APPENDIXES



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--> Contributors ALICE M. AGOGINO is Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Associate Dean of the College of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley. She directs the Berkeley Expert Systems Technology (BEST) Laboratory and the Concurrent, Collaborative, Computer-Aided Design Laboratory. She also serves as the director for Synthesis, an NSF-sponsored coalition of eight universities with the goal of reforming undergraduate engineering education. Dr. Agogino received her B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of New Mexico, her M.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley, and her Ph.D. from the Department of Engineering–Economic Systems at Stanford University. Dr. Agogino has received several best paper, teaching and research awards, including an NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award in 1985 and was elected an AAAS Fellow in 1994. JOHN A. ARMSTRONG is retired Vice President for Science and Technology at IBM. He received an A.B. in physics from Harvard College in 1956 and a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1961. He remained at Harvard as a research fellow until 1963, when he joined IBM as a research staff member. During his career at IBM, Dr. Armstrong held numerous positions, including manager of the physical sciences programs at the T. J. Watson Research Center, manager of materials and technology development at the IBM East Fishkill Development Laboratory, director of research, and vice president. From 1989 to 1993 he was Vice President of Science and Technology at IBM. Since his retirement from IBM, Dr. Armstrong has held visiting lectureships at MIT and the University of Virginia. Currently, he is a Visiting Professor of Physics at

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--> MIT and an Adjunct Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Dr. Armstrong's distinguished career includes service on numerous advisory boards and committees. He is a member and a Councilor of the National Academy of Engineering, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, and a trustee of Associated Universities, Inc. He is also a director of Advanced Technology Materials, Inc., of Danbury, Connecticut. In 1996 President Clinton nominated Dr. Armstrong for a 6-year term on the National Science Board. MAXINE D. BROWN is Associate Director of the Electronic Visualization Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where she is responsible for the funding, documentation, and promotion of its research activities. She is also Associate Director for Marketing Communications at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her current research interests include virtual environments, tele-immersion, scientific visualization, new methodologies for informal science and engineering education, paradigms for information display, distributed computing, algorithm optimization for scalable computing, sonification, and human/computer interfaces. Ms. Brown received her B.A. in mathematics from Temple University and her M.S. in computer science from the University of Pennsylvania. STEVE BRYSON is a research scientist with MRJ Inc., working under contract for the Data Analysis Branch of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Systems Division at NASA Ames Research Center. He does research in the application of virtual reality techniques for scientific visualization, of which the virtual wind tunnel is the main focus. Mr. Bryson started in the virtual reality field in 1984 at VPL Research, working on a graphics-based programming environment using the prototype Dataglove for input. Later, he was involved in work on the Dataglove Model II. Mr. Bryson then joined Scott Fisher's VIEW lab at NASA Ames Research Center in 1987, where he was involved in integrating the various I/O and graphics systems into a virtual environment. This included research in software architectures for virtual reality systems and human factors. GLENN S. DAEHN is the Mars G. Fontana Professor of Metallurgical Engineering at Ohio State University. He received his B.S. in materials science and engineering at Northwestern University and his M.S. and Ph.D. at Stanford University. At Stanford his research was focused primarily on the processing of and high-temperature deformation of laminated superplastic composites based on high carbon steels. His current research is in three areas: production and characterization of ceramic-metal composites via displacement reactions,

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--> hyperplasticity (i.e., the extended ductility seen in high-velocity deformation), and the deformation of composites. KAIGHAM J. GABRIEL is Director of the Electronics Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). He received is S.M. and Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1985 he joined AT&T Bell Labs in the Robotic Systems Research Department, started the silicon MEMS effort, and led a group of researchers in exploring and developing IC-based MEMS for applications in photonic and network systems. During a sabbatical year from Bell Labs, Dr. Gabriel was a visiting associate professor at the Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Japan. After leaving Bell Labs in 1991, he spent a year as a visiting scientist at the Naval Research Lab transferring micromechanics processing technology to the Nanoelectronics Processing Facility. Since 1992 Dr. Gabriel has been at DARPA, first as Program Manager and then Deputy Director of the Electronics Technology Office, before assuming his current position as its director. LORNA J. GIBSON is the Matoula S. Salapatas Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She holds joint appointments in the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Civil and Environmental Engineering. She is also affiliated with the Harvard/MIT Health Sciences and Technology Program. Dr. Gibson obtained a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the University of Toronto and a Ph.D. in materials engineering from the University of Cambridge. After working at a consulting engineering company and as an assistant professor at the University of British Columbia, she joined the faculty at MIT in 1984. Her research focuses on the mechanical behavior of materials with a cellular structure, such as engineered honeycombs and foams, as well as natural materials, such as wood and trabecular bone. CONNIE L. GUTOWSKI is Chassis Design Manager for the Windstar Minivan at Ford Motor Company, a position she has held since 1994. In this capacity she supervises the design and release of all chassis components: suspension system, brakes, steering, fuel system, wheels, and tires. Ms. Gutowski joined Ford in 1977, and after holding various engineering positions, including a fun 2 years in Special Vehicle Engineering, she entered Product Planning. She has also held positions in Marketing and in Cycle Plan Strategy. Ms. Gutowski holds a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering and an M.B.A. from the University of Michigan. KOSUKE ISHII is an associate professor at Stanford University and serves as Co-Director of the Manufacturing Modeling Laboratory. Dr. Ishii's re-

