Click for next page ( 2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH November 30, 1883-Janilary 10, 1969 BY BENJAMIN H. WILLIER ~ CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH left not only a published record of sixty years (1907-1967; of scientific articles but also an autobiographical sketch (a typewritten copy of thirty pages dated March 1948 which was deposited in the files of the Home Secretary of the National Academy of Sciences) that tells the story of "facts not usually printed in biographical reference books," for example, such items as home life and occupations, schooling, and development of special interests. This sketch was written merely for "atmosphere," and so that his "possible bio'~- rapher need do little more than condense and paraphrasewhich somehow reminds me of one of my earliest observations that it takes many buckets of sap to make a small cup of syrup." It is of interest here to note that, in a fire which destroyed the Dan- forth home in 1939, there was lost "a notebook in which I began during high school days to develop, point by point, what I hoped should be a satisfactory and integrated philosophy and code for living,." ~ Dr. \\lillier died December 3, 1972, before the processing of his manuscript had been completed. The final version of this memoir orates a good deal to the constructive criticisms and/or val~al~le components of Leslie C. Dunn, Roman O'Rahill,, Curt Stern, and Small Wright, the last named providing the evalua- tion of Danforth's pioneer paper on frequency of mutation in man. Specia] credit is due Court Stern Nacho assumed the responsibility for the final editing of the memoir. 1

OCR for page 1
2 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS No one who knew Charles Danforth personally and has visited the region of his birth in his native state can imagine for him any other birthplace. He was born on the last day of November 1883 on "a farm just over the Oxford line and about three miles from Norway village" in Maine, the Pine Tree State ("Old Dirigo"~. The natural environment in and around Nor- way to the horizon is a typical postglacial landscape near the southern margin of the Wisconsin Continental glacier, a result of the last great ice age (10,000-15,000 years ago) in the Pleisto- cene epoch. It is a picturesque region made up of forests, fresh- water lakes and ponds, hills and valleys, and springs and streams interspersed with agricultural farmlands. The many forests are of mixed character, with white pine and other conifers, and deciduous trees such as white birch, sugar maple, and oak. And there is the poet's rhodora whose "beauty is its own excuse for being." The hills, seven of them, range in height from Pikes Hill (870') to Merrill Hill (1,243') in the town of Norway. In- deed, our biographer had a gentle face and personality akin to the landscape of the gentle hilltops, beloved forest green, quiet lakes and rippling brooks, and rustic simplicity of the farmland. Such was r~ature's scenic area that played a role in Danforth's development as a naturalist. AN CESTRY In telling words Danforth wrote: "Most New Englanders of colonial stock have much the same ancestral background and my own is quite typical of the group as a whole." So far as he had been able to learn it seemed probable that all of his immigrant ancestors were exclusively British (English, Scottish, Welsh, and possibly Irish). All of them reached America during the first half of the seventeenth century, some coming in the Mayflower and some in various small vessels. They spread along the coast from Plymouth to what is now southwestern Maine (Oxford, York, and Cumberland counties). The largest early concentrations

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH 3 of them were around Boston, Billerica, Salem, and Falmouth. Of these early arrivals a few may have returned to England; the majority, however, lived and died within two hundred miles of Boston. Danforth "thinks" that every one of his native American ancestors was born and died within the same radius. He writes: "As a group they were fairly representative of the large middle class whose members rarely distinguished them- selves by any very appreciable deviation from the norm of their time and locale." Danforth lists fifty-seven names of these an- cestors. Among them are Danforth (grandfather), Frost (ma- ternal grandmother), Reed (grandmother), and Haskell (grandfather and mothers. Further, "there are more names than there are chromosomes in a human germ cell, so it is quite possible that some of these lines are ancestral in name only." He was surprised to find only a low degree of consan- guinity among his direct ancestors. To establish descent Dan- forth became a member of the Society of Mayflower Descendants about 1930. The last of his ancestors to go from Massachusetts to Maine was his paternal grandfather, Asa Danforth, who having been licensed at Boston in 1820 to "practice physick and surgery" moved shortly thereafter to Norway, Maine, and there married a descendant of a Mayflower passenger, Abigail C. Reed, daugh- ter of the first postmaster of the town. Asa Danforth practiced his profession in Norway for nearly sixty years and seems to have been a typically beloved old-time country doctor. It is said that he built the first woolen mill in the state and was engaged in a variety of town affairs. His fellow citizens evidently re- spected and trusted him, for he served a term in the state legis- lature. The couple had nine children, of whom James Danforth was the eighth child, the father of Charles, his brother (Francis) and two sisters (Ann and Sara). tames Danforth's occupation included being a farmer, a commercial traveler, and caretaker of his father's property interests. He had considerable interest in

