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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the project were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by the Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars, engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters.

The National Research Council (NRC) was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

The Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education (CSMEE) was established in 1995 to provide coordination of all the NRC's activities and reform efforts for all students at all levels, specifically kindergarten through twelfth grade, undergraduate, school-to-work programs, and continuing education. The Center reports directly to the Governing Board of the NRC.

The symposium in this report was supported by private funds from the National Academy of Sciences and funds from the National Science Foundation (NSF). It was jointly sponsored by CSMEE and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). Support and collaboration were provided by the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE), Association for the Education of Teachers of Science (AETS), Council of State Science Supervisors (CSSS), National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC), National Center for Improving Science Education (NCISE), National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), and National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

This report is available on-line at http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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