continued to produce weapons and dual-use items for the defense ministries, primarily in Russia; and many enterprises have greatly increased their efforts to sell such commodities abroad, with mixed success.2

At the same time, large stocks of weapons and other military equipment left over from Soviet times, as well as recently produced items, are now located in marshalling yards, warehouses, and other storage areas. The future disposition of many of these goods is uncertain. Dual-use items such as electronic control devices, specialty materials, advanced manufacturing equipment, and other commodities for supporting military activities are being stored in anticipation of possible future sales to recover some of their value.3

Eventual disposition of "surplus" items by governments or by enterprises through transfers to local organizations with uncertain security systems or to other countries that could use them in a provocative manner raises apprehensions in the West. At the same time, many of the goods have considerable value, both for military end users and for commercial organizations with capabilities to adapt dual-use equipment to civilian needs.

The implementation of arms control agreements and related activities are adding to stockpiles large quantities of particularly sensitive material and equipment, as well as large inventories of conventional weapons. The sensitive items include direct-use nuclear material, chemical agents, and components for missiles and nuclear weapons. However, these items are usually located in separate areas that are distant from stockpiles of less sensitive items.

Of special concern is the limited attention of the governments of the successor states to controlling technical data.4 Such data might describe in detail, for example, the technologies embodied in weapons of mass destruction and sophisticated conventional weapons systems. Such data are contained both in archives and in the expertise of the scientists and engineers who have been involved in developing, manufacturing, and maintaining the weapons and supporting systems.


See "Rosvooruzheniye Expects 1996 Arms Sales to Top $7 Billion" and "Russia Competes Again for Arms Trade," both in Moscow Times. March 28-April 3, 1996, for information on trends in Russian arms sales.


Discussions during the committee's visit to Russia in May 1996. In fall 1993, Gennadi Petrovich Voronin, deputy to the chairman of the Russian Federation Committee on Defense Industry, stated that Russia had a weapons stockpile ready for export worth $20 billion (G. Voronin, "How Russia's Defense Industry Responds to Military-Technical Policy," Comparative Strategy, vol. 13, no. 2, April 1994, p. 84). For additional information on this topic, see the interview with Nikolai Shumkov, head of the Main Department to Guarantee Supervision and Utilization of Armaments and Military Hardware of the State Committee for the Defense Industry, in Military Parade, Jan./Feb. 1995, pp. 94-96.


Discussions during the May 1996 committee visit indicated that, while materials and commodities were high export promotion and control concerns, technical data were treated as a much lower priority.

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