Click for next page ( 423


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 422
Ability in collaboration approach, 92-93, 131 and grouping in schools, 286, 321 cross-racial interactions in, 308 self-understanding of, 149, 156, 157, 159 Abstract concepts, in cognitive development, 75, 107, 108, 130, 401 emotional implications of, 107, 108 Academic achievement, 17, 290, 291-293, 402 and ability grouping in school, 286, 308, 321 and behavior problems, 389-390 in bilingualism, 313-316 and control beliefs, 293-294, 295, 302, 303 cultural variations in, 284, 296, 413 and effects of desegregation, 311-312 ecological studies of, 287-288 expectations for, 229, 294 gender differences in, 297 parental, 284, 298, 414 of teachers, 288-289 in grade 12, compared to middle childhood, 407 instructional approaches affecting, 292, 316 321 and intelligence measurements, 292 parental influence on, 187, 284, 289, 297 307, 414 in maternal employment, 220 preschool experiences affecting, 291-292 in reading, 292, 296 and self~concept, 149, 157, 159, 400, 403 self-esteem in, 149, 171, 291, 293-295 socioeconomic variables in, 289, 294, 296, 298, 402, 413, 414, teacher characteristics affecting, 287, 288-289, 304, 320 Achievement motivation, 118, 157, 402 in classroom, 294 cultural studies on, 303, 304-306, 319 and maternal employment, 220 Acquaintances, interactions with, in friendship formation, 248-250 Adoption of children, 346, 360 of black children by white families, 303 Adrenal hormones, behavioral influences of, 28- 29, 30 Adrenogenital syndrome, 29 Adult status, childhood predictors of, 400 Aerobic exercises, 42-43, 44 Affective relationships parent-child, 188-190, 201-202, 205, 208 ecocultural patterns in, 357-358 and peer relations of child, 263 in school curriculum, 267-268 between siblings, 225-226 INDEX 422 Affiliation motivation, 157 African tribal cultures, comparison of, 341 Age and racial attitudes, 309 of social contacts, 247, 257-258 Aggressive behavior, 21, 200, 203-204, 384 hormonal influences on, 28-29 in peer interactions, 242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 261-262, 268 Alcohol consumption, 47, 48 Alienation from peers, 261, 268-269, 400 Altruism, in peer interactions, 243-244 Amplification, in literate practices, 121, 122 123, 132 Androgen secretion behavioral influences of, 28, 29 prepubertal, 28 Anemia, iron deficiency, 46 Anger, between parents and children, 189-190 Antisocial behavior, 203-204, 211, 212 parental influence on, 265 in maternal employment, 221 and peer interactions, 253, 261-262, 265 and sibling relationships, 226 Anxiety. See Stress and anxiety Assertiveness, social parent-child interactions affecting, 206 in peer interactions, 242, 262 Assessment of cognitive development, 77-79, 91, 92-93, 96-103 environmental influences on, 91, 92, 105, 106, 125-127 Atherosclerosis, 42, 43 Athletic activities, 43-44. See also Sports active . . Itles Attachment, parent-child, 189, 190 and peer relations of child, 263 and stress in separation or bereavement, 197 Attention deficit disorders, 372-376, 378. See also Hyperactivity Attraction, social, 245-247 Authority patterns. See Regulation of behavior Autism infantile, 376, 393 serotonin levels in, 31 Automatization, in continuous change model of cognitive development, 82 Behavior aggressive. See Aggressive behavior antisocial. See Antisocial behavior categorization of integration of, 93-94 problems in, 94-95

OCR for page 422
index cognitive development affecting, 72, 75, 78. 81, 94 delinquent. See Delinquent behavior hormonal influences on, 28-30 impulsive, 152, 161, 194-195, 203 in later life, compared to childhood. 40Q neurotransmitters affecting, 30-33 peer relationships affecting, 21-22 physical changes affecting, 20 regulation of, 149-151. See also Regulation of behavior Behavior modification, 378-379 in self-regulation, 164-165 in smoking prevention program, 48 Behavior problems, 3, 370-397, 399, 400, 407- 408, 418 adult outcomes of, 407 childhood predictors of, 400 behavior assessment in study and treatment of, 378-379, 393 and caretaking system, 360, 374 in chronic illness, 49 compared to adaptive coping behaviors, 390 cultural studies on, 358-361, 408 developmental perspective of, 385-387, 392 DSM categories of, 380, 382 future areas for research on, 384-393, 409 gender differences in, 384-385, 388 high-risk children for, 377-378, 379, 390- 391, 393 in hyperactivity and attention deficit, 31-32, 372-376, 383, 389, 393 life-span approach to, 386 normative-epidemiological research on, 387- 389, 390, 407, 408 parent-child interactions affecting, 203-204 and peer relationships, 260-261 prevention and intervention in, 371, 391- 392, 393 cultural studies on, 358-359 in school, 389-390 self-correcting, without intervention, 371, 393 socioeconomic variations in, 388, 391-392 taxonomy of, 379-385, 393 multivariate-descriptive approach to, 381- 382, 383-384, 393, 407, 408 nosological approach to, 380, 381, 382- 383, 384, 393 training for research on, 392-393 Bereavement, 197 Bilingualism, 312-316 Biobehavioral research, on vulnerability to ill- ness, 54-55 Biomedical model of health and illness, 35-36 Biopsychosocial approach to health and illness, 36-37 Birth order in family, 172, 173 423 and affectional relationship with parents, 189 Black families, 6, 8-13, 213, 214 academic achievement in, after desegrega- tion, 311-312 achievement motivation in, 303, 306 adoption of children of, by white families, 303 classroom experiences of children in, 296, 304 education of, 16-17 employment and income of, 13-15, 16 