APPENDIX F INITIAL ASSESSMENT REPORT

BUILDINGAN EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM:

INITIALASSESSMENT

Committee on Building an Environmental Management Science Program

Virtual Commission on Environmental Management Science

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS

Washington, D.C. 1996



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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment APPENDIX F INITIAL ASSESSMENT REPORT BUILDINGAN EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM: INITIALASSESSMENT Committee on Building an Environmental Management Science Program Virtual Commission on Environmental Management Science National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by the Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Contract No. DE-FC01-94EW54069/R. All opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Energy. Additional copies of this report are available from: National Research Council Virtual Commission on Environmental Management Science 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., HA 456 Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3066 Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment COMMITTEE ON BUILDING AN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM JOHN F. AHEARNE, Chair, Sigma Xi, and Duke University. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina EDWARD M. ARNETT, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina STANLEY I. AUERBACH, SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., Oak Ridge. Tennessee EDWARD J. BOUWER, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Marland JOHN I. BRAUMAN, Stanford University, California NAOMI H. HARLEY, New York University Medical Center, New York DEREK R LOVLEY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst GENE G. MANNELLA, Gas Research Institute (retired), Potomac, Maryland NORINE E. NOONAN, Florida Institute of Technology, MelbourneLEON T. SILVER, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Consultants GREGORY R CHOPPIN, Florida State University, Tallahassee DONALD J. DEPAOLO, University of California, Berkeley GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Staff KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Study Director* TAMAE MAEDA WONG, Senior Staff Officer† SUSAN B. MOCKLER, Research Associate* PATRICIA A. JONES, Project Assistant* ERIKA L. WILLIAMS, Project Assistant JOSHUA A. CHAMOT, Intern* *   Board on Radioactive Waste Management †   Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment VIRTUAL COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PERRY L. McCARTY, Chair, Stanford University, California RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia DONALD J. DEPAOLO, University of California, Berkeley DAVID J. GALAS, Darwin Molecular Corporation, Bothell, Washington MICHAEL C. KAVANAUGH, ENVIRON Corporation, Emeryville, California ROYCE W. MURRAY, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director The Committee on Building an Environmental Management Science Program is a joint activity of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources; Commission on Life Sciences, and Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications.

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964. under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government, and upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment PREFACE This is the first of three reports by the Committee on Building an Environmental Management Science Program The committee was established by the National Research Council to help the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management improve the effectiveness of its Environmental Management Science Program—a mission-directed, basic research program to support cleanup of the nation's nuclear weapons complex. The department announced this program in a Federal Register Notice in February 1996 and received more than 800 proposals from researchers at universities, national laboratories, and industry. The department is in the final stages of proposal review and expects to make award decisions in July 1996. In this initial assessment, the committee has restricted its findings and recommendations to the department's near-term needs as it completes the review of these proposals and develops the FY 1997 program plan. These near-term issues are well represented by the questions that constitute the statement of task for this first committee report: How can basic research be used to help DOE-EM to complete its mission successfully in the next few decades? How can a basic research program help add value to DOEEM's cleanup efforts? What kinds of technical challenges would likely benefit from a program in basic research? How can the research program take advantage of the unique capabilities of U.S. universities and federal labs? How can the research program take advantage of research efforts and capabilities in other DOE programs and other federal agencies? What, if any, additional areas of research should be included in the FY 1997 program announcement as the DOE EMSP evolves? The committee's future reports will address the longer-term science and management needs of this program and will be issued later this year.

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment CONTENTS     SUMMARY   1     INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND   5     THE DOE CLEANUP MISSION   8     THE VALUE OF RESEARCH TO THE CLEANUP MISSION   10     UTILIZING THE CAPABILITIES OF THE RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE   13     Attracting the Best Researchers,   13     Obtaining the Best Research,   16     Transferring Research Results to Potential Research Users,   18     COORDINATION WITH OTHER FEDERAL AND NONFEDERAL RESEARCH PROGRAMS   18     FY 1996 PROGRAM PRIORITIES AND SOLICITATION   19     FY 1997 PROGRAM   22

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment     FUTURE ACTIVITIES OF THE COMMITTEE   24     REFERENCES   25     APPENDIX A: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM   29     APPENDIX B: EMSP PROGRAM NOTICE   32     APPENDIX C: MEETING AGENDAS   42     APPENDIX D: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND CONSULTANTS   45     APPENDIX E: ACRONYMS   51

