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. "3 Privacy and Security Concerns Regarding Electric Health Information." For the Record: Protecting Electronic Health Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1997.
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TABLE 3.2 Types of Threat to Health Information Held by Health Care Organizations and Possible Countermeasures
Organizational and simple technical mechanisms
Improper use of access privileges
Organizational and technical mechanisms such as authentication and auditing
Unauthorized use for spite or profit
Unauthorized physical intrusion
Physical security and technical mechanisms such as authentication and access controls
Technical mechanisms such as authentication, access controls, and cryptography