geographic distribution of, 7, 8 home environment of, 7, 8 reamed helplessness of, 304 out-of-school activities of, 19 parent-child interactions in, 214-215 population of, 6 self-concept of children in, 154, 172 after school desegregation, 309-311 single-parent, 216 television viewing by, 19 vulnerability of illness in, 55 Bones age of, and skeletal maturity, 25 sports injuries of, 44 Brain and behavior relations, 20, 27-33, 95, 112 hormonal influences in, 28-30 neurotransmitters in, 30-33 development of and cognitive functioning, 95, 110-112, 131 electroencephalography in assessment of, 111, 112 head circumference measurements of, 95, 111, 112 lateralization in, 111, minimal damage of, behavior disorders in, 372- 376, 383 Caloric intake, 45 in obesity, 46, 47 Cardiovascular benefits of exercise, 42, 43 Caretaking system, 185, 186-223, 231-232, 337 adoption of children in, 303, 346, 360 in behavior problems, 360 and hyperactivity, 374 cultural studies on, 209, 213-216, 337, 339, 340, 343-351, 357-358, 360 expectations of compliance in, 360 father in, 224-225, 349-350, 416 fostering in, 346, 360 in maternal employment, 220-223, 348-349 parent-child interactions in. See Parent-child interactions and peer relationships, 263-266 polymatric, 346 relatives in, 346

OCR for page 422
424 and self-regulation by child, 161-162 cultural studies on, 357-358 shared responsibilities in, 345 siblings in, 337, 343-344, 345_349 socioeconomic differences in, 207-213, 231 undercontrol of child in, 203-204 Catecholamine secretion, in stress, 30 Child rearing practices. See Caretaking system Cholesterol, in diet, 44-45 Chores, household, child responsibility for, 344 Chronic illness, 23, 48-52 child's view of, 53-54, 110 cultural studies on, 51-52 family impact of, 50-51 health beliefs in, 40, 41 models of normative development in, 51-52 prevalence of, 49 Cigarette smoking, 47-48. See also Smoking Classrooms. See Schools Cognitive development, 1, 20, 70-146, 398, 399, 401-403 abstract concepts in, 75, 107, 108, 130, 401 assessment of, 96-103 classification issues in, 77-79 in collaboration approach, 91, 92-93 on developmental sequences, 97-101 environmental influences on, 91, 92, 105, 106, 125-127 and literate practices, 125- 127 rule-assessment method in, lOl-103 scaling methods in, 97-101, 103, 411 on speed of development, 100-101 automatization in, 82 in bilingualism, 312-313 and brain changes, 95, 110-112, 131 caretaking system affecting, 347 collaboration approach to, 86-93, 95, 96, 113, 119, 131 concrete operations stage in, 74, 78, 80, 85, 107, 130 continuous change model of, 81-82, 129-130 in embedded teaching, 117, 118 emotional, 93, 94-95, 104-110, 131, 418 environmental influences on, 20-21, 76, 83 96,,31 executive processes in, 196-197, 401 formal operations stage in, 74-75, 80, 85, 107-108, 130 Freudian processes in, 107, 108-109, 131 future areas for research on, 103-129, 409 guided reinvention theory of, 113-116, 117, 118, 119, 132 and health beliefs of children, 38-39 hormonal influences on, 29 individual differences in, 73, 76-79 information processing model of, 80-81 integration of theories on, 83, 93-94 Index involving relations of representations, 73-74, 107, 130 and language development, 115- 116 levels of, 72-76 and literate pract ices, 119- 129, 132 logic model of, 80, 82-83, 130 memory in, 80-81, 82-83, 130 methodological problems in research on, 96 and moral behavior, 91, 94, 95 nativist model of, 84, 85, 86 and parent-child interactions, 114-115, 116, 193-194, 196-197, 206 maternal influence on, 300 mutual cognitions affecting, 198-201 and peer interactions, 244-245 perspective-taking in, 73, 74, 81 Piaget on, 4, 70, 73-75, 76, 85-86 preformed elements in, 84-85 and problem-solving skills, 401, 402 processes in, 79-83, 130 production systems theory of, 82, 102, 130 reorganizations in, 72-76, 130, 131 emotional, 106-108, 131 role-related, 73, 74, 89-91, 107, 193, 402 and school attendance, 84, 117- 118, 283 cultural studies on, 361-362 end serf-concept, 158-160, 162-165, 174, 175 sequences of, 97-101, 130 social, 112-129. See also Social cognition stages of, 71-73, 76, 80, 129-130 steps in, 73 structural and functional approaches to, 70 71, 83 systems theory on, 86 universal aspects of, 73, 76-79 Collaboration approach to cognitive develop- ment,86-93,95,96, 113, 119, 131 ability and competence concepts in, 91, 92- 93, 131 problem-solving in, 87 Communication and language development, 115-116. See also Language development literate practices in, 119- 129. See also Literate practices nonverbal, in peer interactions, 244, 245 parent-child, 202 Comparisons, social by black children, 303 emotional implications of, 107 and self-concept, 157, 175, 403 Competence, 118, 291 in cognitive abilities, 206 in collaboration approach, 91, 92-93, 131 and coping behavior, 390-391 cultural studies on, 305-307 environmental factors affecting measurement

OCR for page 422
