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170 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Proteins in nutrition. l. Am. Med. Assoc., 120:198-204. Urocanic acid and the intermediary metabolism With W..~. Darby. Of histidine in the rabbit. J. Biol. Chem., 146:225-35. 1943 With M. B. Esterer. Experimental lathyrism in the white rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Lied., 53:263-64. Trends in vitamin research. i. Am. Dietetic Assoc., 19:483-87. With R. Eyles. The utilization of d-~lucono-~-lactone by the organism of the young white rat. 1944 Natural toxicants and nutrition. With D. D. Dziewiatkowski. glycogen content of the liver of the rat. 52. ~ , , i. Nutrition, 26: 309-17. Nutrition Reviews, 2: 97-99. Glucuronic acid synthesis and the I. Biol. Chem., 153:49- Russell Henry Chittenden (1856-1943~. I. Biol. Chem., 153:339- 42. With L. Louis. The composition of the tissue proteins of the rabbit as influenced by inanition and the hepatotoxic agents, hydrazine and phosphorus. J. Biol. Chem., 153:381-86. With S. Pedersen. The partition of urinary nitrogen after the oral administration of glutamic acid, pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, praline, and hydroxyproline to rabbits. J. Biol. Chem., 154: 705-12. 1945 With D. D. Dziewiatkowski. The metabolism of trimethylacetic (pivalic) and tertiarybutylacetic acids. New examples of con- jugation with glucuronic acid. I. Biol. Chem., 158:77-87. 1946 O metabolismo intermediario e o paper nutritive dos acidos amina- dos aromaticos e sulfurados da molecule proteica. Medicina Cirurgia, Farmacia, 120: 161-75. Biochemistry, a basic pharmaceutical science. Am. J. Pharm. Educ., 10: 352-54. With C-W. Shen. The metabolism of sulfur. XXXI. The distribu- tion of urinary sulfur and the excretion of keto acids after the

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HOWARD BISHOP LEWIS 171 oral administration of some derivatives of cystine and methionine to the rabbit. I. Biol. Chem., 165: 115-23. With W. J. Wingo. The metabolism of sulfur. XXXII. Isocysteine. I. Biol. Chem., 165: 339-46. 1947 Nutrition. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 249: 119-25. Biochemistry in the pharmacy curriculum optional or required subject. Am. I. Pharm. Educ., 11:119-25. With S. Levey. The metabolism of phenoxyacetic acid, its homo- logues, and some monochlorophenoxyacetic acids. New examples of beta oxidation. i. Biol. Chem., 168:213-21. \Vith F. A. Schofield. A comparative study of the metabolism of a-alanine' ,8-alanine, serine, and isoserine. 1. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. i. Biol. Chem., 168:439-45. With F. A. Schofield. A comparative study of the metabolism of a-alanine, ,8-alanine, serine, and isoserine. II. Glycogen content of the liver after oral administration of the amino acids. I. Biol. Chem., 169: 373-78. The biochemical triumvirate in medicine. Record, 50:80-83. 1948 University of Tennessee \~\lith A. Venkataraman and P. R. Venkataraman. The metabolism of p-amino salicylic acid in the organism of the rabbit. J. Biol. Chem., 173:641-51. Proteins in nutrition. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 138: 207-13. With R. S. Fajans, M. B. Esterer, C-W. Shen, and M. Oliphant. The nutritive value of some legumes. Lathyrism in the rat. The sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratusJ' Lathes satires, Lathyrus cicera and some other species of Lathyrus. A. Nutrition, 36:537- 59. With A. Y-H. Chu and A. A. Christman. Alkaline phosphatase of the serum in experimental lathyrism of the white rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 69:445-46. Biologic functions of proteins. I. Functions of proteins in the living organism. Oral Surg., Oral Med., Oral Pathol., 1:221-25. Biologic functions of proteins. II. The role of proteins in human nutrition. Oral Surg., Oral Med., Oral Pathol., 1:226-30.