OCR for page 1
4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ancient and colonial history as well as an appreciation of good writing. Moreover, in personal relations with his son Charles, James Danforth "employed good psychological techniques or perhaps better just normal common sense." Charles Danforth's maternal grandfather was Charles Henry Haskell, a native of Westbrook, Maine, whose ancestors arrived on the Mayflower. He married Laura Diantha Frost, a descen- dant of the first settlers of the town of Norway, also passengers on the Mayflower. This grandfather was a farmer, and at times an agent for a cracker company, a road surveyor, and a minor town official. The couple had five children, all girls, the eldest of whom was Mary File Haskell, the mother of Charles. His mother had the usual high school education of that period and taught school for a while. Throughout her life she took an active interest in the local schools, participated in the activities of a literary club, and frequently served as chairman of church and other organizations. She "did not seek responsibility but took it seriously when it did come her way." As a mother she was sympathetic and solicitousinclined to "drive" rather hard in the intellectual field. She had a sound but aggressive interest in the schools where Charles was a pupil. By contrast, his grandmother Haskell "had the most 'char- acter' in the group." A good voice, a good sense of humor, and a good memory made her interesting and stimulating. She had "angles," however, that were to be merely toleratedher attitude toward life was more defiant than humble. On June 24, 1914, Charles Haskell Danforth married Florence Wenonah Garrison, a teacher of science and a member of the Daughters of the American Colonists and the Society of Daughters of the American Revolution, who was a writer of de- lightful historical articles on the Smithsonian Institution. The couple had three sons, Charles Garrison (biologist), Alan Haskell (lawyer), and Donald Reed (engineer). Mrs. Dan- ~ See A American Heritage, 15 (I 963):2G-27.

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH 5 forth died in May 1968 about eight months prior to the demise of her husband, who himself died in the hospital on the Stanford University campus on January 10, 1969. TO BE OR NOT TO BEA NATURALIST . . . The total environment comprising wild nature and intel- ~ectuat climate provided a setting into which Charles was born and developed into a young man. His first eight and a half years were spent mostly on the farm of his parents. As he grew older, he participated "at least vicariously" in most of the common activities of a typical agricultural farm, such as making hay and maple syrup and weeding the garden. More attractive, however, were "my abundant and very pleasant memories of this period Ethat] have rather strong emotional components fof] mingling evening twilights with slightly eery calls of frogs and whip- poorwills, the boom of nighthawks and lowing of distant cattle, the exhilaration of morning with sunshine on the tree tops, and myriad things of interest through the whole day." These early interests and observations appertained to each and every living thing whether plant or animal. Seemingly not one was over- lookedranging from the speckled lily (Lilium canadense) and ~ ~ ~ ~ A: ~ ~ ~ , _ 1 , 1 1 Barrage berries to nighthawks and thrashers. Seeing my first humming bird was an event, dampened a little by learning it was not a queen bee." At seven years of age he entered primary school in Norway village where he lived with his grandparents, the Haskells going home for weekends. Of this period he writes: "School matters do not loom large in my memories. It is the 'farm' and not the 'village' around which my memories center most vividly." The aggregate of environmental conditions affecting his life and development changed for Charles in 1892. In that year his father sold the farm and took over the home and other holdings of grandfather Haskell in Norway, a village of "perhaps 2000