Index of, 91, 92 parent-child interactions affecting develop- ment of, 206-207 in second-language reaming and bilingualism, 313, 314 serf-understanding of, 149, 156, 157, 169-170 and academic achievement, 294, 295, 404 social, 206 and parent-child interactions, 193-194 Competition, in peer interactions, 244, 273 classroom conditions affecting, 268 in crowding, 255 between friends, 251 in sports, 44 Concrete operations stage of cognitive devel' opment, 74, 78, 80, 85, 107, 130 emotional changes in, 107 Conservation tasks in cognitive development, 72, 73, 78, 80, 82, 94 analysis of, 9~99 Continuous change model of cognitive devel- opment, 81-82, 129-130 Control of behavior. See Regulation of behavior Cooperation, 21, 403 in parent-child interactions, 191-192, 196- 197, 231, 403, 405 in peer interactions, 244, 246, 266, 268, 273 gender differences in, 258 in schools, 266, 268, 308, 318-320 Coping behavior, 390-391, 418 Coregulation of behavior, parent-child, 191-192, 196-197, 231, 403, 405 cultural studies on, 343, 345, 351, 352, 354 Corticosteroid secretion, in stress, 30 Cross-cultural studies. See Cultural studies Crowding, peer interactions in, 255 Cruel behavior syndrome, 384-385 Cultural studies, 1, 2, 5-6, 22, 335-369, 412 on achievement values, 303, 304-306, 319 on adult expectations of children, 360, 413 on African tribes, 341 on behavior problems, 358-361, 408 on black families. See Black families on caretaking system, 209, 213-216, 229, 337, 339, 340, 343-351, 357-358, 360 on child's view of environment, 414-415 complexity of features in, 337-338 on eating patterns, 45 ecocultural niche concept in, 335-336, 412 on employment and family income, 13-15 future areas of, 398 on geographic distribution of population groups, 7, 8 on handicapped children, 51-52 on health behaviors, 34-35, 53 on Hispanic families. See Hispanic families on home environment, 8-13, 338-339 compared to school environment, 305-307 425 on literate practices, 120-121, 122, 126, 127, 361-362 methodological issues in, 229, 362-363 on out-of-school activities, 19 on peer interactions, 243, 347-348 on regulation of behavior, 150- 151, 343-345, 351, 352, 354, 357-358, 405 on schools, 6-7, 16-17, 22, 283-284, 304 316, 361-362 and academic achievement, 284, 296, 311 312, 413 and cooperative reaming program, 319-320 after desegregation, 307-312 and second-language reaming, 312-316 and teacher-student interactions, 296, 304, 320 on self-concept, 154, 171-172, 351-358, 403, 405 on single-parent families, 216, 220 on television viewing, 19 on vulnerability of certain populations, 364 on Westem and non-Westem societies, 342 Dating, 222 Defense mechanisms, 109 Delinquent behavior, 203-204, 211, 212 impact of schools on, 390 and maternal employment, 221, 222 peer interactions, 261 prevention and intervention in, 391 and single-parent families, 218 Demographic analysis of middle childhood, 5- 19, 336, 357, 412 Depression in childhood, 383 cultural studies on, 355 Desegregation of schools, 307-312 peer relationships in, 308-309 racial attitudes in, 308-309 self-concept in, 309-311 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dis- orders (DSM), 380, 382 Diet cultural studies on, 338 and eating pattems, 44-47 and hyperactivity, 32, 374, 375 in obesity, 46-47 television affecting, 45-46 Discipline techniques, 189-192. See also Regu- lation of behavior Disease, definition of, 34. See also Health and illness Disembedded teaching, 117, 118, 128 Divorce of parents, 11, 12, 96, 109-110 emotional consequences for children, 109-110, 131, 217 and peer relations of children, 264

OCR for page 422
426 and single parent families, 216-220 Dominance interactions in groups, 254 Drug abuse, 47, 48 and friendship selection, 248, 253 peer influence on, 270 Drug therapy age-related changes in responsiveness to, 31 in hyperactivity, 31-32, 374, 375 Eating patterns, 44-47. See also Diet Ecocultural niche, 335-369. See also Cultural studies Ecology of peer interactions, 225 of schools, 287-288, 322 Economic status. See Socioeconomic status Education. See also Schools of parents, and child-rearing practices, 209, 210, 211, 212 Ego control theories, 160- 162 Electroencephalography in assessment of brain growth and cognitive development, 111, 112 in attention deficit disorders and reaming dis- abilities, 32 Embedded teaching, 116-117, 119 end disembedded leaching, 117, 118, 128 Emotional functioning, 418-419 and cognitive development, 93, 94-95, 104- 110, 131, 418 divorce affecting, 109- 110, 131, 217 family relations affecting, 109-110 Freudian processes in, 107, 108-109, 131 self-understanding of, 104-106, 131, 156, 175 Empathy Training Project, 267, 268 Employment and child-rearing practices, 209, 348-349 division of labor in, by age and sex, 336 and family income, 13-15, 16 of mothers, 220-223, 348-349 and stress of unemployment, 227, 264 and subsistence work cycle, 336, 337, 341 Environmental influences, 7- 15, 22, 411-415 on assessment of cognitive development, 91, 92, 105, 106, 125-127 child's view of, 414-415 on cognitive development, 20-21, 76, 83- 96, 131 cultural studies of. See Cultural studies family in, 8-15. See also Family environment on health beliefs of children, 39 on physical maturation, 25, 26 on self-concept, 403 on social role knowledge, 89-91 supporting developmental change, 415 on vulnerability tO illness, 55-56, 364 Index Epidemiological research on behavior problems, 387-389, 390, 407, 408 Epinephrine secretion behavioral influences of, 31 in stress, 30, 31 Ethnic studies. See Cultural studies Executive processes, cognitive, 196-197, 401 Exercise benefits of, 42-44 in obesity, 46-47 risks of, 44 Expectations for academic achievement, 229, 294. See also Academic achievement, expectations for and development of self-concept, 150, 151, 152 in parent-child interactions, 199, 200 cultural patterns in, 360, 413-414 Family environment, 1, 8-15, 21, 184-239, 406, 415-416, 417 and academic achievement, 297-304 and achievement motivation, 303 authority patterns in, compared to school, 302 birth order in, 172, 173, 189 child care in. See Caretaking system chronic illness affecting, 50-51 cultural studies on, 213-216, 229 divorce affecting, 109- 110 and