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Appendix C References and Bibliography Abzug, Malcolm J. "Airspeed Stability Under Wind Shear Conditions." Journal of Aircraft. Vol. 14, No. 3. 1977. "Airline Orders Device to Help in Wind Shear." New York Times. June 6, 1983. p. B12. Anderson, K. W. and Clark, B. A. J. A Study of Wind Shear Effects on Aircraft Operation and Safety in Australia. AR-002-271. Aeronautical Research Laboratories Systems Report 24, Box 4331, P.O., Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia. March 1981. Atlas, David. Detecting Low-Level Wind Shear and Other Hazards. A NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presentation to the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, in Washington, D.C. April 21, 1983. Bedard, A. J., Jr., et al. A Thunderstorm Gust-Front Detection System: Part I, System Operations and Significant Case Studies and Part II, Statistical Results. FAA Report No. FAA-RD-79-55. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C. 1979. Bedard, A. J., Jr., McCarthy, J., and LeFebvre, T. Statistics From the Operation of the Low Level Wind Shear Alert System During the JAWS Project: An Interim Report From the JAWS Project at NCAR. Report No. 1, JAWS Project, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO. 1983. Blake, Neal A. FAA Views on Wind Shear Problems. FAA presentation to the Panel on Aircraft Performance and Operations, Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. May 24, 1983. Blake, Neal A. and Dzuik, James. Overview of Federal Aviation Administration Wind Shear Activities. FAA presentation to the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, in Washington, D.C. April 21, 1983. 97

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Bowles, Roland L. Windshear and Turbulence Simulation. NASA Langley Research Center presentation to the Panel on Aircraft Performance and Operations, Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. May 24, 1983. Brandes, Edward A. "Gust Front Evolution and Tornado Genesis as Viewed by Doppler Radar." Journal of Applied Meteorology. Vol. 16, No. 4, 1977. pp. 333-338. Bray, Richard S. Windshear Modeling for Simulation. NASA Ames Research Center presentation to the Panel on Aircraft Performance and Operations, Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. May 25, 1983. Brock, F. V. and Govind, P. K. "Portable Automated Mesonet in Operation . " Journal of Applied Meteorology. Vol. 16, April 1977. pp . 29 9 -3 10 . Byers, H. R. and graham, R. R. The Thunderstorm. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1949. Camp, Dennis W., et al. Third Annual Workshop on Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems. Prepared by the University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, TN. NASA CP-2104/FAA RD-79-49. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. April 1979. l Camp, Dennis W. and Frost, Walter, eds. Proceedings: Fifth Annual Workshop on Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems, University of Tennessee Space Institute, March 31-April 2, 1981. NASA CP-2192 (DOT/FAA/RD-81/67~. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. December 1981. Caracena, F., Flueck, J. A., and McCarthy, J. Forecasting the Likelihood of Microbursts Along the Front Range of Colorado. Thirteenth Conference on Severe Local Storms of the American Meteorological Society, Tulsa, Oklahoma. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA. October 19-20, 1983. Charba, J. "Application of Gravity Current Model to Analysis of Squall Line Gust Front." Monthly Weather Review. Vol. 102, 1974. pp. 140-156. Cheaney, Edward S. NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System Printout of Reports Which Reference Stickshaker Activation and Similar Stall Warning Devices. Prepared by the Battelle Columbus Laboratories for the NASA Ames Research Center. Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Mountain View, CA. May 13, 1983. 98