OCR for page 1
6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS people." There was a "little island in the brook" on the old farm, however, that took a long time before "I became recon- ciled to relinquishing" it. From this time on to 1897, a period of five years of "early days in Norway," his environment combined the main features of farm life, though on a reduced scale, and of life in a small manufactur- ing town. He participated in the work of the former as he did on the old farm and in "the diversion" of the latter. Charles did not lose any of his natural curiosity and deep interest in living objects. In fact, at about twelve years of age while botanizing in Norway, he found plants of the saxifrage family known commonly as foam flower or false miterwortthat vary in color of the anthers, which is either a bright yellow or an orange red. This discovery of a clear-cut variation of a single character was either held in memory for ten years or, more likely, recorded in his notebook. It was not until 1911, three years after graduation from college, that this early observation was published under the title of "A Dimorphism in Tiarella cord if ol ia." Although love of nature was primary, great books and dis- tinguished naturalists were also influential in his decision whether or not to be a naturalist. Of singular influence were the famous volumes of Darwin, as the following quotation shows: "A particularly memorable evening occurred in the summer of my eleventh or twelfth year. Several of us boys were rolling hoops around the square during a long summer twilight when my uncle Frank Danforth, passing by, called me to the sidewalk and gave me two books that he thought I 'might like to have.' They were the two volumes of Darwin's Animals and Plants and er Domestication and the inscriptions on their flyleaves showed that they had long ago been presented to my grandfather Danforth by A. E. Verrill. These volumes proved fascinating

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH 7 reading and probably influenced me more than any other books I have ever read. They dealt with things with which I was familiar, and in a way that made a strong appeal to my imagina- tion. The close observation and the type of reasoning displayed in the chapters, especially those dealing with the pigeon and dog, were highly stimulating. I read them with intense interest, reflected much on their contents, and observed my own animals more closely. My father, who had apparently not noticed these volumes before, also read them, but my mother mildly disap- proved. "Although at this time I had never heard of the National Academy of Sciences, three of its members were well known to me by name. They were C. O. Whitman, Sidney I. Smith, and A. E. Verrill, all of whom had attended the Norway High School ('Liberal Institute') with my father. Throughout life, my father's most intimate friend was the brother of Professor Smith and brother-in-law of Professor Verrill. So with a feeling of easy familiarity I wrote to Professor Verrill telling him that I expected to be a naturalist and asking for suggestions. He replied, in effect, 'Don't unless you can't help it.' At thirteen I thought I couldn't help it. How much of my subsequent history is due to the strength of this assumption, and how much to chance or lack of imagination, I can not say." But why did Professor Verrill, a distinguished naturalist, discourage young Charles from becoming a naturalist? In an attempt to answer this question it is perhaps of significance "to recall that Verrill lived through practically the entire history of zoology in America, from the coming of Louis Agassiz in 1847, to the experimental period of the present century." The vogue in zoology had changed from taxonomy to comparative anatomy, then to adaptations and other zoological disciplines, and at the beginning of the twentieth century to experimental fields. Moreover, "Verrill maintained to the end of his life the

OCR for page 1
8 BIOGRAPHICAL ME M OIRS importance of taxonomy as a necessary preliminary to this more specialized biological work," that is, to genetics and other ex- perimental fields. At the age of fourteen another change came about for Charlesa move to a house on Pleasant Street where he leas to live with his family for six years. The move in itself introduced no radical change in his life. His work consisted of the usual chores such as delivering milk, caring for lapin and garden, and all the usual phases of farming, such as plowing, hoeing, and har- vesting crops. These activities were commonly shared with his father. "I never received any pay for my work nor any explicit allowanceboys of my age and background felt themselves as much a part of their family in responsibilities as in other re- spects." There was no sense of oppression or lack of freedom. Charles took a special interest in selecting the best seeds for flower and vegetable gardens. He introduced into his neighbor- hood the then new strain of chickens known as "Rhode Island Reds." Experience in breeding them led him to conclude, "In general a poor specimen of a good strain is to be preferred to a good specimen of a Door strain (to which I might now take ~ 1 1 \ some exception)." The change had decided advantages, for it made his contact with woods and fields even easier than before. Behind the house was a blooded tract belonging to his uncle and beyond that the lake, the "Great Pond" or Pennesseewassee Lake, streams, pas- tures, and swamps stretching off toward wilder, more alluring country. Charles entered a high school with a long and distinguished background in promoting the "cause of education" and culture of the mind. In his life sketch Charles refers to his high school as "the lineal descendant of the Norway Liberal Institute." This phrase has unusual significance, since the Institute at the time ~ See Biographical Memoir of Addison Emery Verrill, by Wesley R. Coe, Na- tional Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, 14 (1929):39.