eating patterns, 45-46 emotional climate of, 109- 110 fathers in, 224-225, 349-350, 416 maternal employment affecting, 22~223, 348 methodological issues in research on, 227- 231 nuclear, 8 Oedipus conflict in, 107, 109 parent-child interactions in. See Parent-child Interactions and peer interactions, 263-266, 273 and self-concept of child, 161-162, 172-173, 175, 416 siblings in, 8-10. See also Siblings single-parent, 11, 12, 13, 214, 216-220 in socialization, 184, 185, 186- 192, 231, 398 socioeconomic status affecting, 13-15, 16. See also Socioeconomic status stress in, 56. See also Stress, in families Fathers, roles of, 224-225, 349-350, 416 Financial status. See Socioeconomic status Food. See Diet Formal operations stage of cognitive develop- ment, 74-75, 80, 85, 107-108, 130, 410 emotional changes in, 107-108 Foster care of children, cultural studies on, 346, 360

OCR for page 422
Index Freud, Sigmund, 4 on self-management, 160 on socialization, 149 Freudian processes, 107, 108- 109, 131 Friends, 250-252, 273 and acquaintances, 248-250 average number of, 250 and cliques, 246, 250, 266 competition between, 251 future areas for research on, 251-252 reciprocity expectations among, 250-251 role relations between, 107 selection of, 247-248, 406 classroom conditions affecting, 266-267 cultural studies on, 347-348 and self-concept, 151, 152 Gender differences, 20 in academic achievement expectations, 297 in behavior problems, 384-385, 388 in peer interactions, 258 in physical maturation, 25, 26 in racial attitudes, 309 in role learning, 21, 206, 337 in self-concept, 154-155 in social contacts, 247-248, 258-259, 262 in spatial reasoning tests, 29 in teacher-student interactions, 296-297 Genetic factors, in physical maturation, 25 Gc~al-directed activities in classrooms, 118 guided reinvention in, 115- 116, 117, 118 Groups, 252-254 entry into, 256 formation of, 252 gender of membership in, 258 leaders of, 254 norms governing, 252-253 observational studies of, 254 structure of, 253-254 Guided reinvention theory, 113-116, 117, 118, 119, 132 Guilt feelings, 107 Gusii society, self-regulation of behavior in, 357 Handicapped children, 49 families of, 50-51 mainstreaming of, 260, 285 Hawaii, early education program in, 306-307 Head circumference measurements, and cogni- tive development, 95, 111, 112 Health and illness, 22-23, 24-25, 35-57, 398 biomedical model of, 35-36 biopsychosocial approach to, 36-37 children's concepts of, 37-41, 53-54, 110 and chronic illness, 4~52 in community, 336, 337 427 cultural studies on concept of, 34-35, 53 definitions of, 33-34 and eating patterns, 44-47 education programs on, 56-576 future areas of research on, 52-57 and life-style pattems, 41-52 peer influence on, 253, 270 and physical exercise, 42-44 and self-concept, 41-52 self-regulation of, 404 smoking, alcohol, and drugs affecting, 47-48 stress response to illness, 364 individual variations in, 54-56 self-induced, 47-48 Helpfulness, learned, 360 Helplessness, learned, by black children, 304 High-risk children, for behavior problems, 377- 378, 379, 390-391, 393 Hispanic families, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 213, 214 in desecrated schools, 309, 310 employment and income of, 13, 14, 15, 16 parent-child interactions in, 214, 215 self-concept in, 154, 309, 310 Home environment, 7, 8 and academic achievement, 296, 298-300, 305-307 and achievement values, 304, 305 child care in, 343-351. See also Caretaking system in ecocultural niche, 338-339 family interactions in. See Family environ ment compared to school environment, 286, 296, 305-307, 417 and types of dwellings,.7, 9 Homework and studying, time spent in, 19 Hormonal influences, 20, 28-30 on aggressive behavior, 28-29 on cognitive development, 29 on stress response, 30, 31 Hospitalized children, health-related behavior of, 40 Hyperactivity, 195, 372-276, 383, 389, 393 diagnostic criteria in, 373-374 diet in, 32, 374, 375 drug therapy in, 31-32, 374, 375 etiology of, 374-375 neurochemical basis of, 31-32 parent-child interactions in, 199 research studies on, 386-387 Hypogonadism, 29 Identity. See Self-concept Illness. See Health and illness Imitation, in cognitive development, 114-115 Impulsive behavior, 161 parental regulation of, 194-195, 203

OCR for page 422
428 self regulation of, 152 Income of family, 13-15, 16. See also Socioeco- nomic status Individuation and individualism, 403 cultural studies on, 352-354, 356 Information processing and cognitive development, 80-81 and self concept, 158-160 Input-output analysis of schools, 285-286 Instructional methods in schools, 316-321, 322 Integration of schools, 307-312 Intelligence measurements, and achievement, 292 Intervention in child psychopathology, 391-392 cultural variations in, 358-359 Iron deficiency anemia, 46 Isolation, social, 261, 400 social skills training in, 268-269 Kamehameha Early Education Program, 306-307 !Kung families father-child interactions in, 350 public character of life in, 355 Labeling, in parent-child interactions, 198-200 Labor force participation, 13-15, 16. See also Employment Language development, 115-116 guided reinvention approach to, 115-116 literate practices in. See Literate practices maternal influence on, 300 and peer interactions, 244, 273 and second-language learning, 312-316 and self-descriptions, 155 Latchkey children, 222 Lead, and attention-deficit disorders, 32 Learning, 402 and academic achievement, 291-293 See also Academic achievement brain growth measurements related to, 111 indisembedded leaching, 117, 118, 128 in embedded teaching, 