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172 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1949 With D. D. Dziewiatkowski and A. Venkataraman. The metabolism of some branched chain aliphatic acids. l. Biol. Chem., 178: 169-77. Protein metabolism in disease. Bulletin of the United States Army Medical Department, 9:364-74. With A. R. Schulert. Experimental lathyrism in the white rat and mouse. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 71:440-41. With S. Cohen. The nitrogenous metabolism of the earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris). ]. Biol. Chem., 180:79-91. 1950 With D. R. Neuhaus and A. A. Christman. Biochemical studies on urokon (sodium 2,4,6-triiodo-3-acetylaminobenzoate), a new pyelographic medium. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 35:43-49. With P. R. Venkataraman and A. Venkataraman. The metabolism of p-aminobenzoic acid in the rabbit. Archives of Biochemistry, 26: 173-77. With E. Roberts and G. B. Ramasarma. Amino acids of Bence- Jones protein. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 74:237~1. With S. Cohen. The nitrogenous metabolism of the earthworm (Lumbricus terrestrisJ. II. Arginase and urea synthesis. l. Biol. Chem., 184: 479-84. With E. P. Tyner and H. C. Eckstein. Niacin and the ability of cystine to augment deposition of liver fat. J. Biol. Chem., 187: 651-54. 1951 With R. S. Fajans. The supplemental value of cystine and methio- nine for low protein (casein) diets fed the young white rat. J. Nutrition, 44:399~ 11. With G. S. Wells. The histidine content of the urine in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 61:1123-28. With D. Neuhaus and A. A. Christman. Evaluation of some iodine- containing organic compounds as x-ray contrast media. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 78:313-17.

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HOWARD BISHOP LEWIS 1952 173 Fifty years of study of the role of protein in nutrition. l. Am. Dietetic Assoc., 28: 701-6. With A. R. Schulert. Experimental lathyrism. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 81: 86-89. 1953 With A. Hainline, in Synthesis of hippuric acid and benzoyl glucuronide by the rabbit. l. Biol. Chem., 201:673-81. \Vith R. C. Baldridge. Diet and the ergothioneine content of blood. I. Biol. Chem., 202:169-76.

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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE June 12, 1883-September 21, 1957 BY JULIAN H. STEWARD ROBERT LOWlE was one of the key figures in the history of anthropology. His professional years spanned the first five decades of the present century. He entered anthropology not long after Franz Boas had established it as an academic discipline and had removed it from the rather philosophical study of the nineteenth century and placed it on an empirical, scientific basis. Although Lowie was initially employed for a few years by the American Museum of Natural History, his true niche was as a university scholar where his influence reached an in- creasing number of students as well as those who read his large number of publications. Lowie's principal interests were in ethnological theory, in- cluding the history of such theory, and in social organization, especially kinship, marriage, the family, kinship terminology, men's and women's societies including age-grade societies, and political and social organization. He also made major contri- butions to the study of primitive religion and folklore. Lowie did not do original research on physical anthropology or archae- ology, which were little developed during his active years, and he did not have a major interest in language. There is a major fallacy, which seems to be shared by some members of the National Academy of Sciences, that archaeology is a "hard" science, thus ranking as more of a science than 175

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176 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ethnology, because it deals with visible and measurable material objects. Lowie, however, directed ethnology by the most ri~,or- ous scientific criteria, which generally outstripped those formerly held by archaeology. THE MAKING OF AN ETHNOLOGIST Robert Lowie was born on June 12, 1883, in Vienna of a Hungarian father and a Viennese mother. His family came to New York City when he was ten years old where his father earned a living in merchandising, but where Robert was reared in the German-{ewish intellectual tradition of lower Manhat- tan. Although he never adhered to Jewish orthodoxy, the ties of the Jewish family were so strong and Lowie was so close to his mother and sister that he did not marry until he had passed the age of forty. According to the cultural values of the com- munity and family in which he was reared, Lowie always ex- pected to make a career in the intellectual world. He attended the City College of New York and he resided among liberals in Greenwich Village. After graduation he engaged in school- teaching for several years but found this distasteful and, to his mind, largely futile. He had once considered a career in chem- istry but abandoned it upon discovering that he was color-blind and also gave up any laboratory plans because of an extra- ordinary ineptitude in handling physical objects. Many years later he learned to drive an automobile but always drove at great peril, and all his confrontations with material objects of the simplest kind were major contests. Lowie was attracted to anthropology because it represented intellectual fulfillment without the difficulties of physical manip- ulation of objects. He was also no doubt attracted to it because Boas represented a liberal point of view and had devoted him- self to fighting the prejudices directed toward Jews and other ethnic and racial minorities as well as toward the teaching of

