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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE 207 A note on Lapp culture history. S.W. J. Anthropol., 1:447-54. Review. American Psychiatric Association, One Hundred Years of American Psychiatry. Am. J. Psychiatry, 102:138-41. With Clyde Kluckhohn. The psychiatry-anthropology relationship. Am. l. Psychiatry, 102:414-16. 1946 A case of bilingualism. Word, 1:249-59. Review. A Scientific Theory of Culture and O ther Essays, by Bronislaw Malinowski. Am. Anthropol., 48:118-19. Evolution in cultural anthronolo~v: a reolv to Leslie White. Am. Anthropol., 48:223-33. 1 C7' 1 J Translation. Social Organization and Beliefs of the Botocudo of Eastern iBrazil, by Curt Nimuendaju. S.W. l. Anthropol., 2:93- 115. Professor White and "anti-evolutionist" schools. 2:240-41. S.W. J. Anthropol., Eastern Brazil: an introduction. In: Handbook of South American Indians, ed. by Julian H. Steward. Bureau of American Eth- nology Bulletin 143, Vol. 1, pp. 381-97. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print Off. The Bororo. In: Handbook of South American Indians, ed. by Julian H. Steward. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143, Vol. 1, pp. 419-34. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. The Northwestern and Central Ge. In: Handbook of South Amer- ican Indians, ed. by Julian H. Steward. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143, Sol. 1, pp. 477-517. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. The Southern Cayapo. In: Handbook of South American Indians, ed. by Julian H. Steward. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143, Vol. 1, pp. 519-20. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. The Tapuya; the Cariri; the Pancaruru; the Tarairiu; the Jeico; and the Guck. In: Handbook of South American Indians, ed. by Julian H. Steward. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143, Vol. 1, pp. 553-69. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. With Louis C. tones. New York Branch of the American Folklore Society. J. Am. Folklore, 59:489-91. Historia d e la Etnol~ogia. (Spanish translation of History of

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208 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Ethnological Theory, translated by Paul Kirchhoff.) Fondo de Cultura economica, Mexico. 358 pp. Translation. The Eastern Timbira, by Curt Nimuendaju. Calif. Publ. Am. Archaeol. Ethnol., 41:1-357. 1947 Franz Boas, 1858-1942. In: National Academy of Sciences, Bio- graphical Memoirs, 24:303-22. New York, Columbia University Press. Letters from Ernst Mach to Robert H. Lowie. Isis, 37:65-68. Some problems in Plains Indian folklore. i. Am. Folklore, 60:401-3. Primitive Society. 2d ed. New York, Liveright Publishing Corpora- tion. xii + 463 pp. 1948 Social Organization. New York, Rinehart & Co., Inc. 465 pp. Parochialism and historical instruction. In: Learning and World Peace, eighth symposium, ed. by Lyman Bryson and others, pp. 89-98. Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion to the Democratic Way of Life, Philadelphia, 1947. New York, The Conference. Some facts about Boas. S.W. i. Anthropol., 4:69-70. Some aspects of political organization among the American Indians. Huxley Memorial Lecture for 1948, Royal Anthropological In- stitute, London, pp. 1-14. The tropical rain forests: an introduction. In: Handbook of South American Indians, ed. by Julian H. Steward. Bureau of Amer- ican Ethnology Bulletin 143, Vol. 3, pp. 1-56. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Review. Geschichte der Kultur: Eine allgemeine Ethnologie, by Kaj Birket-Smith. J. Am. Folklore, 61:401. Primitive Religion. (Rev. ea.) New York, Liveright Publishing Corporation. xxiii + 382 pp. 1949 Supplementary facts about Clark Wissler. Am. Anthropol., 51:528. ~ohn Montgomery Cooper, 1881-1949. Boletin bibliografico de Antropologia Americana, Mexico, D.F., 12:289-92. Review. Fatherland:~4 Study of Authoritarianism in the German Family, by Bertram Schaffner. Man, 48:131. Review. The American People, by Geoffrey Gorer. Man, 49:34.