116-117, 118 of helpfulness, 360 of helplessness, 304 of roles. See Role learning problems in, 383, 389, 407-408 DSM categories of, 383 neurophysiological mechanisms in, 31-33 testing situations in, 91 and self-concept, 149, 157 social, 112-114. See also Social cognition Life-style, 22, 24, 41-52 in chronic impairment, 48-52 eating patterns in, 44-47 exercise in, 42-44 Index privacy in, 354-357, 358 and self-induced vulnerability to disease, 47 Literate practices, 19, 119-129, 132, 292, 296 aliterate conditions, compared to, 123- 125 amplification in, 121, 122-123, 132 cognitive effects of, 120-122 assessment of, 125-127 cultural studies on, 120-121, 122, 126, 127, 361-362 definitions of, 120-122 and home environment, 299, 300, 301, 306 nonlocal integration in, 121, 123-124, 126 parental influence on, 300, 301 range of, 120, 121, 122-125 readiness for, 292 representational system in, 121-122, 12~125, 126, 132 and school attendance, 122, 283, 284, 286 and second-language learning, 312-316 systemic analysis in, 121, 124-125, 126, 132 Logic model of cognitive development, 80, 82- 83, 130 Malnutrition, 46 Marijuana use, 48 Marital status of parents, 10-13 divorced. See Divorce of parents and single-parent families, 11, 12, 13, 214, 216-220 Mastery learning techniques, 292, 293 MBD (minimal brain damage), 372-376, 383 Memory capacity of, 73, 74, 196 in cognitive development, 8~81, 82-83, 130 short-term, 80, 81, 83 Menarche, 26 physical activity affecting, 44 Mental health problems, 370-397 Methodological problems in research, 410-411 on cognitive development, 96 on ecocultural niche, 362-363 on families, 227-231 on peer interactions, 271-272 on self-concept, 173-174 Minority group studies. See Cultural studies Modeling in peer interactions, 261 by school personnel, 297 and self-regulation by child, 163 in social learning, 114, 268 Moral development assessment of, 100 and cognitive development, 91, 94, 95 and parent-child interactions, 205 and peer interactions, 262-263, 267 in school curriculum, 267

OCR for page 422
Index and self regulation, 152, 161 Motivation for achievement. See Achievement motiva- tion for affiliation, 157 kIultivariate-descriptive approach to behavior disorders, 381-382, 383-384, 393, 407 Nativist theory of cognitive development, 84, 85, 86 Neurobiology, developmental, 27-33 Neuromaturation, 27-33 Neuromodulation, 27-28, 32, 35 Neuropsychology, 32, 33 Neurotransmission, 20, 27-28, 30-33, 35 Nonlocal integration in literate practices, 121, 123-124, 126 Nonverbal communication, in peer interac- tions, 244, 245 Norm(s), 21 in peer interactions conformity to, 265 among friends, 250-251 in groups, 252-253 in school, 270-271 in social tasks, 256 of school, compared to home environment, 296 and self-concept development, 150, 151, 152 Normative-epidemiological research on behav- ior problems, 387-389, 390, 407, 408 Nosological approach to behavior disorders, 380, 381, 382-383, 384, 393 Nutrition. See Diet Obesity, 46-47 cultural studies on, 34-35 definition of, 46 disorders associated with, 46 and relationship between childhood and adult weight, 47 Objective self, 155 Occupation. See Employment Oedipus conflict, 107, 109 Ojibwa Indians, self-concept of, 353 Open education, 266-267, 316-318 Parent-child interactions, 21, 184-239 and academic achievement, 187, 284, 289, 297-307, 414 and achievement motivation, 220, 303 affection in, 188- 190, 205 variations in, 201-202, 208 amount of time spent in, 186 anger in, 189-190 429 and antisocial behavior in child, 203-204, 211, 212 attachment in, 189, 190, 197, 263 in autism, 376 for behavior control, 185, 186-201, 231, 405, 406 and cognitive development, 114-115, 116, 193-194, 196-201, 206, 300 collaboration in, 87, 88 and competencies in child, 206-207 education of parents affecting, 209-212 embedded teaching in, 117 expectations affecting, 199, 200, 413-414 fathers in, 224-225, 337, 347-350 health-related, 39-40, 53 and language development, 116, 300 life-cycle changes affecting, 300 maternal employment affecting, 220-223, 348 349 methodological issues in research on, 227 231 and moral development in child, 205 mutual cognitions in, 198-201 observational studies on, 230 openness of communication in, 202 and out-of-school activities, 417 parent centered, 203 and peer relationships of child, 263-266, 273 and prosocial behavior in child, 205-206 role transmission in, 193, 209 scaffolding in, 87, 88 and self-concept of child, 172, 194, 204-205 and sibling relationships, 226, 227 in single-parent families, 216-220 socioeconomic differences in, 13-15, 16, 207 213, 231 stereotyping and labeling in, 198-199, 200 stress affecting, 210, 217, 219, 227 Peer interactions, 3, 21-22, 240-282, 398, 40 407, 416, 417 acquaintances in, 248-250 activities in, 242-243, 255 age of contacts in, 247, 257-258 aggression in, 242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 261- 262, 268 competition in, 244, 251, 255, 268, 273 cooperation in, 244, 246, 258, 266, 268, 273 and coping behavior, 390 cultural studies on, 243, 347-348 and family environment, 263-266, 273 friends in, 247-248, 250-252, 273, 406 gender differences in, 258 in groups, 252-254, 256 maternal employment affecting, 222 methodological issues in research on, 271-272 and moral development, 262-263, 267 mutual cognitions affecting, 200

OCR for page 422