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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE 177 anthropology. Lowie never became a political activist but his sympathies were definitely on the liberal side and he wrote ex- tensively on racist problems. Lowie taught in the New York public school system from 1901, when he was graduated from the City College of New York, until 1904, when he entered Columbia University as a graduate student to study anthropology under Franz Boas. He took his Ph.D. degree in 1907 and was appointed to the staff of the American Museum of Natural History. At that time it was assumed that Boas's students should obtain their ethnological data from firsthand fieldwork rather than, as had been the case in previous decades, from secondary sources written by explorers, missionaries, and other nontrained people. It is remarkable that Lowie, city-bred and little experienced outside New York City, should have done so much of his field- work in areas that were extremely remote and extraordinarily difficult for one with urban habits to live in. His first field- work was done among the Lemhi Shoshoni of Idaho in 1906, and his second major field trip took him into Canada to study the Chipewayan Indians at Lake Athabaska in the Arctic drain- age. In a little book entitled Robert H. Lowie, Ethnologist: A Personal Record (1959), Lowie recounts in detail the adventures of this trip. He traveled by train, then crossed the watershed downstream in fur traders' barges, and it was only through the kindly help of the trappers toward a person so obviously help- less in the face of the circumstances he encountered that he eras able to survive the trip in reasonable safety. The final crisis came on his return trip when the railroad was surrounded and threatened by a forest fire, when again his fellow travelers guided him through his difficulties to safety. Lowie did not pursue subarctic ethnology further, but in 1912 and 1915 he visited other Shoshonean tribes of the Great Basin, some of them so remote from the white settlers that he

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178 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS could not find English-speaking interpreters. His contributions to Great Basin Shoshonean ethnology, however, were the first, and for many years the only, sources on the area. While he was associated with the American Museum of Natural History, his interests and fieldwork were largely directed by Clark Wissler, whose main area was the Indians of the Great Plains. Lowie visited and studied many of the tribes but his principal and lasting interest was the Crow, about whom he published a definitive book, The Crow Indians (1935~. During 1917-1918 Lowie was invited to become visiting lecturer in anthropology at the University of California at Berkeley by A. L. Kroeber, who had founded the department fifteen years earlier. In 1921, Lowie was appointed a permanent member of the staff at Berkeley and remained such until his retirement, although he held many visiting professorships and lectureships. Lowie's interest in primitive peoples expanded in scope through voluminous reading, and his bibliography contains some 200 book reviews. His knowledge of South American Indians was stimulated by the visit to Berkeley in 1927 of Baron Erland Nordenskiold, who until that time was virtually the only ethnologist to have worked with the South American Indians. A few years later, Lowie happened to discover a Ger- man-born resident of Brazil, Curt Nimuendaju. This remark- able man had visited some of the least known tribes in eastern Brazil, the Ge-speaking Indians, and had written extremely full manuscripts on their culture. Lowie translated these into Eng- lish. His interest in the general area became a lasting one, such that he was a major contributor to, and editor of, the Tropical Forest volume of the Handbook of South American Indians. During his life, he held office in many scientific societies and accepted appointments as visiting professor at many uni- versities, including Ohio State, Yale, Columbia, Harvard, Wash- ington, and Hamburg. He was granted honorary membership

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196 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Review. Psychologie des primitiven Menschen, by R. Thurnwald. Am. Anthropol., 25:417-18. Review. Beothak and Micmac, by F. G. Speck. Am. Anthropol., 25:418-19. Review. The Andaman Islanders by A. R. Brown. Am. An- thropol., 25:572-75. 1924 Primitive Religion. New York, Boni 8c Liveright. xix + 346 pp. Shoshonean tales. l. Am. Folklore, 37:1-242. Notes on Shoshonean ethnography. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 20: 185-314. The origin and spread of culture. Am. Mercury, 1:463-65. Minor ceremonies of the Crow Indians. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 21: 323-65. With Clark Wissler. Anthropology. In: New International Year- book for 1923, pp. 42~7. New York, Dodd, Mead & Co. Review. The Children of the Sun, by W. ]. Perry. Am. An- thropol., 26: 86-90. Review. American Indians: Tribes of the Prairies and the East, by Hermann Dengler. Am. Anthropol., 26:269. Review. Unter Feuerland-Indianern, by Wilhelm Koppers. Am. Anthropol., 26:414-15. Review. The Toba Ind fans of the Bolivian Chaco, by Rafael Karsten. Am. Anthropol., 26:538~0. Review. What Is Man? by J. A. Thomson. 1925 New Repub., 41:18. The historical connection between certain Old World and New World beliefs. Proc. 21 st Internat. Congr. Americanists, pp. 546-49. Review. Medicine, Magic and Relicion, bY W. H. R. Rivers. Am. Anthropol., 27:457-58. Review. Monotheism among Primitive Peoples, by Paul Radin. Am. Anthropol., 27: 560-61. Review. Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, ed. by Max Ebert, Vols. 1 and 2. Am. Anthropol., 27:561-62. Five as a mystic number. Am. Anthropol., 27:578. A note on history and race. Is America so bad after all? Am. Mercury, 4:342-43. Century Magazine, 109:723-29.

