sion of the state of development of such systems in the region. Enforcement difficulties and the possibility of providing a new emphasis on controls at the source are underscored. A review of U.S. efforts and recommendations for refining the U.S. approach are presented.

In summary, the report concentrates on its two principal tasks: (a) to assess the effectiveness of current U.S. efforts to cooperate with Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakstan as they seek higher standards of security for direct-use nuclear material and to recommend possible new directions, and (b) to assess U.S. cooperative activities that address potential transfers from the four successor states of a wide range of other sensitive materials and technologies and to recommend additional steps to address this proliferation problem.

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