430 norms governing. See Norm(s), in peer in teractions observational studies of, 271-272 poor, 400 and maladjustment in later life, 260-261, 406-407 social skills training in, 268-269 prosocial behavior in, 242, 243-244, 261, 265, 268 race of contacts in, 248, 259-260, 268 in desegregated schools, 308-309 racial attitudes and behaviors in, 308-309 romantic involvement in, 259, 262 in school, 242, 247, 254, 259, 260, 26~271 in tutoring peers, 268, 269-270 and self-concept, 151, 152, 156, 159, 166, 261 self-regulation of behavior in, 404, 406 settings of, 254-255 sex of contacts in, 247-248, 258-259, 262 situationalcomponents of, 240-241, 254-260 smoking in, 48, 253, 270 social attraction in, 245-247 social context of, 240, 241-254 social skills acquired in, 194 in social tasks and problems, 255-257 socialization in, 240, 271 stress in, 56, 406 teasing in, 256 time spent in, 242 Perspective-taking, in cognitive development, 73, 74, 81 Physical development, 2, 20, 25-27, 416 attractive appearance in, associated with so- cial attractiveness, 245, 246 brain changes in, and cognitive development, 110-112, 131 in chronic illness, 48-52 eating patterns affecting, 44-47 exercise affecting, 42-44 future areas of research on, 52-57 and health issues, 33-57 necrologic, 27-33 reproductive maturation in, 25-26 and self-image, 41-52, 53, 154, 155, 156 skeletal maturation in, 25 smoking, alcohol and drugs affecting, 47-48 Physical education programs, in schools, 43-44 Physician-child patient relationship, in chronic illness, 54 Piaget theories on cognitive development, 4, 70, 73-75, 76, 85-86 Play activities and cognitive development, 72 composition of play group in, 337, 346 parent-child interactions conceming, 187 in peer interactions, 242, 243, 255 physical exercise in, 42-44 Index self-regulation in, 165-166 sports in. See Sports activities Polymatric caretaking system, 346 Popular children, characteristics of, 245-247 Population of children geographic distribution of, 7, 8 number of, 6-7 Power-assertive methods ofdiscipline, 192, 195, 205, 206-207 Preformist approach to cognitive development, 84-85 Prevention of child psychopathology, 391-392 Private self, 354-357 Problem-solving, 399, 401, 402 collaborative cycle in, 87 development of skill in, 196 rule assessment of, 102 Production systems theory of cognitive devel- opment, 82, 102, 130 Prosocial behavior and caretaking patterns, 347, 351 and learned helpfulness, 360 and parent-child interactions, 205-206, 265 in peer interactions, 242, 243-244, 261, 265, 268 and sibling relationships, 226 Psychoanalytic approach to emotional devel- opment, 108-109 Psychological aspects, 4, 23 in biopsychosocial approach to illness, 36-37 in emotional functioning. See Emotional functioning in health-related beliefs of children, 36-37, 38, 49, 50 in neuropsychological assessment techniques, 32, 33 in obesity, 46, 47 pathological deviations in, 370~397. See also Behavior problems research on, 398 Psychopathology, 370-397. See also Behavior problems Psychopharmacotherapy, age-related changes in responsiveness to, 31 Puberty, 20 onset of, 25-26 physical changes in, 416 Public self, 354-357, 358 Punishment, in discipline, 188, 190, 231 cultural studies on, 215, 357-358 and self-esteem, 205 and self-regulation by child, 162-163 verbal rationale with, 163 Race of social contacts, 248, 259-260, 268 and cross-race friendship selections, 248 after school desegregation, 307-312

OCR for page 422
Index 431 Racial studies. See Cultural studies on tasks of middle childhood, 399-409 Reading. See Literate practices theoretical views in, 3-5 Reciprocity norms, in friendship, 250-251 Responsibility for behavior, assumption of. See Recreation activities. See Play activities Self-regulation of behavior. Regulation of behavior, 2, 185, 188, 189-192, Rewards, in self-regulation of behavior, 164 Role reaming, 402 in cognitive development. 73. 74. 89-91. 107. 201, 205, 406 and academic achievement, 205, 293-294, 302, 303-304 and competencies in children, 206-207 cultural patterns of, 150- 151, 215, 340, 343 345, 351, 352, 354, 357-358, 405 for face-to-face control, 192, 231 for impulsive behavior, 161, 194-195, 203 matemal employment affecting, 221-222 for out-of-sight control, 192, 231 parent-child coregulation of, 191-192, 19 197, 231 power-assertive methods in, 192, 195, 205, 206-207 reasoning and explanation in, 163, 192, 202 school in, 302, 303, 405, 417 and self-concepts of child, 194, 204-205 self-system in, 147- 183. See also Self~regula tion of behavior in single-parent families, 218 social cognition affecting, 193, 196 socioeconomic differences in, 207-213 strictness of, 202 and undercontrol of behavior, 203-204 Reinforcement of behavior parents in, 185 in peer interactions, 261 Rejection, social, 261, 268-269, 400 Reorganizations, in cognitive development, 72- 76, 130, 131 emotional, 106-108, 131 Representation(s), relations of, in cognitive de- velopment, 73-74, 107, 130 Representational system, in literate practices, 121-122, 124, 125, 126, 132 Reproductive maturation, 25-26 Reputation, social, and social attractiveness, 245, 246 Research, 398-421 on cognitive development, 96, 103- 129 on emotions, 109-110 future areas for, 23 health-related, 52-57 methodological problems in, 410-411. See also Methodological problems in research neurobiological, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32-33 on peer interactions, 271-272 on psychopathology, 380393 training for, 392-393 on schools, 321 problems in, 290-291 on self-concept, 173-174 - 193, 402 emotional consequences of, 107 environmental influences on, 89-91 gender differences in, 21, 206, 337 and health-related beliefs, 38 in parent-child interactions, 193, 209 peer relationships in, 21 in pretend play, 72 school experiences in, 22, 295-297 