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH 9 of its greatest vigor was highly respected for its excellence. (Many such Liberal Institutes were established by the people in western Mainein 1852 there were six of them in Oxford County and ten in York County. The purpose of their founding was "for promoting religion and morality, and for the education of the youth in such languages, and such of the liberal arts and sciences as the said Trustees shall direct.") During its eighteen years of existence the Norway Liberal Institute was " a college-fitting school" of very high rank with "a brilliant record." Many of its students entered colleges and universities where they often graduated with high honors. Of its early graduates three were members of the National Academy of Sciences who were active pioneer leaders in the development of the life sciences in our universities. C. O. Whitman was the first director of the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and first chairman of the Department of Zoology, University of Chicago; Addison E.- Verrill was the first Professor of Zoology, Yale University; and Sidney I. Smith was Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale University. To this trio of distinguished Academicians the name of Charles H. Dan- forth was added in 1942a grand total of four Norway Liberal Institute naturalists. The Norway Liberal Institute was opened in 1847 as a self- supporting academy; it started with 174 pupils, a principal, and a corps of teachers of much ability and enterprise and was ~n- corporated June 25, 1849. About 1865 "the village district purchased the Institute building and changed the name of the school to the one it bears today." ~ Whether the Norway High School at the time Charles entered it was equal in educational capability to the Institute, he does not say, yet the influence of its forerunner remained strong for several decades. He tells of choosing the "classical . ~ See Charles F. Whitman, A History of Norway, Maine, from the Earliest Settlements to the Close of the Year 1922 (Le~viston, Maine, 1924).

OCR for page 1
10 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS curriculum" without giving the choice any special thought. The courses included Latin, Greek, English, and mathematics. Of these, Latin and Greek were "especially pleasant." "The Aeneid, more than any other book, awakened an appreciation of epic sequences and lyric associations." While a passage of the Aeneid was running through his mind one morning as he was feeding the cows, it suddenly occurred to him that a part of the beauty of passages written in foreign languages is "that the words are not overladen with connotations and so stimulate rather than hinder the imagination." Charles retained an interest in the classics in his high school years. In addition, these years were naturally ones of expanding interests and a time during which new acquaintances of in- fluence were being made. One of the most important of these was apparently his teacher Walter Bacon. In his fifteenth or sixteenth summer Charles wrote: "While walking near the pond one day, I saw a man crouching on the shore and intently looking into the water. As I approached cautiously, he re- marked that he was watching two hornpouts (Ameiurus) swim- ming about in a school of polywogs." Charles adds, "I showed him his 'polywogs' were young hornpouts," and explained the breeding habits of this species (a catfish) . Although Bacon, who was the man, was shown to have made an erroneous observation, he and Charles became and remained good friends and frequent collaborators in the study and identification of "a difficult moss, a puzzling carex, the call of a night bird or an intricate cross- word puzzle." Finding the answer was Bacon's one all-absorbing goal. Moreover, he was like Rafinesque (a distinguished taxon- omist) in his broad interests and untiring energy, yet without a trace of a desire to assign names or receive credit. Charles writes, "I learned much from his intense objectivity, quite un- hampered by a highly imaginative and poetic side of his nature." Only a few days after finding a collaborator Charles showed him "a bird's nest containing a foreign egg which I suspected