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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE 197 A women's ceremony among the Hopi. Nat. Hist., 25:178-83. African ethnology. In: New International Encyclopaedia, 2d ea., Vol. 1, pp. 212-14. New York, Dodd, Mead & Co. 1926 Zur Verbreitung der Flutsagen. Anthropos, 21:615-16. -The banana in America. Nature, 1 17:517-18. Review. Kultur and Religion des primitiven Menschen, by Theo- dor-Wilhelm Danzel. Am. Anthropol., 28:281-82. Review. Magie und Geheimwissenschaft in ihrer Bedeutung fur Kultur und Kulturgeschichte, by Theodor-Wilhelm Danzel. Am. Anthropol., 28:282-83. Review. Volker und Kulturen, Erster Tell: Gesellschaf t und Wirtschaft der Volker, by Wilhelm Schmidt and Wilhelm Kop- pers. Am. Anthropol., 28: 283-85. Review. Social Origin and Social Continuities, by A. M. Tozzer. Am. Anthropol., 28: 285-86. Review. Les Recentes Decouvertes pre-historiques in Ind ochine, by M. R. Verneau. Am. Anthropol., 28:289,424. Review. Unter d en Zwergen von Malakka, by Paul Schebesta. Am. Anthropol., 28:298-99. Review. Der d iluviale Mensch in Euro pa, by F. Birkner. Am. Anthropol., 28:420. Review. The Relation of Nature to Man in Aboriginal America' by Clark Wissler. New Repub., 48:331-32. Review. Essai d'introduction critique a l'et~'de de l'economie primitive: Les Theories de K. Buecher et l'ethnologie moderne, by Olivier Leroy. Am. Anthropol., 28:549. 1927 The Origin of the State. New York, Harcourt, Brace & Company. 117 pp. Note on the history of anthropology. Science, 66:111. Theoretische ethnologic in Amerika. ~ahrbuch fur Soziologie, 3:1 1 1-24. Prestige among Indians. Am. Mercury, 12:446-48. Anthropology and law. In: The Social Sciences and Their Interre- lations, ed. by W. F. Ogburn and A. Goldenweiser, pp. 50-59. New York, Houghton Mifflin Company.

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198 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Review. Illustrierte Volkerkunde (in zwei Banden). II: Zweiter Teil, ed. by Georg Buschan. Am. Anthropol., 29:112-13. Review. Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, ed. by Max Ebert, Vols. 3-7. Am. Anthropol., 29:332x-35x. Review. Archiv fur Rassdubilder, by E. Eickstedt. Am. An- thropol., 29:339. Review. Der Urspring der Gottesidee, I: Historischkritischer Teil by Wilhelm Schmidt. Am. Anthropol., 29:689-90. Review. The Dip usion of Culture, by R. R. Marett. Am. An- thropol., 29: 690-91. Review. The Peoples of Southern Nigeria, by P. Amaury Talbot. Am. Anthropol., 29: 71 b-17. Review. Downland Man, by H. l. Massingham. New Repub., 51:234. Review. The Next Age of Man, by Albert Edward Wiggam. New Repub., ~ 1 :261-62. Review. Myth in Primitive Religion and Sex and Repression in Savage Society, by Bronislaw Malinowski. New Repub. (Winter Book Section), 53:115-16. Review. The Use of Stilts, Especially in Africa and America, by K. G. Lindblom. Am. Anthropol., 30: 157-58. A note on relationship terminologies. Am. Anthropol., 30:263-67. Individual differences and primitive culture. In: Wilhelm Schmidt Festschrif t, ed. by W. Koppers, pp. 495-500. Vienna, Mechi- taristen-Congregations-Buchdr. Incorporeal property in primitive society. Yale Law Journal, 37:551-63. Review. Beziehungen und Beeinflussungen der Kunstgruppen in Palaolithikum and A lter und Bedeutung der nordafrikanischen Felszeichnungen, by Herbert Kuhn. Am. Anthropol., 30: 327- 28. Edward S. Burgess, 1855-1928. Am. Anthropol., 30:481-82. Word formation in the American Indian languages. Am. Mercury, 14:332-34. Bathing through the ages. Am. Mercury, 15:62-64. Aboriginal education in America. Am. Mercury, 15: 192-96. With E. W. Gifford. Notes on the Akwa'ala Indians. Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Archaeol. Ethnol., 23:339-52. Review. Bei den Urwaldzwergen von Malaya, by P. Schebesta. Am. Anthropol., 30:483-86.