and self-concept development, 151, 158 Rule assessment of cognitive development, 101 - 103 Scaffolding surrounding children, 336, 339 in parent-child interactions, 87, 88 Scaling of cognitive development, 97-101, 103, 411 Schemas, of self, 158-159 Schizophrenia, 260, 376 high-risk children for, 377-378, 390 Schools, 1-2, 3, 15-17, 22, 283-334, 402 ability grouping in, 286, 308, 321 academic achievement in, 17, 291-293. See also Academic achievement affective education in, 267-268 behavior problems in, 389-390 behavior regulation in, 302, 303, 405, 417 caretaking system affecting experiences in, 347 class size in, 288 and cognitive development, 84, 117-118, 283, 361-362 cooperative environment in, 266, 268, 308, 318-320 cultural studies on. See Cultural studies, on schools desegregation of, 307-312 early intervention programs in, 318 ecological studies on, 287-288, 322 environment of, 285-289 functions of, 283 health education in, 56-57 home environment compared to, 286, 296, 305-307, 417 hyperactive children in, 372, 373, 389 input-output analysis of, 285-286 instructional approaches in, 316-321, 322 reaming difficulty in, 407-408 literate practices in, 119-129, 132 mainstreaming of handicapped children in, 260, 285

OCR for page 422
432 mastery reaming technique in, 292, 293, 320. moral education in, 267 norms governing behavior in, 270-271 open and traditional classrooms in, 266-267, 316-318 parent-child interactions conceming, 187 parental involvement in, 301-302 peer interactions in, 242, 247, 254, 259, 260, 266-271 physical education and exercise activities in, 43-44 physical maturation affecting performance in, 26-27 private, number enrolled in, 16-17 productivity studies on, 290 public, number enrolled in, 15 racial and ethnic composition of, 259-260, 268, 304-316 problems in research on, 290-291 role reaming in, 22, 295-297 second-language reaming and bilingualism in, 312-316 social interactions in, 117- 118 social skills training in, 268-269 social system variables in, 286-287, 416, 417 socialization in, 284, 296 socioeconomic influences on experiences in, 322 stress.in, 56, 295 teacher-student interactions in. See Teacher student interactions tutoring in, 292, 293 by peers, 268, 269-270 Scoliosis, 35 Second-language reaming, 312-316 Seizure disorders, 34 Self-concept, 147-183, 403-405, 418 and academic achievement, 149, 157, 159, 293-295, 400, 403-404 and achievement motivation, 157 active self in, 156 and affiliation motivation, 157 behavior modification theories on, 163-165 biases in, 159- 160 child's description of, 153-156, 358, 403 and cognitive development, 158-160, 162 165, 174, 175, 418 component models of, 165-166 cultural studies on, 154, 171-172, 351-358, 403, 405 ego control theories on, 16~162 emotions in, 175 expectations of others affecting, 151, 152 family environment effecting, 161-162, 172 173, 175, 416 formation of, 21 universal problems in, 353-354 Index variables influencing, 168-173 individuation and individualism in, 352-354, 356, 403 inferiority feelings in, 149, 158 and information processing, 158- 160 integration of theories on, 166-168 multiple views in, 152 objective self in, 155 parent-child interactions affecting, 172, 194, 204-205 and peer interactions, 151, 152, 156, 159, 166, 261 perceptions of others affecting, 149 physical development and health affecting, 41-52, 53, 154, 155, 156 physical self in, 156 potential ideal self in, 157 private and public selves in, 354-357, 358 psychological self in, 156 research on future areas for, 409 methodological issues in, 173- 174 school desegregation affecting, 309-311 self-awareness in, 168-169 self-confidence in, 157 and self-criticism, 158, 175 self-esteem in, 149, 156-157, 158. See also Self-esteem and self-presentation, 169-170 self-regulation as function of, 147, 160-168. See also Self-regulation of behavior self-schemes in, 158-159 self-understanding in, 147, 174, 175. See also Self-understanding social class affecting, 170-171, 175 social comparisons affecting, 157, 175 social reaming theories on, 162-163 as social object, 148-149, 169 and social roles, achieved and ascribed, 158 social self in, 156 social system influencing, 174, 175 sports programs affecting, 44 subjective self in, 155 tasks related to, 151-153 Self-confidence, 157 Self-consciousness, 169 Self-contemplation, cultural studies on, 355-356 Self criticism, 158, 175 Self-descriptions, 153-156, 158, 358, 403 Self-esteem, 156-157, 158, 404 and academic achievement, 149, 171, 291, 293-295 assessment of, 95 in chronic illness, 49, 51 cultural studies on, 172, 356, 357, 358 after desegregation, 307, 309-311 internalized standards affecting, 152

OCR for page 422
Index parent-child interactions affecting, 204-205 and popularity, 246 socioeconomic influences on, 171, 175 teacher behaviors affecting, 295 Self-expression, ecocultural patterns in, 355-356, 357 Self~managed sequencing of activity, 344 Self presentation enhancing impression, 169 as handicapping behavior, 169-170 Self-regulation of behavior, 21, 22, 147-183, 399, 403, 404-408 and academic achievement, 295, 302, 303- 304 adult-based theories on, 167 cognitive/behavior modification theories on, 163-165 commitment or choice in, 167 component models of, 165-166 cultural studies on, 340, 343-345, 351, 352, 357-358, 405 ego control theories on, 160-162 habit reorganization in, 167 health-related, 41 impulse control strategies in, 152 integration of theories on, 166-168 modeling in, 163 in open education programs, 316, 317 parent-child interactions affecting develop ment of, 190-192, 