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH 11 was that of a cuckoo." Walter Bacon identified the owners of the nest as indigo buntings. Together they visited the taxidermy shop of J. Waldo Nash, who had an egg collection, and decided the foreign egg "was indeed that of a cuckoo (a very unusual finds." On the same day Charles learned for the first time of several books on birds available in the public library of Norway. On that same day, therefore, he was introduced to two stimu- lating naturalists as well as to the works of Baird, Cones, Maynard, and Chapman. From these it was but a short step to Asa Gray's Manual of Botany, iordan's Manual of Vertebrates, and other volumes which he soon owned. Charles writes: "Be- fore long, I was aspiring to know, at least by name, all living things about me. It was easy to learn the Latin names of new species as I identified them, and I caught up on old acquain- tances by getting a few names in mind each morning and noon and rehearsing them while I worked." Charles had acquired one of the distinctive qualities of a naturalistthe knowledge of plants and animals by their Latin names. At about this time his grandmother Haskell, not to be out- done by all this learning from nature, decided to give "us chil- dren" another demonstration of how things were done in earlier daysthis time on how cheese was made and on how to cut a forked stick on which to dry a calf's stomach from which rennet was to be obtained and used in the curdling of milk. Influences outside of high school continued to affect his way of life and thought. The most influential of these were contacts with citizens prominent in Norway affairs, among whom were George Howe and George Noyes, two members of old Norway families, each about forty years of age. Howe, a graduate of Tufts College, was a well-known naturalist and philosopher, and Noyes was a naturalist, artist, and wit. Charles had for a long time wanted to know them but, "with an ineptitude which has always been rather characteristic," he failed to meet either one of them personally until a special event opened the way.

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH 47 devoted naturalist who built solid structures out of ideas. What he built will be consciously treasured in the memories of those who knew him. As Ralph Waldo Emerson said at the funeral of another naturalist, Henry David Thoreau: Wherever there is knowledge, Wherever there is virtue, Wherever there is beauty, He will find a home.

OCR for page 1
48 _ I- Or BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS Am. i. Anat. American Journal of Anatomy Am. T. On: ~thalmol.American journal of Ophthalmology Am. I. Phys. Anthropol. - American Journal of Physical Anthropology Am. Naturalist American Naturalist Gnat. Record Anatomical Record Arch. Dermatol. Syphilis Archiv fur Dermatologie und Syphilis J. Exp. Zool.Journal of Experimental Zoology I. Heredity- Journal of Heredity J. Morphol. Journal of Morphology Proc. 6th Internat. Congr. Genet.Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Genetics Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 1907 A new pteropod from New England. Plates 1-4. the Boston Society of Natural History, 34:1-19. 1908 Notes on numerical variation in the daisy. 349-56. Proceedings of Botanical Gazette, 46: 1910 Periodicity in S pirogyra, with special reference to the work of Benecke. Twenty-first Annual Report, Missouri Botanical Gar- den,21:49-59. lDll A 74 mm. Polyodon. Biological Bulletin, 20:201-4. A dimorphism in Tinselly cordifolia. Rhodora, 13:192-93. 1912 The heart and arteries of Polyodon. J. Morphol., 23:409-52. 1913 The myology of Polyodon. J. Morphol., 24: 107~6. 1914 Some notes on a family with hereditary congenital cataract. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 31: 161-72.