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment SUMMARY In 1995, the 104th Congress directed the Department of Energy (DOE; see Appendix E for list of acronyms) to establish a basic research program to support its mission to clean up the nation's nuclear weapons complex. DOE established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) in response to this mandate. This program is managed jointly by the department's Offices of Energy Research (ER) and Environmental Management (EM) and is designed to bridge the gap between ''fundamental research" and "needs-driven applied research" in order to promote the development of new and improved cleanup technologies. At the request of the DOE, the National Research Council established the Committee on Building an Environmental Management Science Program to advise DOE on ways to increase the effectiveness of this new research program. This report, the first of three that will be issued by the committee over the next seven months, provides an initial assessment of the EMSP that focuses on the fiscal year (FY) 1996 proposal competition and the FY 1997 program plan. Given the size, scope, and long-term nature of the cleanup mission—DOE estimates that this effort will cost $230 billion and require 75 years—the committee views the establishment of this mission-directed, basic research program as both an urgent and a prudent investment for the nation. Although the EMSP will not solve all of EM's cleanup problems, a properly structured and managed program could help address many of EM's technical challenges by stimulating the development of new waste characterization, remediation, and management technologies or reducing the uncertainties in the application of current technologies; by enabling the development of new methods to reduce the volume or toxicity of secondary wastes; and by providing a better understanding of risk to help prioritize cleanup activities and reduce hazards to people and the environment. The DOE faces at least three significant challenges in establishing a basic research program that has real long-term value to the cleanup mission:

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment DOE. 1995. Office of Science and Technology EM-50. http://www.em.doe.gov/emnet5.html National Academy of Sciences. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. 1995. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. http://ww.nas.edu/nap/online/fedfunds/ National Commission on Superfund Members. Final Consensus Report of the National Commission on Superfund. March 1994. Keystone Center and the Environmental Law Center of Vermont Law School. N/A National Environmental Technology Strategy. Bridge to a Sustainable Future. April 1995. National Science and Technology Council, Washington, DC. http://iridium.nttc.edu/env/envstrat.txt National Research Council. Improving the Environment: An Evaluation of DOE's Environmental Management Program. 1995. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. N/A Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories. February 1995. Task Force on alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories, Washington, DC. http://www.doe.gov/html/doe/whatsnew/galvin/tf-rpt.html U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Complex Cleanup: The Environmental Legacy of Nuclear Weapons Production, February 1991. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. N/A The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Number for this program is 81.049, and the solicitation control number is ERFAP 10 CFR Part 605. Issued in Washington, DC January 31, 1995. John Rodney Clark, Associate Director for Resource Management, Office of Energy Research. [FR Doc. 96-2877 Filed 2-8-96; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6450-01-P

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment APPENDIX C MEETING AGENDAS MEETING 1 Saturday. May 11 7:30-10:30 Executive Session     Open Session   11:00 Environmental Management Science Program/ Background and History Carol Henry DOE 11:20 Environmental Management Science Program/ Current Process Michelle Broido DOE 11:40 Questions and Discussions   12:00 Lunch   1:00 Questions and Discussions, continued   2:00 Panel Discussion on EM Science Program/ Opportunities and Challenges Sally Benson Gregory Choppin Donald J. DePaolo A.J. Francis Remy Hennet Michael Knotek Terrence Surles 3:45 Break   4:00-5:30 Executive Session   Sunday. May 12 8:00-1:30 Executive Session

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment MEETING 2 Saturday. June 15 7:45-11:15 Executive Session     Open Session   11:30 Welcome; progress report and plan for the meeting Chair 11:35 Reflections on the first committee meeting Carol Henry Art Patrinos 12:15 Working Lunch   1:20 EM Science: Challenges and Opportunities Judy Bostock 2:00 Planning for the Science and Management Workshops All   Objectives Structure and Organization Products Schedules and Locations   3:30 Break   3:45 Breakout into Science/Management Groups to Develop Preliminary Workshop Agendas   5:00 Breakout Group Reports Ahearne Silver 5:30 Appointment of Subcommittees   6:00 Adjourn  

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment Sunday. June 16 7:30 Executive Session 1:00 Adjourn