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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE 1950 209 Observations on the literary style of the Crow Indian. In: Beitrage zur Gesellungs- and Volkerwissenschaft (Thurnwald Festschrift), pp. 271-83. Social and political organization of the Tropical; Forest and Marginal tribes. In: Handbook of South American Indians, ed. by Julian H. Steward. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143, Vol. 5, pp. 313-50. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Property among the Tropical Forest and Marginal tribes. In: Handbook of South American Indians, ed. by Julian H. Steward. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143, Vol. 5, pp. 351-67. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Review. Gegenwarts-Probleme Berliner Familien: Fine sozio- logische Untersuchung an 498 Familien, by Hilde Thurnwald. Am. Anthropol., 52:105-6. Review. Der Ursprung der Gottesidee, Vol. 9, by Wilhelm Schmidt. Am. Anthropol., 52:519-21. 1951 Some problems of geographical distribution. In: South Sea Stud ies, pp. 1 1-26. Basel, Museum fur Volkerkunde und Schweizerischen Museum fur Volkskunde. Beitrage zur Volkerkunde Nordamerikas. (Mitteilungen aus dem Museum fur Volkerkunde in Hamburg.) Vol. XXIII, pp. 7-68, Hamburg. Some aspects of political organization among American aborigines. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 78: 1 1-24. Foreword. In: Reality and Dream: Psychotherapy of a Plains Indian' by George Devereux, pp. xiii-xiv. New York, Interna- tional Universities Press. 1952 The heterogeneity of Marginal cultures. In: Selected Papers of the XXIXth International Congress of Americanists, ed. by Sol Tax, Vol. 3, pp. 1-7. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. The Wenner-Gren Foundation International Symposium on An- thropology. Sociologus, 2: 145-48. Review. Mythos und Cult bei Naturvolkern: Religions wissen-

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210 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS schaftliche Betrachtungen, by A. E. Jensen. i. Am. Folklore, 65: 102~. Translation. The Tukuna, by Curt Nimuendaju. Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Archaeol. Ethnol., 45:1-207. Review. Des Menschengeistes erwachen, wachsen, und irren, by R. Thurnwald. Psyche, 4:50-52. The song"Frohe Botschaft." i. Am. Folklore, 65:187. Review. Mythe, Mensch, und Umwelt: Beitrage zur Religion, My- thologie, und Kulturgeschichte, ed. by A. E. Jensen. Am. An- thropol., 54:400-1. 1953 On historical and ethnographic techniques. Am. Anthropol., 55: 280. Review. Tupari, by Franz Caspar. Am. Anthropol., 55:441~2. Ethnography, cultural and social anthropology. Am. Anthropol., 55 :527-34. The relations between the Kiowa and the Crow Indians. Bulletin de la Societe Suisse des Americanistes, 7: 1-5. The Comanche, a sample of acculturation. Sociologus, 3:122-27. Alleged Kiowa-Crow amenities. S.W. i. Anthropol., 9: 357-68. Contemporary currents in American ethnology. Ethnological Re- search, 17:61-76. (Translated by I. Obayashi) Review. An A ppraisal of Anthropology Today, ed. by Sol Tax et al. Sociologus, 3:137-41. 1954 Indians of the Plains. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 222 PP. A Crow tale. Anthropol. Quart., 2:1-22. Toward Understanding Germany. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. 396 pp. Field research in South America. Man, 54:100. Richard Thurnwald ( 1869-1954) . Am. Anthropol., 56: 863-67. Review. Allgemeine Volkerkunde: Formen und Entwicklung der Kultur, by Kunz Dittmer. Am. Anthropol., 56: 1114. Review. Miti e Leggende III: America Settentrionale, by Raf- faele Pettazzoni. Western Folklore, 13:218-20. Review. Franz Boas: The Science of Man in the Making, by M. l. Herskovits. Sci. Monthly, 78:47.

