Chemical Formulas of Cement Materials

C

CaO

H

H2O

S

SiO2

SO3

A

Al2O3

N

Na2O

F

Fe2O3

K

K2O

M

MgO

C3S

3CaO·SiO2 = tricalcium silicate = alite

C2S

2CaO·SiO2 = dicalcium silicate = belite

C3A

3CaO·Al2O3 = tricalcium aluminate

C4AF

4CaO·Al2O3·Fe2O3 = calcium alumino ferrite

C-S-H

Calcium silicate hydrate, a colloidal and mostly amorphous gel with a variable composition; this is the major hydration product of Portland cement, constituting approximately 70 percent of the paste, and is the phase providing most of the strength and binding

CH

Calcium hydroxide, a hydration product constituting approximately 20 percent of the paste and, while contributing little to the overall strength, buffers the paste pore solution to a pH of approximately 12.5

Afm

Tetra-calcium aluminate trisulfate hydrate, usually with some substitution of Al by Fe and SO4 substituting for hydroxyl

 


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OCR for page 107
Nonconventional Concrete Technologies: Renewal of the Highway Infrastructure Chemical Formulas of Cement Materials C CaO H H2O S SiO2 SO3 A Al2O3 N Na2O F Fe2O3 K K2O M MgO C3S 3CaO·SiO2 = tricalcium silicate = alite C2S 2CaO·SiO2 = dicalcium silicate = belite C3A 3CaO·Al2O3 = tricalcium aluminate C4AF 4CaO·Al2O3·Fe2O3 = calcium alumino ferrite C-S-H Calcium silicate hydrate, a colloidal and mostly amorphous gel with a variable composition; this is the major hydration product of Portland cement, constituting approximately 70 percent of the paste, and is the phase providing most of the strength and binding CH Calcium hydroxide, a hydration product constituting approximately 20 percent of the paste and, while contributing little to the overall strength, buffers the paste pore solution to a pH of approximately 12.5 Afm Tetra-calcium aluminate trisulfate hydrate, usually with some substitution of Al by Fe and SO4 substituting for hydroxyl  

OCR for page 107
Nonconventional Concrete Technologies: Renewal of the Highway Infrastructure Aft Ettringite, a calcium trialuminate hydrate, usually with some substitution of Al by Fe Monosulfate (Afm with complete SO4 substitution) w/c or w/b Mass ratio of water to cement or binder (cement + mineral admixtures)