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment APPENDIX D BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND CONSULTANTS AHEARNE, John F.—Dr. Aheame received his B.S. and MS. degrees from Cornell University and his Ph.D. in plasma physics from Princeton University. He has served as commissioner and chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, system analyst for the White House Energy Office. Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy, and Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Defense. He currently is the director of the Sigma Xi Center for Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, and a lecturer in public policy at Duke University. Dr. Aheame is a member of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management Advisory Board and the National Research Council's Board on Radioactive Waste Management, and has served on a number of the National Research Council's committees examining issues in risk assessment. His professional interests are reactor safety, energy issues, resource allocation, and public policy management. He is a fellow of the American Physics Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is a member of Sigma Xi, the Society for Risk Analysis, the American Nuclear Society, and the National Academy of Engineers. ARNETT, Edward M.—Dr. Arnett earned a B.A., M.S., and Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania. He is professor emeritus of chemistry at Duke University and has held prior professorships at the University of Pittsburgh and Western Maryland College. His expertise is in organic and physical organic chemistry. He is a Guggenheim fellow and has received numerous awards, including most recently the Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award and the American Institute of Chemists Distinguished North Carolina Chemist Award. Dr. Arnett is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. AUERBACH, Stanley I.—Dr. Auerbach earned his B.S. and M.S. from the University of Illinois, and his Ph.D. in zoology from Northwestern University. Dr. Auerbach retired as director of the Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1990. His research interests

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment include radiation ecology ecosystem analysis and radioactive waste cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Dr. Auerbach's former academic positions include lecturer and adjunct professor at the University of Tennessee and visiting professor at the University of Georgia. He has served on or chaired several National Research Council committees, boards, and commissions since 1961. He is a member of the American Institute for Biological Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Ecological Society of America, British Ecological Society, International Union of Radioecologists, and Health Physics Society. BOUWER, Edward J.—Dr. Bouwer received his B.S.C.E. from Arizona State University in civil engineering and his M.S. and Ph.D. in environmental engineering and science from Stanford University. He is currently a professor of environmental engineering at Johns Hopkins University. His research interests include biodegradation of hazardous organic chemicals in the subsurface, biofilm kinetics, water and waste treatment processes, and transport and fate of bacteria in porous media. He serves on the board of directors for the Association of Environmental Engineering Professors and on the editorial boards for The Journal of Contaminant Hydrology and Biodegradation. He has served on three past National Research Council committees. BRAUMAN, John I.—Dr. Brauman earned a B.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Brauman is the J.G. Jackson-C.J. Wood Professor of Chemistry at Stanford University. He began his career at Stanford University in 1963 as an assistant professor. His research interests include physical and organic chemistry, gas phase ionic reactions, electron photodetachment spectroscopy, and reaction mechanisms. He is the recipient of many awards from the American Chemical Society, including the Award in Pure Chemistry, the James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry, and the Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award. Dr. Brauman is a Guggenheim fellow and an honorary fellow of the California Academy of Sciences; he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Chemical Society. He has served on several National Research Council committees.

