• particles and protons at energies over 250 MeV. Such possibilities include a combination of more running time at the AGS and at lower-energy accelerators, expansion of existing facilities (see Appendix C), the commissioning of new beam lines at existing facilities, and the construction of a new facility. A 1992 National Research Council letter report (Appendix D) emphasized the need for a dedicated HZE particle facility. nap1400

The fact that the present report reaches conclusions similar to those in the 1989 report of the National Council of Radiation Protection 12 underscores the need for additional resources and facilities in order to understand quantitatively the radiation biology associated with interplanetary flights.

References.

1. Curtis, S.B., and Letaw, J.R. 1989. Galactic cosmic rays and cell-hit frequencies outside the magnetosphere. Adv. Space Res. 9: 293–298. See also Curtis, S.B. 1992. Relating space radiation environments to risk estimates. In: Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Radiation (C.E. Swenberg, G. Horneck, and E.G. Starsinopoulos, eds.). Plenum Press, New York.

2. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). 1989. Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activities. Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. NCRP Report No. 98. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, Md.

3. NCRP, 1989, Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activities.

4. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 1993. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation: United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: UNSCEAR 1993 Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. United Nations, New York. Pp. 754–757.

5. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 1993. Annex F: Influence of dose and dose rate on stochastic effects of radiation. Pp. 619–728 in: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR.

6. Lushbaugh, C.C., and Cassarett, G.W. 1976. Effects of gonadal irradiation in clinical radiation therapy: A review. Cancer 37: 1111–1125.

7. Horneck, G. 1992. Radiobiological experiments in space: A review. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. 20: 82–205.

8. Curtis, S.B., Nealy, J.E., and Wilson, J.W. 1995. Risk cross sections and their application to risk estimation in the galactic cosmic-ray environment. Radiat. Res. 141: 57–65.

9. Wilson, J.W., Cucinotta, F.A., Shinn, J.L., Kim, M.H., and Badavi, F.F. 1997. Shielding strategies for human space exploration: Introduction. Chapter 1 in: Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration: A Workshop (John W. Wilson, Jack Miller, and Andrei Konradi, eds.). NASA, Washington, D.C., forthcoming.

10. Brookhaven National Laboratory. 1991. Booster Applications Facility Report-Phase II. BNL-52291. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N.Y.

11. Alternating Gradient Synchrotron estimates transmitted to NASA by the chairman of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1996 .

12. NCRP, 1989, Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activities.



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