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Cheaney, Edward S. NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System Printout of Reports Involving Wind Shear. A computer printout prepared by Battelle Columbus Laboratories for the NASA Ames Research Center. Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Mountain View, CA. May 20, 1983. Cliff, William C. and Huffaker, Robert M. Application of a Single Laser Doppler System to the Measurement of Atmospheric Winds. NASA TM X-64891. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. October 1974. Court, Arnold and Griffiths, John F. "Thunderstorm Climatology" in Thunderstorm Morphology and Dynamics, Volume 2. Edwin Kessler, ed. Prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. February 1982. Doviak, R. J. Some Observations on Low-Level Wind Variability. Presentation by the National Severe Storms Laboratory to the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Hazards to Aviation, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. April 21, 1983. Dunham, Earl and Campbell, Warren. In-Flight Measurement of Winds, Wind Shear, and Turbulence. NASA presentation to the Aircraft Performance and Operations Panel of the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. May 24, 1983. Emanuel, K. A. "A Similarity Theory for Unsaturated Downdrafts Within Clouds." Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. Vol. 38, 1981. pp. 1541-1557. Federal Aviation Administration. FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation, Calendar Year 1981. Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. December 31, 1981. Foy, W. H. Airborne Aids for Wind Shear, A Final Report. Prepared by SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. FAA-RD-79-117. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C. July 1979. Fritsch, O. Statistics and Occurrences to Jet Aircraft Involving Wind as a Factor. The International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal, Canada. Request 061/83 (U.S.A./N.T.S.B.~. May 9, 1983. Frost, Walter. Flight in Low-Level Wind Shear. Prepared by FWG Associates, Inc., Tullahoma, TN. NASA CR-3678. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. March 1982. Frost, Walter. Low-Level Wind Variability Effects on Aircraft Performance. University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, TN presentation to the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, in Washington, D.C. April 22, 1983. 99

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Frost, Walter and Camp, Dennis W. Fourth Annual Workshop on Me teorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems, Tullahoma, TN, March 25-27, 1980. NASA CP-2139/FAA-RD-80-67 . National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. March 1980. Frost, Walter and ReddY. Ravikumar. ~ Investigation of Aircraft Landing in Variable Wind Fields. Prepared by the University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, TN. NASA CR-3073. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. December 1978. Fujita, T. T. Spearhead Echo and Downburst Near the Approach End of a John F. Kennedy Airport Runway, New York City. University of Chicago, Department of Geophysical Sciences, Satellite and Mesometeorology Research Project. SMRP Research Paper 137. University of Chicago. March 1976. Fujita, T. T. Manual of Downburst Identification for Project NIMROD. University of Chicago, Department of Geophysical Sciences, Satellite and Mesometeorology Research Project. SMRP Research Paper No. 156. University of Chicago. May 1978. Fujita, T. T. Downbursts and Microbursts--An Aviation Hazard. Preprints of the Ninth Conference on Radar Meteorology, Miami, FL, April 15-18, 1980. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA. April 1980. pp. 94-101. Fujita, T. T. Microburst Windshear at New Orleans International Airport, Kenner, Louisiana, on July 9, 1982. University of Chicago, Department of Geophysical Sciences, Satellite and Mesometeorology Research Project. SMRP Research Paper 199. University of Chicago. January 12, 1983. Fujita, T. T. Microburst Characteristics. A presentation to the Panel on Low-Altitude Wind Variability, Committee on Low-Level Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, May 17, 1983. Fu jita, T. T. and Byers, H. R. "Spearhead Echo and Downburst in the Crash of an Airliner." Monthly Weather Review. Vol. 105, No. 2. February 1977. Fujita, T. T. and Caracena, F. 'tan Analysis of Three Weather-Related Aircraft Accidents." Bullet in of the American Meteorological Society. Vol. 58, No. 11. 1977. pp. 1164-1181. 100