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH lDl5 The structural relations of anterior hepatic arteries. 9: 72-73. 1916 49 Anat. Record, Some aspects of the study of hereditary eye defects. Am. J. OpUthalmol., 33: 65-70. The inheritance of congenital cataract. Is twinning hereditary? J. Heredity, 7: 195-202. The relation of coronary and hepatic arteries in the common ganoids. Am. l. Anat., 19:391-400. The use of early developmental stages in tl~e mouse for class work in embryology. Anat. Record, 10:355-58. Am. Naturalist, 50: 442-48. 1918 Observations on brachydactylism in the fowl. 33-34. 1919 Anat. Record, 14: An experimental test of the possibility of differential selection of germ cells (in the fowl) . Anat. Record, 16: 147~8. Resemblance and difference in twins. l. Heredity, 10:399-409. A comparison of the hands of a pair of polydactyl Negro twins. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2:147-65. The developmental relations of brachydactyly in the domestic fowl. Am. I. Anat., 25:97-115. An hereditary complex in the domestic fowl. Genetics, 4:587-96. Evidence that germ cells are subject to selection on the basis of their genetic potentialities. J. Exp. Zool., 28: 385~ 12. 1921 Bufo fowleri Putnam in Missouri. Science, St. Louis, 24:1-8. Distribution of hair on the digits of man. 4:189-204. Transactions of the Academy of Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., With J. W. Thompson and J. McC. Batts. Hereditary and racial variation in the musculus palmaris longus. Am. I. Phys. Anthropol., 4:205-18.

OCR for page 1
so BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1922 The question of digital homology. Anat. Record, 23:14-15. With Mildred Trotter. The distribution of body hair in white subjects. Am. i. Phys. Anthropol., 5: 259-65 With Mildred Trotter. ~~ The incidence and heredity of facial hyper- trichosis in white women. Am. l. Phys. Anthropol., 5:391-97. 1923 The status of unilateral variation in man. Anat. Record, 25:125. The frequency of mutation and the incidence of hereditary traits in man. In: Eugenics, Genetics and the Family, Vol. 1, pp. 120-28. Scientific Papers of the Second International Congress of Eu- genics, New York, September 1921. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company. 1924 The theoretical distribution of hereditary traits in man. Am. l. Phys. Anthropol., 7:291-98. The heredity of unilateral variations in man. Genetics, 9:199-211. The problem of incidence in color blindness. Am. Naturalist, 58: 447-56. The question of homology as related to hair. 1925 Anat. Record, 27:180. Adiposity and doubling as constitutional traits in the mouse. Anat. Record, 29:354. The cycling activities of hair follicles. Anat. Record, 29:381-82. Hair in its relation to questions of homology and phylogeny. Am. J. Anat., 36:47-68. Hereditary doubling suggesting anomalous chromatin distribution in the mouse. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 23: 145-47. The number of brothers and sisters of selected individuals. Science, 61: 17-18. Studies on hair with special reference to hypertrichosis. I. The phylogeny of hair. Arch. Dermatol. Syphilis, 11:494-508. Studies on hair with special reference to hypertrichosis. II. The hair of mammals. Arch. Dermatol. Syphilis, 11: 637-53. Studies on hair with special reference to hypertrichosis. III. General

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH 51 characteristics of human hair. Arch. Dermatol. Syphilis, 11: 804-21. Studies on hair with special reference to hypertrichosis. IV. Regional characteristics of human hair. Arch. Dermatol. Syphilis, 12:76- 94. Studies on hair with special reference to hypertrichosis. V. Factors affecting the growth of hair. Arch. Dermatol. Syphilis, 12:195- 212. Studies on hair with special reference to hypertrichosis. VI. Aber- rant forms of hair growth. Arch. Dermatol. Syphilis, 12:212-32. Studies on hair with special reference to hypertrichosis. VII. Hyper- trichosis. Arch. Dermatol. Syphilis, 12: 380~01. Studies on hair with special reference to hypertrichosis. VIII. Gen- eral aspects of the hair problem. Arch. Dermatol. Syphilis, 12: 528-37. Hair with Special Reference to Hypertrichosis. Chicano. American Medical Association. 152 pp. (Chapters published serially in Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology from April to October 1925) a ~ . . 1926 Alcohol and the sex ratio in mice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 23: 305-8. The developmental arrangement of hair follicles. 32:230-31. The American race. I. Heredity, 17: 94-96. The hair. Natural History, 26: 75-79. The interaction of genes in development. Med., 24: 69-71. lg27 Anat. Record, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. A gynandromorph mouse. Anat. Record, 35:32. (A) The problem of adaptation. J. Heredity, 18: 125-31. Hereditary adiposity in mice. I. Heredity, 18:153-62. The nature of homology in muscles (extensor carpi radialis). Anat. Record, 35:32. (A) With S. B. de Aberle. Distribution of foetuses in the uteri of mice. Anat. Record, 35:33. Feather production by skin grafts in the fowl. 182. Anat. Record, 37:

OCR for page 1
52 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With S. B. de Aberle. The functional interrelation of certain genes in the development of the mouse. Genetics, 12:340~7. With Frances Foster. Skin transplantation as a means of analyzing factors in production and growth of feathers. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 25: 75-77. 1928 A case of alopecia in the fowl. i. Heredity, 19:546-50. Skin transplantation in ducks and pigeons. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 25:717. Cause of hen-feathering in campine and bantam males. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26:86-87. The reaction of transplanted skin in the fowl. Anat. Record, 38: 10. With S. B. de Aberle. The functional interrelation of the ovaries as indicated by the distribution of foetuses in mouse uteri. Am. J. Anat., 41:65-74. lg29 The effect of foreign skin on feather pattern in the common fowl (Gallus domesticus). Archiv fur Entwicklungmechanik der Organismen, 116: 242-52. Genetic and metabolic sex-differences. The manifestation of a linked trait following skin transplantation. J. Heredity, 20:319- 22. Bantam genetics: distribution of traits in a Sebright-Mille Fleur cross. J. Heredity, 20:572-82. Two factors influencing feathering in chickens. Genetics, 14:256-69. With Frances Foster. Skin transplantation as a means of studying genetic and endocrine factors in the fowl. I. Exp. Zool., 52:443- 70. 1930 Chorio-allantoic grafting followed by direct transplantation in the chick. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 27:1066-67. Developmental anomalies in a special strain of mice. Am. J. Anat., 45:275-87. The nature of racial and sexual dimorphism in the plumage of campines and leghorns. Biologia Generalis, 6: 99-108. Numerical variation and homologies in vertebrae. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 14:463-81.

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH Some racial and hereditary characteristics of hair. 15:35-37. 1931 53 Eugenical News, Persistence of contra-sex skin grafts in the fowl. In: Proceedings of the Second International Congress for Sex Research, ed. by A. W. Greenwood, pp. 171-72. London, August 1930. Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd, Ltd. Predetermined and fortuitous features in the development of a gland (lacrimal gland of a mouse). Anat. Record, 48:41, Sup- plement. 1932 Artificial and hereditary suppression of sacral vertebrae in the fowl. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 30: 143-45. Family size as a factor in human evolution. Congress of Eugenics. J. Heredity, 23:385. Genetics of sexual dimorphism in plumage. Congr. Genet., 2:3~36. Hereditary posterior duplication in the mouse. Congr. Genet., 2:253. Racial and sexual traits revealed by skin transplants. Proc. 6th Internat. Congr. Genet., 2:257. A new hereditary feather deficiency in the fowl. Congr. Genet., 2: 257-58. Third International Proc. 6th Internat. Proc. 6th Internat. Proc. 6th Internat. The interrelation of genie and endocrine factors in sex. In: Sex and Internal Secretions, ed. by Edgar Allen, pp. 12-54. Balti- more, Williams & Wilkins Company. Three views of evolution. l. Heredity, 23:405-9. 1933 Genetic factors in the response of feather follicles to thyroxin and theelin. J. Exp. Zool., 65:183-97. Racial differences in the reaction of developing feathers to artificially administered hormones. Anat. Record, 55:52-53, Supplement. The reaction of dominant white with yellow and black in the fowl. [. Heredity, 24:301-7. 1934 Genetics and anthropology. Science, 79:215-21.

