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--> Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations AFRRI: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute AGS: Alternating gradient synchrotron AP: Apurinic or apyrimidinic AT: Ataxia telangiectasia ATM: AT mutated gene BEIR: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, Committee on (National Research Council) CNS: Central nervous system DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA-PK: DNA-dependent protein kinase DOD: Department of Defense DOE: Department of Energy DREF: Dose rate effectiveness factor EVA: Extravehicular activity GCR: Galactic cosmic radiation HPRT: Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase HZE: High atomic number (Z) high energy ICRP: International Commission on Radiological Protection LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory LEO: Low Earth orbit LET: Linear energy transfer LQ: Linear-quadratic MIM: Multiplicative interaction model NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration NCRP: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements NER: Nucleotide excision repair NRC: National Research Council PCR: Polymerase chain reaction PK: Protein kinase Q: Quality factor RBE: Relative biological effectiveness RMS: Root mean square
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--> SPE: Solar particle event TGBESR: Task Group on the Biological Effects of Space Radiation UNSCEAR: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation USAF: United States Air Force WR: Radiation weighing factor XP: Xeroderma pigmentosum
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