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Perspectives on Urban Infrastructure Royce Hanson' Editor Committee on National Urban Policy Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1984

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVE., NW WASHINGTON, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of En- gineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for ap- propriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal govern- ment. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The Na- tional Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The symposium on which this volume is based was supported by Grant No. CEE- 8216581 from the Division of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National Sci- ence Foundation. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 80-63272 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-03439-6 Printed in the United States of America

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SYMPOSIUM STEERING COMMITTEE GEORGE E. PETERSON (Chair), The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM S. BUTCHER, Directorate of Engineering, National Science Foundation ROBERT DUCKWORTH, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development JOHN EBERHARD, Advisory Board on the Built Environment, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council BOB EDGAR, Member, U.S. House of Representatives JOHN HERNANDEZ, Deputy Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ROYCE HANSON, Committee on National Urban Policy, National Research Council MARTIN LANG, Camp, Dresser, and McKee, New York ROBERT McGARRY, Unified Industries, Inc., Springfield, Va. D. KELLY O'DAY, Consulting Engineer, Philadelphia, Pa. ~ ~

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COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL URBAN POLICY PAUL N. YLVISAKER (Chair), Graduate School of Education, Harvard University BRIAN d. L. BERRY, School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie- Mellon University HARVEY BROOKS, Aiken Computation Laboratory, Harvard University KENNETH B. CLARK, Clark, Phipps, Clark, and Harris, Inc., New York JOHN M. DE GROVE, State of Florida, Department of Community Affairs, Tallahassee JAMES M. HOWELL, First National Bank of Boston *HARVEY S. PERLOFF, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of California, Los Angeles GEORGE E. PETERSON, The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. GAIL GARFIELD SCHWARTZ, Garfield Schwartz Associates, Inc., Washington, D.C. ROBERT C. WOOD, Government Department, Wesleyan University ROYCE HANSON, Study Director *Died August 1983 1V

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Contents Introduction 1 The Evolution of the Urban Infrastructure in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries doe! A. Tarr 2 Assessing Infrastructure Needs: The State of the Art D. Kelly O'Day and Lance A. Neumann 3 Financing the Nation's Infrastructure Requirements George E. Peterson 4 Politics and Urban Public Facilities Heywood T. Sanders 5 The Future of Urban Public Works: New Ways of Doing Business Douglas C. Henton and Steven A. Waldhorn APPENDIXES A Program B Participants v 1 4 67 110 143 178 211 214

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