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--> search focuses on life-cycle design for engineering and robust design for quality. He also directs the graduate course sequence on design for manufacturability, subscribed to by over 10 companies through the Stanford Instructional Television Network. Dr. Ishii earned his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Sophia University, Tokyo, his M.S. in mechanical engineering from Stanford University, and a master's degree in control engineering at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. After working for 3 years as a design engineer at Toshiba Corporation, Dr. Ishii returned to Stanford and completed his Ph.D. in mechanical design. He was on the faculty at Ohio State University from 1988 to 1994, before joining Stanford's faculty. SIEGFRIED W. JANSON is a senior scientist in the Mechanics and Materials Technology Center of The Aerospace Corporation. He is currently working on batch-fabricated micropropulsion system design and testing for small satellites and next-generation spacecraft, such as silicon nanosatellites. These microelectromechanical thrusters range from cold-gas thrusters to ion engines based on field ionization. Dr. Janson received a B.S. in astronautical engineering from Renesselaer Polytechnic Institute and an M.S. and Ph.D. in aeronautical engineering from Cornell University. From 1984 to 1987 he was a postdoctoral associate at Cornell, where he designed, constructed, and tested an electron beam ion source for atomic physics experiments. He has been at The Aerospace Corporation since 1987. MARC LEVOY is an associate professor of computer science and electrical engineering at Stanford University. His principal publications focus on computer animation, volume visualization, and machine vision, and his current research interests include volume rendering and morphing, digitizing the shape and appearance of physical objects using multiple sensing technologies, geometry and image compression, image-based rendering, and the design of languages and user interfaces for data visualization. Dr. Levoy was the architect of the Hanna-Barbera Computer Animation System and served as Director of Hanna-Barbera's Computer Animation Laboratory from 1980 through 1983. He received his bachelor's in architecture and M.S. degree from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in computer science in 1989 from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Levoy received the NSF Presidential Young Investigators Award in 1991 and the SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics Achievement Award in 1996 for his work in volume rendering. KAREN W. MARKUS is Director of the MEMS Technology Applications Center at MCNC. She has been involved in IC and MEMS development since the early 1980s. As Director of the MEMS Technology Applications Center, she is responsible for the definition and development of MEMS activities, including the establishment of a MEMS infrastructure base under funding

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--> from DARPA, technology development, and product commercialization. She is particularly interested in the transition of MEMS technology from research to commercial use through the formation of distributed manufacturing networks, shared wafer and processing facilities, and manufacturing advances of MEMS technology. DAVID W. MIZELL is a supervisor in the Boeing Company's Information and Support Services Research and Technology organization. He is Boeing's technical lead on several R&D projects in virtual reality, augmented reality, wearable computers, and supercomputer system simulation and evaluation. After receiving his Ph.D. in computer science at the University of Southern California (USC) in 1977, Dr. Mizell spent the next few years at Bell Labs and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designing parallel and distributed computing systems. In 1981 he began a 5-year stint as a government civil servant, managing several computer science research funding programs for the Office of Naval Research. In 1986 he returned to USC and resumed his own parallel computing research work, leading parallel computing research projects at USC's Information Sciences Institute. Dr. Mizell has been with Boeing since 1989. ERIC PEETERS is a member of the research and technology staff at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in Palo Alto, California. He is responsible for developing MEMS technology for application in commercial document output products. Dr. Peeters received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium, for work on process development for three-dimensional silicon microstructures, with application to mechanical sensing devices. He has authored publications in the areas of silicon micromachining technology, electromechanical design of micromachined devices, MEMS CAD, mechanical sensors, sensor interfacing, and biomedical applications. Dr. Peeters can be reached at e-mail address: peeters@parc.xerox.com. KRISTOFER S. J. PISTER is an associate professor in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Department at the University of California at Berkeley. He received his Ph.D. from Berkeley in 1992, and then taught at the University of California at Los Angeles for 4 years, during which time he developed three graduate-level courses in MEMS fabrication, physics, and design. His primary research interest is in microrobotics and related fields. LOUISE C. SENGUPTA is an electrical engineer at the Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Materials Division, currently located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. She is the project leader of the electroceramics group in the Ceramics Research Branch at the Materials Directorate. Her work focuses on the development of novel

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--> ferroelectric ceramic composites for use in phased-array antennas. Dr. Sengupta received her Ph.D. from the University of South Florida. SHARON L. WOOD is an associate professor of civil engineering at the University of Texas at Austin. Her research and teaching interests are related to earthquake engineering and design of reinforced concrete structures. Dr. Wood has conducted experimental and analytical investigations of the behavior of structural components and has evaluated the performance of reinforced concrete buildings following the 1985 Chile and 1994 Northridge, California earthquakes. She holds an undergraduate degree in civil engineering from the University of Virginia and graduate degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.