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ROBERT HARRY LOWIE lg55 211 Reflections on the Plains Indians. Anthropol. Quart., 28:63-86. Contemporary trends in American cultural anthropology. Sociolo- gus, 5:113-21. The military societies of the Plains Creel Separata dos Anais do XXXI Congresso Internacional de Americanistes, pp. 1-9. Review. The Unwritten Law of A Ibania, by Margaret Hasluck. Am. Anthropol., 57: 1076. 1956 Boas once more. Am. Anthropol., 58:159-64. Choosing reviewers. Man, 55: 188. Supernormal experiences of American Indians. ~ . : ~o-morrow, 4: 9-16. Reminiscences of anthropological currents in America half a century ago. Am. Anthropol., 58: 995-1016. Notes on the Kiowa Indians. Tribus, 4:131-38. Review. The Hopi-Tewa of Arizona, by Edward P. Dozier. Soci- ologus, 6:189-91. Review. Marriage, Authority, and Final Causes: A Study of Uni- lateral Cross-Cousin Marriage, by George C. Homans and David M. Schneider. Am. Anthropol., 58:1144. 1957 Generalizations, field work, and materialism. Am. Anthropol., 59: 884-85. (L) Primitive messianism and an ethnological problem. Diogenes, 19:62-72. With Luella Winifred Cole. A Practical Handbook for Planning a Trip to Europe. New York, Vantage Press, Inc. 206 pp. POSTHUMOUS PUBLICATIONS 1958 The culture-area concept as applied to North and South America. Proc. 32d Internat. Congr. Americanists, Copenhagen, 1956, pp. 73-78. Copenhagen, Einar Munksgaard Forlag. Individuum und Gesellschaft in der Religion der Naturvolker. Z. Ethnol., 83: 161-69.

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212 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1959 The oral literature of the Crow Indians. i. Am. Folklore, 72:97- 105. A note on Crow curses. i. Am. Folklore, 72:105. Robert H. Lowie, Ethnologist: A Personal Record. Berkeley, Uni- versity of California Press. 198 pp. Bemerkungen uber die Rolle der Religion in Alltagsleben der Crow Indianer. Z. Ethnol., 84: 1~. The development of ethnography as a science. In: Men and Moments in the History of Science, ed. by H. M. Evans, pp. 130-42. Seattle, University of Washington Press. 226 pp. 1960 Crow Texts: Collected, Translated and Edited by R. H. Lowie. Berkeley, University of California Press. 550 pp. Crow Word Lists: Crow-English and English-Crow Vocabularies. Berkeley, University of California Press. 411 pp. Empathy, or "seeing from within." In: Culture in History: Essays in Honor of Paul Radin, ed. by Stanley Diamond, pp. 145-59. New York, Columbia University Press. A few Assiniboine texts, collected and translated by R. H. Lowie. Anthropol. Linguistics, 2:1-30. My Crow interpreter. In: In the Company of Man, ed. by Joseph B. Casagrande, pp. 427-37. New York, Harper & Brothers. The oral literature of the Crow Indians. Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Brussels, 1948, p. 133. Tervuren, The Congress. 1963 Compromise in primitive society. (Le Compromis dans la societe primitive.) International Social Science journal (Revue in- ternationale des sciences sociales), 15: 188-238. Religion in human life. Am. Anthropol., 65:532~2. Washo texts. Anthropol. Linguistics, 5:1-30. 1966 With Fred Eggan. Kinship terminology. In: Encyclopaedia Bri- tannica, Vol. 13, pp. 377-81. Chicago, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.

