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Biograpl~ical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 13iograpl~ical Memoirs VOLUME XLIV NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1974

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-02238-X ElBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 74-7654 Available from PRINTING AND PUBLISHING OFFICE, NATIONAE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH BY BENJAMIN H. WILLIER THOMAS FRANCIS, JR. BY JOHN R. PAUL DONNEL FOSTER HEWETT BY JAMES GILLULY WILLIAM VERMILLION HOUSTON BY KENNETH S. PITZER AND HAROLD E. RORSCHACH, JR. HOWARD BISHOP LEWIS BY WILLIAM C. ROSE AND MINOR J. COON ROBERT HARRY LOWIE BY JULIAN H. STEWARD WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOU1 BY L. R. BLINKS V V11 1 ~7 111 27 39 75 - 213

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V1 CONTENTS THEODORE HILLIER RICHARDS BY jades BRYANT CONDO RLDOLP EDEMA BY jOHN RODGERS ED~AkD ARTHUR STEINHAUS BY E. F. KNIPLINC CHESTER HA~LIN ~ERK~ BY RUSSELL a. BROWN 251 coo go / 303 329

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PREFACE The Biographical Memoirs is a series of volumes containing the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published scientific works. Each biographical essay has been written by a fellow member of the Academy familiar with the professional career of the deceased, with only occasional exceptions. These vol- umes, therefore, provide a record of the lives and work of some of the most distinguished leaders of American science as wit- nessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, honorary organization of scientists and engineers elected on the basis of outstanding contributions to knowledge. Established by a Con- gressional Act of Incorporation on March 3, 1863, and sup- ported by private and public funds, the Academy works to further science and its use for the general welfare by bringing together the most qualified individuals to deal with scientific and technological problems of broad significance. . . V11

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Biographical Memoirs VOLUME XLIV

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