• should require certain steps at the institutions to upgrade export control compliance as a condition of receiving U.S. funds.
  • Tracking the evolution and effectiveness of export control systems. Documentation of the evolution of the export control systems in the region and, to the extent possible, correlating development of the systems with assessment of leakages of sensitive items from the region would be helpful in both assessing the impact of export control and providing guidance for future U.S. programs in this field.
  • Anticipating the activities of organized crime. While there currently are no known links between the activities of organized crime syndicates and the smuggling of militarily sensitive commodities or information, the possibility of such links should be of considerable concern. Studies of organized crime activities in regions of the FSU where sensitive items are concentrated (e.g., Moscow region, St. Petersburg region, Urals) could be helpful in identifying emerging pathways for circumventing export control requirements.
  • Reducing the vulnerability of surplus sensitive items. Given the vast quantities of surplus weapons-related items being stored in Russia (in addition to direct-use nuclear material), attention should be given to steps for reducing the number of storage sites, the security arrangements at these sites, the procedures being used for disposing of surplus items, and the ultimate disposition of selected items that have no possibility for conversion to civilian uses.
  • Clarifying the regulatory basis for controlling technical data. For many years, balancing the need for national security restrictions on technical data exchanges with the scientific benefits from international technical cooperation has been a difficult issue. Now the situation is even more complex as electronic communications can result in rapid distribution of all types of data throughout the world. At the same time, the export control restrictions remain. A special effort to clarify the types of data that are and should remain controlled in the framework of the international regimes would be very helpful.

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