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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE 199 Review. The Yukaghir and the Yukaghirized Tungus, by W. Michelson. Am. Anthropol., 30:487-90. Review. Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, ed. by Max Ebert, Vols. 8 and 9. Am. Anthropol., 30: 714-16. Review. Studies on the Origin of Cultivated Plants, by N. Vavilov. Am. Anthropol., 30:716-19. 1929 Are We Civilized? Human Culture in Perspective. New York, Har- court, Brace & Company. 306 pp. Notes on Hopi clans. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. His., 30:303- 60. Hopi kinship. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 30:361-88. Culture and Ethnology. New York, Peter Smith. 189 pp. Relationship terms. In: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14th ea., Vol. 19, pp. 84-89. New York, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Review. The Yukaghir and the Yukaghirized Tungus (continued), by W. Jochelson. Am. Anthropol., 31: 163-65. Review. Instructions pour les voyageurs: Instructions d'enquete linguistique, by Marcel Cohen. Am. Anthropol., 31:499. Review. Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, ed. by Max Ebert, Vols. 10 and 11. Am. Anthropol., 31:499-500, 780-85. Review. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, by I. W. Breasted; also First Report of the Prehistoric Survey Ex- pedition, by K. S. Sandford and W. l. Arkell. Am. Anthropol., 31:501. Review. Pots and Pans: The History of Ceramics, by H. S. Har- rison. Am. Anthropol., 31:504-6. Review. Coming of Age thropol., 31: 532-34. Samoa, by Margaret Mead. Am. An- 1930 Adoption, primitive. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol.l, pp.459-60. New York, The Macmillan Company. Age societies. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 1, pp. 482-83. New York, The Macmillan Company. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 2, pp. 369-70. New York, The Macmillan Company. Ceremony, primitive. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 313-14. New York, The Macmillan Company. Avoidance.

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200 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Review. In the Beginning: The Origin of Civilization, by G. Elliot Smith; also Gods and Men: The Attainment of Immortality, by W. i. Perry. Am. Anthropol., 32:165-68. Review. Some Elements of Sexual Behavior in Primates, by Gerrit S. Miller. Am. Anthropol., 32: 168-69. Review. Ein Versuch zur Rettung des Evolutionism us, by Wilhelm Schmidt. Am. Anthropol., 32:169-70. Review. Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, ed. by Max Ebert, Vol. 12. Am. Anthropol., 32: 170-71. Review. Peoples of Asiatic Russia, by Waldemar [ochelson; also Adoption among the Gunantuna. bY Tosenh Meter. Am. An- thropol., 32:178. The kinship terminology of the Bannock Indians. 32:294-99. Review. Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, ed. by Max Ebert, Sol. 13. Am. Anthropol., 32: 300-1. A Crow text, with grammatical notes. Archaeol. Ethnol., 29: 155-75. a 1 Am. Anthropol., Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. "Freemasons" among North Dakota Indians. Am. Mercury, 19: 192- 96. Literature and ethnography. Am. Mercury, 19:454-58. American Indian cultures. Am. Mercury, 20:362-66. Review. Collected Essays in Ornamental Art, by Hjalmar Stolpe. Am. Anthropol., 32:301-2. Review. The Relationship Systems of the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian, by T. M. Durlach. Am. Anthropol., 32:308-9. Review. Melanesian Shell Money, by A. B. Lewis. Am. An- thropol., 32:312-13. Review. The original home and mode of dispersal of the coconut, by Arthur W. Hill. Am. Anthropol., 32:320-21. Review. Der nord ische Mensch: Die Merkmale d er nord ischen Rasse mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der rassischen Ver- haltnisse Norwegens, by Halidan Bryn. Am. Anthropol., 32:547. Review. The Savage as He Really Is, by I. H. Driberg. Am. Anthropol., 32:557. Review. Ethnologischer Anzeiger, by M. Heydrich. Am. An- thropol., 32:661. 1931 Hugo Obermaier's reconstruction of sequences among prehistoric

