future. While the perspectives and approaches of partners will remain unique, the integrated selection and exploration of key topics and the collective use of complementary strengths will be of vital importance in meeting the challenges of continuing competitiveness that face this nation.

The COC defines partnerships broadly as cooperative arrangements that engage companies, universities, and government agencies and laboratories in varying combination to pool resources in pursuit of shared research objectives. The common thread running throughout all partnerships is the joint commitment of participants to share costs, resources, and experiences in order to draw strength from each other by leveraging capabilities.

The present report on the Duke workshop adds to our knowledge of what successful industry-university partnerships, in their extreme diversity, have in common, and it serves as a template for formulating individual partnerships and a collaborative R&D enterprise. As we go forward, those who will shape the future of R&D must recognize the importance of experiments in partnering, communicating their experiences of failure as well as of success.

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