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment HARLEY, Naomi H.—Dr. Harley holds a B.E. in electrical engineering from the Cooper Union and an APC in management from the New York University Graduate Business School. She received an M.E. in nuclear engineering and a Ph.D. in radiological physics from New York University Dr. Harley is a research professor of environmental medicine at the New York University Medical Center where she also serves on the Medical Isotopes Committee. Her expertise is in radiation carcinogenesis, and her major research interests include measurement of inhaled or ingested radionuclides, modeling of their fate within the human body, and the calculation of the detailed radiation dose to the cells specific to carcinogenesis. She is a member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and an adviser to the U.S. Delegation of the United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Dr. Harley is a member of the editorial board of Environment International, and a fellow of the Health Physics Society; she holds three patents at New York University for radiation detection devices. LOVLEY, Derek R.—Dr. Lovley received a B.A. in biological sciences from the University of Connecticut, an M.A. from Clark University, and a Ph.D. in microbiology from Michigan State University. He is a professor of microbiology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. His research interests comprise the physiology and ecology of novel anaerobic microorganisms, molecular analysis of anaerobic microbial communities, and bioremediation of metal and organic contamination. He is an associate editor for Anaerobe and is on the editorial boards of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Microbial Ecology, and FEMS Microbiology Ecology. MANNELLA, Gene G.—Dr. Mannella earned a B.S. from Case Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He retired in 1994 as senior vice president of business operations, at the Gas Research Institute, headquartered in Chicago. He has also served as director of the Washington office of the Electric Power Research Institute, vice-president and general manager of Mechanical Technology, Inc., and senior vice-president at the Institute of Gas Technology. Dr. Mannella has held several positions in government agencies including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment Department of Transportation, and Energy Research and Development Administration (predecessor to the Department of Energy). He has authored numerous technical papers and served on several committees and boards including the Washington Coal Club. NOONAN, Norine E.—Dr. Noonan received her B.A. from the University of Vermont, summa cum laude, in zoology/chemistry, and her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in cell biology and biochemistry from Princeton University. She is vice president for research and dean of the Graduate School at Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne. Prior to joining Florida Tech in October 1992, Dr. Noonan was chief of the Science and Space Programs Branch of the Energy and Science Division, Office of Management and Budget. In this capacity, she was responsible for the legislative programs and combined budgets. Before becoming branch chief, Dr. Noonan was senior budget and program analyst for the branch for four years. She was an American Chemical Society Congressional Science Fellow for the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation; a research associate professor of biochemistry at Georgetown University School of Medicine; an expert consultant for the Subcommittee on Science Research and Technology; and associate professor of physiological sciences at the University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Noonan is a member and fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is also a member of the American Society for Cell Biology, Sigma Xi, and Phi Beta Kappa. SILVER, Leon T.—Dr. Silver earned a B.S. in civil engineering from the University of Colorado, an M.S. in geology from the University of New Mexico, and a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology. He is the W.M. Keck Foundation Professor for Resource Geology at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) and his expertise is in petrology and geochemistry. Dr. Silver was a public works officer in the U.S. Naval Civil Engineer Corps from 1945 to 1946 and held several positions at the United States Geological Survey before he joined CalTech. He has served on numerous National Research Council committees, including his current membership of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications. Dr. Silver is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment CONSULTANTS CHOPPIN, Gregory R.—Dr. Choppin received a B.S. in chemistry from Loyola University. New Orleans, and a Ph.D. from the University of Texas. Austin. He is currently the R.O. Lawton Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at Florida State University. His research interests involve the chemistry of the f-elements, the separation science of the f-elements, and concentrated electrolyte solutions. During a postdoctoral period at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, he participated in the discovery of mendelevium, element 101. His research and educational activities have been recognized by the American Chemical Society Award in Nuclear Chemistry. the Southern Chemist Award of the American Chemical Society, the Manufacturing Chemist Award in Chemical Education, a Presidential Citation Award of the American Nuclear Society, and honorary D.Sc. degrees from Loyola University and the Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden). DEPAOLO, Donald J.—Dr. DePaolo earned a B.S. with honors from the State University of New York, Binghamton, and a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology. He is professor of geochemistry and director of the Center for Isotope Geochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. Prior to arriving at Berkeley in 1988, Dr. DePaolo held a professorship at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is a recipient of the F.W. Clarke Medal of the Geochemical Society, the J.B. MacElwane Award of the Geophysical Union, and the Mineralogical Society of America Award. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. HORNBERGER, George M.—Dr. Hornberger received an undergraduate degree in civil engineering, but subsequently trained as a hydrologist at Stanford University, where he was awarded a Ph.D. in 1970. Dr. Hornberger is currently the Ernest H. Er Professor of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia. He joined the University of Virginia's Environmental Sciences Department in 1970 and served as department chairman from 1979 to 1984. Dr. Hornberger has been the recipient of numerous awards, including election to the first group of fellows of the Association for Women in Science. He was cited for ''exemplary commitment to the achievement of equity for women in science

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment and technology." Dr. Hornberger received the John Wesley Powell Award from the U.S. Geological Survey and is also a member of the American Geophysical Union. He is the editor of Water Resources Research, the nation's premier journal for publications in the hydrological sciences. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1996.

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Building an Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment APPENDIX E ACRONYMS DOD United States Department of Defense DOE United States Department of Energy DOE-EM (EM) United States Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management DOE-EMSP (EMSP) United States Department of Energy, Environmental Management Science Program DOE-ER (ER) United States Department of Energy. Office of Energy Research EM-50 United States Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency FY Fiscal Year GPO Government Printing Office H. R. House of Representatives Bill NABIR Natural and Accelerated In-Situ Bioremediation Program NAS National Academy of Sciences NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PNL Pacific Northwest Laboratory R&D Research and Development USGS United States Geological Survey