OCR for page 1
~4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1935 With John B. Price. Failure of theelin and thyroxin to affect plumage and eye-color of the blackbird. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:675-78. With Jerome K. Fisher. Inability of testicular hormone to mas- culinize plumage and eye-color of female Brewer's blackbird. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:1115-17. Testicular hormones and Sebright plumage. Med., 32:1474-76. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Different potentialities of male and female skin in Reeves's pheasants. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 33:291-92. Genetic mosaics in the feathers of the common fowl. Transactions on the Dynamics of Development, 10:339-44. (Part in Russian) 1936 Genetics of sex differences in plumage (Syrmaticus reeves)). Am. Naturalist, 70:46. 1937 Artificial gynandromorphism and plumage in Phasianus. Journal of Genetics, 34:497-506. Some genetic implications in dissecting room material. Anat. Rec- ord, 67:12-13. Interaction of hormones and genotypes in pheasants. Anat. Record, 67: 60, Supplement. Pigment cells in heterogenous feathers. Anat. Record, 68:461-68. Responses of feathers of male and female pheasants to theelin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 36:322-24. An experimental study of plumage in Reeves's pheasants. I. Exp. Zool., 77:1-11. 1939 Relation of genie and endocrine factors in sex. In: Sex and Internal Secretions, 2d ea., ed. by Edgar Allen, C. H. Danforth, and E. A. Doisy, pp. 328-50. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company. Genic and hormonal factors in biological processes. Harvey Lec- tures, 34:246-64. Direct control of avian color pattern by the pigmentoblasts. J. Heredity, 30:173-76.

OCR for page 1
CHARLES HASKELL DANFORTH ~5 With Gunnar Sandnes. Behavior of genes in intergeneric crosses. Effects of two dominant genes on color in pheasant hybrids. J. Heredity, 30: 537-42. Physiology of human hair. Physiological Reviews, 19:94-111. 1941 With John B. Price. Condor, 43:253-56. A persistent mutation in the California quail. 1942 Sex inversion in the plumage of birds. Part II. In: Hormonal Factors in the Inversion of Sex. Biological Symposia, ed. by Jacques Cattell, Vol. 9, pp. 67-80. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Science Press. 1943 Gene H and testosterone in the fowl. In: Essays in Biology in Honor of Herbert M. Evans, written by his friends, pp. 159-67. Berkeley, University of California Press. Hair. In: Dictionary of Biochemistry and Related Sub jects, ed. by W. M. \lalisoff, pp. 288-97. New York, Philosophical Library. 1944 Relation of the follicular hormone to feather form and pattern in the fowl. Yale journal of Biology and Medicine, 17: 13-18. 194.5 With others. Should the BNA be abolished? Anat. Record, 92: 105-7. With others. How much modification of the BNA is desirable? Anat. Record, 92:197-200. 1946 Physiological aspects of genetics. 8: 17-42. Annual Reviews of Physiology, 1947 Heredity of polydactyly in the cat. J. Heredity, 38: 107-12. Morphology of the feet in polydactyl cats. Am. l. Anat., 80: 143-71.

OCR for page 1
56 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1948 Biographical Memoir of Charles Vincent Taylor, 1885-1946. In: National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, 25:205-25. New York, Columbia University Press. 1949 With Victor Schwentker. Snowball: a repeated mutation in the cotton rat. ]. Heredity, 40: 252-56. 1950 Evolution of plumage traits in pheasant hybrids, Phasianus x Chryso- lophus. Evolution, 4:301-15. 1953 With Elizabeth M. Center. Development and genetics of a sex- influenced trait in the livers of mice. Proceedings of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, 39:811-17. Free and unequal: the biological basis of individual liberty. Amer- ican Journal of Human Genetics, 5:402-4. 1954 With Elizabeth At. Center. Nitrogen mustard as a teratogenic agent in the mouse. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 86:705-7. 1955 Delayed effects of mutagenic agents. 1958 Science, 122:874. With Elizabeth M. Center. The occurrence and genetic behavior of duplicate incisors in the mouse. Genetics, 43: 139-48. Callus sonnerati and the domestic fowl. J. Heredity, 49: 167-69. 1967 With Elizabeth M. Center. Genetical and embryological basis of flee duplicitas posterior manifestation in the mouse. Genetics, 56:554.

OCR for page 1