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Fujita, T. T. and Wakimoto, R. M. ~ Microburst in JAWS Depicted by Doppler Radars, PAM, and Aerial Photographs. Preprint from the Twenty-first Conference on Radar Meteorology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA. September 19-23, 1983. Fujita, T. T. and Wakimoto, R. M. JAWS Microbursts Revealed by Triple Doppler Radar, Aircraft and PAM Data. Preprint from the Thirteenth Conference on Severe Local Storms, Tulsa, OK. October 17-20, 1983. Gera, Joseph. The Influence of Vertical Wind Gradients on the Longitudinal Motion of Airplanes. NASA TN D-6430. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. September 1971. Gera, Joseph. Longitudinal Stability and Control in Wind Shear with Energy Height Rate Feedback. NASA TM-81828. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. November 1980. Goff, R. Craig. "Vertical Structure of Thunderstorm Outflows." Monthly Weather Review. Vol. 104, No. 11. 1976. pp. 1429-1440. Goff, R. Craig. "Some Observations of Thunderstorm-Induced Low-Level Wind Variations." Journal of Aircraft. Vol. 14. 1977. pp. 423-427. Goff, R. Craig. Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWSAS). FAA-RD-80-45. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C. May 1980. Haines, P. A. and Luers, J. K. Aerodynamic Penalties of Heavy Rain on a Landing Aircraft. Prepared by the Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, OH. NASA CR-156885. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. March 1982. Haynes, Ann. Description of a Program Developed for the Analysis of Windshears Experienced During Aircraft Approach to Landing. Royal Aircraft Establishment. Technical Memorandum RAE FS 321. Farnborough, Hants, United Kingdom. March 1980. Helms, J. Lynn. "Air Traffic Control into the 21st Century." Aerospace. Vol. 10, No. 4. 1983. pp. 16-23. Higgins, Paul R. and Patterson, Donald H. "More About Wind Shear Hazards." Boeing Airliner. January 1979. Higgins, Paul R. and Roosme, Ants. "Hazards of Landing Approaches and Takeoffs in a Wind ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ January 1977. Shear Environment." Boeing Airliner. 101

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Houbolt, John. Survey on Effect of Surface Winds on Aircraft Design and Operation and Recommendations for Needed Wind Research. Prepared by the Aeronautical Research Association of Princeton, Inc., Princeton, NJ. NASA CR-2360. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. December 1973. Kidd, Stephen. "HAD It for Safety." Private Pilot. Vol. 17, No. 1. January 1982. Kirchner, Mark E. Transport Aircraft Performance in Wind Shear. A presentation to the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, in Washington, D.C. April 21, 1983. Kish, William J. "Maximum Performance Limits." On Course. A flight operations newsletter. Flight Operations Department. Northwest Orient Airlines, St. Paul, MN. February 1983. Lee, J. T. and Beckwith, W. B. "Thunderstorms and Aviation" in The Thunderstorm in Human Affairs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1981, pp. 141-169. Lehman, John M., Heffley, Robert K., and Clement, Warren F. Simulation and Analysis of Wind Shear Hazard. Prepared by Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA. FAA-RD-78-7. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C. December 1977. Letter dated May 1, 1981 from J. Lynn Helms, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, to James B. King, Chairman, National Transportation Safety Board. Response to National Transportation Safety Board Safety Recommendations A-76-31 through 36 and A-76-42 through 44, issued April 1, 1976. Letter from Jim Burnett, Chairman, National Tranportation Safety Board to J. Lynn Helms, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration. March 25, 1983. Letter dated August 21, 1981 from James B. King, Chairman, National Transportation Safety Board, to J. Lynn Helms, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration. Contents are relative to NTSB Safety Recommendations A-76-31 through 36 and A-76-42 through 44. Issued April 1, 1976. Lewellen, W. S., Teske, M. E., and Segur, H. Turbulent Transport Model of Wind Shear in Thunderstorm Gust Fronts and Warm Fronts. Prepared by the Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., Princeton, NJ. NASA CR-3002. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D. C. May 1978 . 102

