Variation in Susceptibility to Radiation Across Subject Types

 

28

   

DNA Repair

 

29

   

Repair of Oxidative Damage and Double-Strand Breaks

 

29

   

Other Studies

 

30

   

Conclusion

 

31

   

Loss of Research Programs

 

31

   

References

 

32

3

 

How to Reduce Risk and the Uncertainty in Risk Estimates

 

35

   

Shielding

 

35

   

Recommendations for Research to Better Determine Shielding Requirements

 

35

   

Knowledge Base Development

 

35

   

Shielding Approaches

 

36

   

Cost of Research vs. Cost of Excess Shielding

 

38

   

Radioprotective and Chemoprotective Drugs and Diet

 

38

   

Crew Selection

 

39

   

Optimal Time for Flight

 

39

   

Solar Particle Event Warning System

 

40

   

Flares

 

40

   

Coronal Mass Ejections/Interplanetary Shocks

 

40

   

Conclusions

 

40

   

References

 

40

4

 

Priority Research Questions and Strategies

 

42

   

Higher-Priority Research Questions

 

42

   

Lower-Priority Research Questions

 

47

   

Time Scale of Research

 

50

   

What Will Still Remain Unknown, and What Risk Does This Represent?

 

54

   

References

 

54

5

 

Other Issues

 

55

   

Need for Animal Use

 

55

   

Experimental Techniques and New Data Required

 

56

   

Ground-vs. Space-based Research

 

56

   

Plants and Food Supply

 

57

   

References

 

57

 

 

Appendixes

 

 

   

A Acronyms and Abbreviations

 

61

   

B Glossary

 

63

   

C Beam Sources

 

69

   

D Previous Advice of the National Research Council Regarding the BEVALAC Facility

 

72



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