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WINTHROP JOHN VAN LE UVEN OSTERH O UT August 2, 1871-April 9, 1964 BY L. R. BLINKS WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT was born in Brook- lyn, New York, on August 2, 1871, a little over a century ago. He died in New York, April 9, 1964. Elected to the Na- tional Academy of Sciences in 1919, he lived to be one of its older members (aged ninety-two). He greatly influenced the course of biology in the United States, as it turned from a largely descriptive into an experimental and analytical science. He was one of the founders of the new discipline of general physiology, through his own work and through his editorship of the Journal of General Physiology, which he founded, with Jacques Loeb, in 1918. He remained an editor for over forty-five years, and trained many students who contributed to general physiology. Winthrop Osterhout was the son of the Reverend John Vanleuven Osterhout and Annie Loranthe Beman Osterhout. the only child of Mr. and Mrs. R. Beman of Brooklyn. The mother's family were English; she lived in Baltimore before her marriage. The Osterhout family were Dutch, having come, as the name implies, from the town of Oosterhout (East Wood) south of the Rhine delta near Breda in the North Brabant province of the Netherlands. Jan Jansen van Osterhout and his wife, Annetje Gielis, came to New Amsterdam (later New York) before 1653, and lived first in Brooklyn; they moved up the Hudson, settling near Kingston. Later many family members 213

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214 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS lived in the vicinity of Ellensville, in Ulster County, and Win- throp's uncle William was a tanner in Tannersville, in the Catskills. There seem to be no New England ancestors to account for the distinguished name of Winthrop, which may have been given for some good friend. At the time of Winthrop's birth his father was a Baptist minister in Webster, Massachusetts, his congregation consisting largely of working people of very small means. John Osterhout was an idealist who preferred to minister to poor people, rather than seek a position at a wealthier church. When Winthrop's mother and infant sister died of typhoid fever in 1873, the boy was left without a nurse. At first his father tried to care for the boy himself, and wrote that "Winnie is a good little traveller," when he took his son along wherever he went to preach. However, this arrangement proved too difficult, and young Winthrop was sent to live with his grandmother in Baltimore. . ~ . . This was apparently a happy time, since Grandmother was easygoing and gave him much freedom to play with boys of his own age on the street. Meanwhile the elder Osterhout had remarried, but his second wife died very soon, and Winthrop never knew her. Finally, when he was eight years old, Winthrop moved to Providence, Rhode Island, where his father had again re- married; here he grew up under the care of his stepmother, who was good to him, although never very close; she was a somewhat formal person who always addressed her husband as Mr. Oster- hout, or "Mr. O." However, Winthrop knew her as Mother; she lived into the third decade of the next century. The parents had bicycles and took trips on them, but the boy was not in- cluded, and in general did not enjoy athletics. He did not play games, not even tennis, and apparently did not have any close boyhood friends that he could remember. In later life his chief recreation was walking and rowing. His father's church in Providence was also a poor one, and

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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 215 the family never enjoyed affluence. Winthrop attended Bridg- ham Grammar School and Providence High School; when he was ten years old he got a job as errand boy in a bookstore, where he had a chance to get acquainted with books. His em- ployer liked him and allowed him to read; from then on most of his leisure time was spent in reading. Finally, when he entered Brown University in 1889, he was entranced by the col- lection at the library. He at least glanced into every book on the shelves to see whether the contents interested hima feat possible in 1890 but scarcely in any present university library! He was interested mainly in literature, and was elected class poet; he probably would have become a teacher of literature had not one of those chance happenings deflected him to science. In his junior year he met Professor H. C. Bumpus, who had recently come to Brown from Olivet (a small Congregational college in Michigan that had a remarkable succession of good biologists on its staffs. Bumpus urged Osterhout to attend the botany course at nearby Woods Hole, in the summer of 1892; there the famous Marine Biological Laboratory, then only four years old, was just getting established. Here were such biologists as T. H. Morgan, E. G. Conklin, Frank Lillie, and Jacques Loeb, who later became a very close friend. The teacher of the botany course was W. A. Setchell, a recent Ph.D. of W. G. Farlow's at Harvard and then Instructor at Yale. Osterhout and Setchell often went on collecting expeditions. Here began Osterhout's acquaintance with marine and fresh- water algaethe organisms he was to exploit so successfully in later research. One day he actually found Nitella in Nobska Pond, though it was thirty years before its physiological ad- vantages were recognized. (Fifty years later Osterhout was to write Setchell's biography for the American Philosophical So- ciety.) Osterhout made such an impression on Setchell that the lat- ter invited him to assist in the course next summer, which he

