. Rushton, I., L. M. Toth, and F. Peretz. 1996. Presentation to the National Research Council Pane! on the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, prepared by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Washington, D.C., October 8. Shaffer, J. H. 1971. Preparation and Handling of Salt Mixtures for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. ORNL-4614. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Simmons, D. W., and E. B. Munday. 1995. Evaluation of Gas-Phase Technetium Decontamination and Safety Related Experiments During FY 1994. A Report of Work in Progress. K/TCD-l 127. Oak Ridge Tenn.: Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Technical Division. Stratton, W. R., and D. R. Smith. ~ 989. A Review of Criticality Accidents, DOE/NCT-04. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. Thoma, R. E. 1971. Chemical Aspects of MSRE Operations. ORNL- 4658. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Thomas, J. T. 1978. Nuclear Safety Guide TTD-7016, Revision 2. NUREG/CR-0095, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and ORNL/NUREG/CSD-6, Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (Update published as Pruvost and Paxton, 1996.) Toth, L. M., and L. K. Felker. 1990. Fluorine generation by gamma radiolysis of a fluoride salt mixture. Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids ~ 12:201-210.

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APPENDIXA MATERIALS REVIEWED A.7 Trowbridge, L. D., S. H. Park, I. Remec, and I. P. Renier. 1995. Technical Bases of Selection of Trapping Technology for the MSRE Interim Vent and Trapping Project. K/TCD-1142. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge K-25 Site. U.S. Department of Energy. 1993. Spent Fuel Working Group Report on Inventory and Storage of the Department's Spent Nuclear Fuel and Other Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Materials and Their Environmental, Safety and Health VuInerabilities, 3 vols. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Energy. 1994. Plan of Action to Resolve Spent Nuclear Fuel VuInerabilities: Phase ITI. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Energy. 1995. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan for the Environmental, Safety and Health VuInerabilities Associated with the Department's Plutonium Storage. DOE/EM- 0 ~ 99. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Energy. 1996. Highly Enriched Uranium Environmental, Safety and Health Vulnerability Assessment Plan. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Energy. 1996. Oak Ridge Operations Office Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. Draft. Oak Ridge, Tenn. U.S. Department of Energy. 1996. Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP) for the Implementation of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94- ~ . Excerpt: MSRE Data. DOE/OR/01-1333&V1 R3 (Excerpt). Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge Operations Office. Weigel, F., I. J. Katz, and G. T. Seaborg. 1986. Plutonium. Pp. 743-745 in The Chemistry of the Actinide Elements, 2nd Ed., J. I. Katz, G. T. Seaborg, ant! L. R. Morss, editors. New York: Chapman and Hall Ltd. Weinberg, A. M. 1994. The First Nuclear Era: The Life and Times of a Technological Fixer. Woodbury, N.Y.: American Institute of Physics Press. Wendolkowski, W. S., and W. Davis, Ir. 1954. Effects of Diluent Gases on the Alpha Particle Decomposition of Uranium Hexafluoride. Report Number K-1142. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Company.

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A.8 AN EVALUATION OF DOE ALTERNATIVES FOR MSRE Williams, D. F. 1995. Emai} memo to I. Rushton and F. Peretz, copied to L. M. Toth and B. D. Patton, regarding gamma exposure, September 14. Williams, D. F., L. M. Toth, and G. D. De} Cull 1996. Chemical Interactions During Melting of the MSRE Fuel Salt. ORNL/M-5506. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Williams, I. K. 1995. Response to U.S. Department of Energy Inspector General (IG-40) memorandum, August 22, 1995 (Case File No. 195RRI41 - MSRE. 2 parts. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Zachariasen, W. H. 1948. Double fluorides of potassium or sodium with uranium, thorium, or lanthanum. Journal of the American Chemical Society 70:2147-2151. Senior Review Board Findings and Program Response Correspondence: Correspondence to G. G. Fee from W. H. Hamilton, February 20, 1995: Report of the Senior Review Board, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, Remediation of Uranium Mitigation Project. Correspondence to Dr. B. D. Walker from L`. E. Hall, February 24, 1995, transmitting Response to the Draft Report from the Senior Review Board Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project. Correspondence to G. G. Fee from W. H. Hamilton, November 1, 1995: Report of Senior Review Board, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, Remediation of Uranium Mitigation Project. Memorandum to Office of Environment, Safety and Health from G. S. Podonsky, December 4, 1995, transmitting Independent Oversight Special Review of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Memorandum to E. Cumesty from A. Lovell, December it, 1995, transmitting memorandum of December 7 from W. Cooper to J. C. Hall, with attached EH Resident Surveillance Report- Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Correspondence to W. H. Hamilton from J. E. Rushton, January 24, 1996: Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Senior Review Board.