195, 196-197, 198, 205, 206 in maternal employment, 221-222 problem recognition in, 167 research on, 160-168 social reaming theories on, 162-163 social system affecting, 149-151 Self-understanding, 147-183, 403 cultural studies on, 352, 353, 356 of emotions, 104-106, 131, 156, 175 and language development, 155 research on, 153-160 and self-deception, 155 of skills and abilities, 149, 156, 157, 159 terms used in description of, 154 Separation from parents, stress of, 197 Serotonin levels, in autism, 31 Sex of social contacts, 247-248, 258-259, 262 Sexual behavior, 259, 262, 271 cultural studies on, 355 Siblings, 21, 225-227 child care by, 337 cultural studies on, 343-344, 345-349 of chronically ill child, 50-51 number of, 8-10 Single-parent families, 11, 12, 13, 214, 216- 220 Skeletal maturation, 25 433 Skills and abilities, self-understanding of, 149, 156, 157, 159 Smoking, 47-48 peer influence on, 48, 253, 270 prevention programs for, 48 Social cognition, 21, 73, 74, 107, 112-129, 131- 132, 402 and antisocial behavior, 204 collaboration approach to, 113, 119 and coping behavior, 390 development of, 93, 94, 399, 400 environmental influences on, 89-91, 105, 106 guided reinvention theory of, 113-116, 117, 118, 119, 132 ~ hierarchy in, 113-114, 119 imitation in, 113, 114-115 and language development, 115-116 measurement of, 410-411 and parent child interactions, 193- 194, 196 and peer interactions, 243, 244, 261, 268- 269, 406 role-related, 193. See also Role learning Social interactions, 1, 2, 405-407 age of contacts in, 247, 257-258 in biopsychosocial approach to health and ill ness, 36-37 in chronic illness, 51-52 and cognitive development, 112-129, 131 132. See also Social cognition collaborative cycle in, 86-88 comparisons in. See Comparisons, social convergence rate hierarchy in, 113-114, 119 embedded teaching in, 116-117 emotions in, children's conceptions of, 105 106 and language development, 115-116 norms in, 21. See also Norm(s) parent-child. See Parent-child interactions peers in. See Peer interactions and public self, 354-357, 358 race of contacts in, 248, 259-260, 268 regulation of behavior in, 21, 149-151, 404, 405 and self-concept, 148-149, 174, 403, 404, 405 self-presentation in, 355 sex of contacts in, 247-248, 258-259, 262 support systems in, 56, 337 teacher-student. See Teacher-student inter actions and voluntary social activities, 344 Social learning theories on self-regulation, 162- 163 Social systems, 415-419 variations in, 168, 170-173 Socialization coregulation of behavior in, 150

OCR for page 422
434 family environment in, 184, 185, 186-192, 231, 398 Freud on, 149 peer context in, 240, 271 schools in, 284, 296 Socioeconomic status, 13-15, 16, 22, 209-211, 413 and academic achievement, 289, 294, 296, 298, 402, 413, 414 and behavior problems, 388-389, 391-392 and child-rearing practices, 207-213, 231 and health beliefs, 40 and physical maturation, 25, 26 and school experiences, 322 and self-concepe, 170-171, 175 of single-parent families, 216, 219, 220 and social attractiveness, 245 and vulnerability to illness, 55-56 Sports activities, 43-44 competitive pressures in, 44 . . . . A ~ Injuries In, '~ , peer interactions in, 243 and self-concept, 159 sex segregation and integration in, 248, 259 time spent in, 18, 19 Stereotyping in parent-child interactions, 199 sex role related, 206 Stress and anxiety, 197-198, 210 in chronic impairment, 49, 50 coping behavior in, 390-391, 418 in families, 56 and child-rearing practices, 210 and peer relations of child, 263-264 single-parent, 217, 219 in unemployment, 227 hormone secretion in, 30, 31 in peer relationships, 56, 406 in school, 295 in separation from parents, 197 and vulnerability tO illness, 54-56 Studying and homework, time spent in, 19 Subjective self, 155 Support systems of single-parent families, 219-220 and vulnerability to illness, 56 for women, 337 Systemic analysis in literate practices, 121, 124- 125, 126, 132 Systems theories of cognitive development, 86 of family relationships, 223-224 of health and illness, 36-37 Tahitians, self-concept of, 352-353 Tasks of middle childhood, 399-409, 415 lodex peer interactions related to, 255-257 on self-concept, 151-153 Taxonomy of behavior disorders, 379-385, 393 multivariate-descriptive approach to, 381-382, 383-384, 393, 407, 408 nosological approach to, 380, 381, 382-383, 384, 393 Teacher-parent interactions, 301 Teacher-student interactions, 287, 288-289, 418 and academic achievement, 287, 28~289, 304, 320 authority style in, 417 compared to parent-child, 271 gender differences in, 296-297 racial differences in, 296, 304, 320 and self-esteem of students, 295 Teasing, 256 Television viewing and eating pattems, 45-46 and health beliefs, 40, 53 and language development, 115 and social reaming, 402 time spent in, 17, 18-19 Temper trantrums, 189 Testing situations, collaboration of environment and cognitive development in, 91, 92 Testosterone levels, and aggressive behavior, 28 Tobacco use, 47-48. See also Smoking Training for psychopathology research, 392-393 on social skills, 268-269 Troublesomeness in children, 35~361. See also Behavior problems Tutoring in schools, 292, 293 and academic achievement, 320 by peers, 268, 269-270 Unemployment, family stress in, 227, 264 Universal aspects of cognitive development, 73, 76-79 Urban population of children, 7, 9 physical maturation of, 25, 26 Vulnerability to illness, 364 individual variations in, 54-56 self-induced, 47-48 Western societies, compared to non-Western, 342-343 Work. See Employment Writing. See Literate practices