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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE ~ .. . . . 201 cultures in the Old World. In: Methods in Social Science, ed. by Stuart Rice, pp. 266-74. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Inventiveness of the American Indian. Am. Mercury, 24:90-93. unclean theologians. Am. Mercury, 24: 472-79. Marriage and society among the Crow Indians. In: Source Book in Anthropology, ed. by A. L. Kroeber and T. T. Waterman. on. 9f`A f) 1~T~_._ fir_ 1 $ . +~ a` ~ - - ~ <.r ou~-Y. new York, narcourt, Grace tic (company. Woman and religion. In: The Making of Man, ed. by V. F. Calver- ton, pp. 744-57. New York, The Modern Library, Inc. Review. An Introduction to Social Anthropology. bv Clark Wis.sler Am. Anthropol., 33: 111-12. Review. Tod und Unsterblichkeit im Glauben der Naturvolker, by K. T. Preuss. Am. Anthropol., 33:626-27. Review. The Mothers: The Matriarchal Theory of Social Origins, by Robert Briffault. Am. Anthropol., 33:630-31. Review. The Mound Builders, by H. C. Shetrone. New Repub., 65: 304-6. ~ O ~ , - . 1932 Kinship. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 8, pp. 568- 72. New York, The Macmillan Company. Marriage and family life among the Plains Indians. Sci. Monthly, 34:462-64. Primitive points related to Aztecs. E1 Palacio, 32:82-83. Development of family pattern. E1 Palacio, 32:191-92. The Trocadero Museum. Am. Anthropol., 34: 165. Review. American: The Life Story of a Great Indian, by Frank B. Linderman. Am. Anthropol., 34:532-33. Review. The Narrative of a Southern Cheyenne Woman, by Truman Michelson. Am. Anthropol., 34:534. Review. Old Man Coyote (Croz~'J, by Frank B. Linderman. Am. Anthropol., 34:717-18. Proverbial expressions among the Crow Indians. Am. Anthropol., 34:739-40. 1933 Erland Nordenskiold, with bibliography of his writings. Am. An- thropol., 35: 158-64. Review. Die Verwand tschaf tsorganisation d er Urwaldstamme Sudamerikas, by Paul Kirchhoff. Am. Anthropol., 35:182-83.

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202 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Review. Les Hommes-dieux chez les Chiriguano et dons l'Amerique du Sud, by A. Metraux. Am. Anthropol., 35:183-84. A Crow Indian medicine. Am. Anthropol., 35:207. Queries. Am. Anthropol., 35: 288-96. Review. Die menschliche Gesellschaft, by R. Thurnwald, Vols. 2 and 3. Am. Anthropol., 35: 343~5. Review. Ethnologicke materialie z jihozapad u U.S.A., by F. Pospisil. Am. Anthropol., 35:359. Review. Flesh of the Wild Ox: A Riffian Chronicle of High Valleys and Long Rifles, by Carleton S. Coon. Am. Anthropol., 35:372- 73. Review. Notes d'ethnologie Neo-Caledonienne, by M. Leenhardt. Am. Anthropol., 35:382. Crow prayers. Am. Anthropol., 35: 433-42. Review. Ethnology of Melanesia, by A. B. Lewis. Am. Anthropol., 35:527. Review. Omaha Secret Societies, by R. W. Fortune. Am. An- thropol., 35: 529-33. The family as a social unit. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, 1932, 18:53-69. (Published also as appendix to the French translation of Primitive Society. See 1935.) Land tenure, primitive societies. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 9, pp. 76-77. New York, The Macmillan Company. Marriage. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 10, pp. 146-54. New York, The Macmillan Company. Sell`'nam kinship terms. Am. Anthropol., 35: 546-48. Primitive skeptics. Am. Mercury, 29: 320-23. 1934 An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. New York, Farrar and Rinehart. 365 pp. Religious ideas and practices of the Eurasiatic and North American areas. In: Essays Presnted to C. G. Seligman, ed. by E. E. Evans- Pritchard and others, pp. 183-88. London, George Routledge & Sons, Ltd. Review. History, Psychology and Culture, by Alexander Golden- weiser. Am. Anthropol., 36:114-15. Schurtz, Heinrich (1863-1903~. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 13, p. 587. New York, The Macmillan Company.