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Lewellen, W. S., Williamson, Guy G., and Teske, M. E. Estimates of the Low-Level Wind Shear and Turbulence in the Vicinity of Kennedy International Airport on June 24, 1975. Prepared by the Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., Princeton, NJ. NASA CR-2 751 . Na t tonal Aeronaut ics and Space Adminis tra t ion, Washington, D. C. October 1976. Lhermitte, R. M. "Probing Air Mot ion by Doppler Analys is of Radar Clear Air Returns . " Journal of Atmospheric Science. Vol. 23. 1966. pp. 575-591. Lilly, D. K. "A Severe Downslope Windstorm and Aircraft Turbulence Event Induced by a Mountain Wave. " Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. Vol. 35, No. 1. 1978. pp. 59-77. Lilly, D. K. and Zipser, E. J. "The Front Range Windstorm of 11 Januarv 1972." Weatherwise. Vol. 25, No. 2. 1972. pp. 56-63. McCarthy, John. Overview of Wind Shear Problem. A presentation to the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, in Washington, D.C. April 22, 1983. McCarthy, John. Some JAWS Weather Statistics . A presentation to the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, in Washington, D.C. April 22, 1983. McCarthy, John, et al. Jet Transport Performance in Thunderstorm Wind Shear. Prepared by the University of Oklahoma. NASA CR-3207. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. December 1979. McCarthy, John, et al. An Airport WindShear Detection and Warning System Using Doppler Radar--A Feasibility Study. MCS, Inc., Boulder, CO. NASA CR 3379. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. January 1981. McCarthy, John and Norviel, Vern. Numerical and Flight Simulator Test of the Flight Deterioration Concept. Prepared by MCS, Inc ., Boulder, Co. NASA CR-3500. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. January 1982. McCarthy, John, Roberts, Rita, and Schreiber, Wendy. "JAWS Data Collection, Analysis Highlights, and Microburst Statistics ." Research from the JAWS Project at NCAR. Preprints from the American Meteorological Society's Twenty-first Conference on Radar Meteorology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, September 19-23, 1983. American Meteorological Society, Bos ton, MA. 1983 . 103

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McCarthy, J., Wilson, J. W., and Fujita, T. T. "The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Societv. Vol. 63. January 1982. pp. 15-22. McNider, R. T. and Pielke, R. A. "Diurnal Boundary-Layer Development Over Sloping Terrain." Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. Vol. 38. 1981. pp. 2198-2199. Melvin, William W. Effects of Wind Shear on Approach with Associated Faults of Approach Couplers and Flight Directors. Presented to the AIAA Aircraft Design and Operations Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, July 14-16, 1969. AIAA Paper No. 69-796. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York. Melvin, W. W. "The Dynamic Effect of Wind Shear." Pilot Safety Exchange Bulletin. Flight Safety Foundation, Inc., Arlington, VA. November-December 1975. Melvin, Captain Bill. '~hat You Don't Know About Wind Shear Can Kill You." Flight Crew. Vol. 2, No. 3. 1980. pp. 60-64. Melvin, Bill. Discussion Paper on a Proposal to Limit Risks from Wind Shear Encounters. A presentation to the Air Line Pilots Association in Washington, D.C. July 1982. Natchipolsky, Martin. Next Generation Weather Radar, NEXRAD and NEXRAD Terminal Derivative. FAA presentation to the Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. April 21, 1983. Natchipolsky, Martin. Airborne Doppler Radar. FAA presentation to the Panel on Low-Altitude Wind Variability, Committee on Low-Altitude Wind Shear and Its Hazard to Aviation, National Research Council, at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. May 24, 1983. National Transportation Safety Board. Aircraft Accident Report-- Trans World Airlines, Inc., Boeing 707-331C, N788TW, John F. . Kennedy International Airport, Jamaica, New York, December 12, 1972. NTSB-AAR-73-11. National Transportation Safety Board. Washington, D.C. May 2, 1973. National Transportation Safety Board. National Transportation Safety Board Safety Recommendations (A-74-77 through 83~. National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C. October 3, 1974. National Transportation Safety Board. Aircraft Accident Report-- Iberia Lineas Aereas De Espana (Iberian Airlines), McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30, EC CBN, Logan International Airport, Boston, Massachusetts, December 17, 1973. NTSB-AAR-74-14. National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C. November 8, 1974. 104

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