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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE 203 Social organization. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 14, pp. 141-48. New York, The Macmillan Company. Review. Red Mother, by Frank B. Linderman. ^ ^ -' 36: 124-26. Am. Anthropol., Review. Life in Lesu: The Study of a Melanesian Society in New Ireland, by Hortense Powdermaker. Am. Antl~ropol., 36:129- 30. Some moot problems in social organization. 321-30. Am. Anthropol., 36: Review. Bambuti, die Zwerge von Kongo, by Paul Schebesta. Am. Anthropol., 36:469. The Omaha and Crow kinship terminologies. In: Verhandlungen des XXIV. Internationalen Amerikanisten-Kongresses, Ham- burg, 1930, ed. by R. Grossmann and G. Antze, pp. 102-8. Ham- burg, Friederichsen, De Gruyter & Co. m.b.H. 1935 Fine kaukasisch-lapplandische Parallele. Anthropos, 30:224-25. The Crow Indians. New York, Farrar and Rinehart. 350 pp. Waitz, Franz Theodor (1821-1864~. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 15, p. 321. New York, The Macmillan Com- pany. Traite de sociologic humaine. (French translation of Primitive Society, translated by Alfred Metraux.) Paris, Payot. 460 pp. 1936 Cultural anthropology: a science. Am. ~. Sociol., 42:301-20. Manuel d'anthropologie culturelle. (French translation of An In- troduction to Cultural Anthropology, translated by Alfred Metraux.) Paris, Payot. 390 pp. Alfred L. Kroeber: professional appreciation. In: Essay in An- thropology Presented to Alfred L. Kroeber, ed. by R. H. Lowie, pp. xix-xxiii. Berkeley, University of California Press. Lewis H. Morgan in historical perspective. In: Essays in An- thropology Presented to Alfred L. Kroeber, ed. by R. H. Lowie, pp. 169-81. Berkeley, University of California Press. Bibliography of Alfred L. Kroeber. In: Essays in Anthropology Presented to Alfred L. Kroeber, ed. by R. H. Lowie, pp. 423-28. Berkeley, University of California Press. A 1 J ' ~ j _ _ _

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204 Review. Bei Bauern und fagern in Inner-Angola, by Lunda Baumann. Am. Anthropol., 38:118-20. Review. Die schwarze Frau im Wandel Afrikas: Eine soziologische Studie unter ostafrikanischen Stammen, by Hilde Thurnwald. Am. Anthropol., 38: 120-21. Review. Introduction a la connaissance de l'lle de Paques, by A. Metraux. Am. Anthropol., 38: 126-27. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1937 The History of Ethnological Theory. New York, Farrar and Rine- hart. 296 pp. Review. Schopfung und Urzeit des Menschen im Mythus der afrikanischen Volker, by Lunda Baumann. Am. Anthropol., 39: 346~7. Dr. Wissler on "The Crow Indians." Am. Anthropol., 39:366. With Curt Nimuendaju. The dual organizations of the Ramko- kamekra (Capella) of northern Brazil. Am. Anthropol., 39:565- 82. Translation. The Gamella Indians, by Curt Nimuendaju. Primi- tive Man, 10:58-72. Introduction. In: A Black Civilization, by W. Lloyd Warner, pp. xiii-xvi. New York, Harper & Brothers. Review. fabo Proverbs from Liberia, by George Herzog and Charles G. Blooah. [. Am. Folklore, 50:198. 1938 Subsistence. In: General Anthropology, ed. by Franz Boas, pp. 282-326. Boston, D. C. Heath & Company. A note on South American parallels to Maya and Aztec traits. Am. Antiquity, 4:157-59. Translation. The Social Structure of the Ramko-kamekra, by Curt Nimuendaj u. Am. Anthropol., 40: 51-74, 760. Review. Hand buch der Methode der kulturhistorischen Eth- nologie, by Wilhelm Schmidt. Am. Anthropol., 40: 142~4. Review. Primitive Behavior, by W. I. Thomas. Am. Anthropol., 40:144. The emergence hold and the foot-drum. Am. Anthropol., 40:174. Review. Blankets and Moccasins, by G. D. Wagner and W. A. Allen. Am. Anthropol., 40:309.

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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE 205 Review. Die Feuerland-Indianer; Band II: Die Yamana, by Martin Gusinde. Am. Anthropol., 40:495-503. 1939 Ethnographic notes on the NVasho. Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Archaeol. Ethnol., 36:30 1-52. With Curt Nimuendaju. Anthropol., 41:408-15. With Z. Harris and C. F. Voegelin. Hidatsa texts. Indiana His- torical Society Prehistory Research Series, 1:169-239. Translation. The Apinaye', by Curt Nimuendaju. Catholic Uni- versity of America Anthropological Series, No. 8. Washington, Catholic University of America. 189 pp. Review. Menschen der Sudsee, Characktere und Schicksale, by T. Thurnwald. J. Am. Folklore, 51:352-53. An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. New York, Farrar and Rinehart. 584 pp. Native languages as ethnographic tools. Am. Anthropol., 42:81-89. American culture history. Am. Anthropol., 42:409-28. Translation. The Kupa, a cultivated plant of the Timbira of Brazil, by Curt Nimuendaju. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Con- gress of the Pacific Science Association, Berkeley, 1939, pp. 131- 34. Berkeley, University of California Press. Review. Race, Culture and Language, by Franz Boas. 598-99. The associations of the Serente. Am. 1941 Science, 91: Intellectual and cultural achievements of the human races. In: Scientific Aspects of the Race Problem, by H. S. Jennings et al., pp. 189-249. Washington, Catholic University of America. Note on the Ge tribes of Brazil. Am. Anthropol., 43:188-96. Review. Pioneers in American Anthropology: The Bandelier- Morgan Letters, 1873-1883, ed. by Leslie A. White. Am. An- tiquity,7:196-97. 1942 The Crow language: grammatical sketch and analyzed text. Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Archaeol. Ethnol., 39:1-141. Studies in Plains Indian folklore. Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Archaeol. Ethnol., 40: 1-28.

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206 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The transition of civilizations in primitive society. Am. J. Social. 47: 527-43. Review. The Social Life of Primitive Man, by S. A. Sieber and F. H. Muller. Am. Anthropol., 44:313-14. Review. The Cheyenne Way, by K. N. Llewellyn and E. A. Hoebel. Am. Anthropol., 44:478-79. A marginal note to Professor Radcliffe-Brown's paper on "Social Structure." Am. Anthropol., 44:519-21. The professor talks back. Antioch Review, 2:317-21. Translation. The Serente, by Curt Nimuendaju. Publications of the F. W. Hodge Anniversary Publication Fund, Los Angeles, Vol. 4, 106 pp. Review. Smoke from Their Fires: The Life of a Kwaklutl Chief, by C. S. Ford. To-morrow, 1:59-60. Review. Sun Chief, by L. W. Simmons. lg43 To-morrow, 1: 62-63. Property rights and coercive powers of Plains Indian military societies. Journal of Legal and Political Science, 1:59-71. Soviet Russia and religion. To-morrow, 3:43-44. Review. Haddon: The Head Hunter, by A. H. Quiggin. Am. Anthropol., 45: 478-79. A note on the social life of the Northern Kayapo. 45:633-35. Franz Boas, anthropologist. Sci. Monthly, 56: 183-84. Franz Boas: his predecessors and his contemporaries. Science, Am. Anthropol., 97:202-3. 1944 Franz Boas ~ 1858-1942) . l. Am. Folklore, 57: 59-64. Bibliography of Franz Boas in folklore. J. Am. Folklore, 57:65-69. American contributions to anthropology. Science, 100:321-27. lean Bassett Johnson. Am. Anthropol., 46: 528-29. South American messiahs. Tomorrow, 4:68-70. Translation. Serente Tales, by Curt Nimuendaju. J. Am. Folk- lore, 57: 181-87. 1945 The German People: A Social Portrait to 1914. New York, Farrar and Rinehart. 143 pp.