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232 1926 1929 1930 1933 1939 1957 1964 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS D.Sc. (Hon.), Brown Un iversity Attended International Physiological Congress (Boston) Attended International Botanical Congress (Cambridge England ) Married (2d) Marian Irwin, New Castle, Delaware Member Emeritus, Rockefeller Institute Last paper published (Annual Review of Plant Phys- iology) Died, New York City, April 9 MEMBERSHIPS o ~ - _ ~ _, Member, National Academy of Sciences Corresponding Member, Botanical Society of Edinburgh; Kungliga FysiogralSska Sallskapet, Lund; Kaiserlich Leopold-Carolinische deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher (Halle); Academy of Na- tural Sciences (Philadelphia) Member, Washington and New York Academies of Science, Amer- ican Society of Plant Physiologists, Botanical Society of America, Society of General Physiologists, American Society of Naturalists, American Philosophical Society, American Chemical Society, American Physiological Society, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences. American Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science

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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 233 BIBLIOGRAPHY This bibliography was greatly aided by one assembled by Nina Kobelt, Osterhout's secretary at the Rockefeller Institute. KEY TO ABBREVIA TI ONS Am. i. Botany American Journal of Botany Biol. Bull. Biological Bulletin Bot. Gaz. Botanical Gazette Bot. Rev. Botanical Review Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology Jahrb. wissensch. Bot. Jahrbucher fur wissenschaftliche Botanik J. Biol. Chem. Journal of Biological Chemistry |.G.P. Journal of General Physiology Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. University of California Publications in Botany 1896 On the life-history of Rhabdonia tenera, J. Ag. 10: 403-27. 2 plates. With W. A. Setchell. Some aqueous media for preserving algae for class material. Bot. Gaz., 21:140~1. A simple freezing device. Bot. Gaz., 21: 195. Annals of Botany, 1897 Uber Entstehung der karyokinetischen Spindel bei Equisetum. [ahrb. wissensch. Bot., 30:159-65. 1898 Problems of heredity. 1900 Befruchtung bei Batrachospermum. 1902 University Chronicle (Berkeley), 1 :311-15. Flora, 87:109-15. Cell studies. I. Spindle formation in Agave. California Academy of Sciences, 2:255-65. 1904 Contributions to cytological technique. 2:73-75. Proceedings of the Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot.,

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234 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1905 Ex periments with Plants. New York, The Macmillan Company. xix + 492 pp. (With many reprintings and at least two transla- tions, one into Dutch, 1909, and one by N. A. Maximov in Russian, in the late 1920s.) 1906 The resistance of certain marine algae to changes in osmotic pres- sure and temperature. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 2:227-28. The role of osmotic pressure in marine plants. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 2: 229-30. On the importance of physiologically balanced solutions for plants. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 2:231-34. The antitoxic action of potassium on magnesium. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 2:235-36. Extreme toxicity of sodium chloride and its prevention by other salts. I. Biol. Chem., 1:363-69. On the importance of physiologically balanced solutions for plants. I. NIarine plants. Bot. Gaz., 42:127-34. 1907 On the importance of physiologically balanced solutions for plants. II. Fresh-water and terrestrial plants. Bot. Gaz., 44:259-72. On nutrient and balanced solutions. 317-18. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 2: 1908 The antagonistic action of magnesium and potassium. Bot. Gaz., 45:117-24. The value of sodium to plants by reason of its protective action. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 3:331-37. On the effects of certain poisonous gases on plants. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 3:339-40. On plasmolysis. Bot. Gaz., 46:53-55. Weitere Untersuchungen uber die Ubereinstimmung der Salzwirk- ungen bei Tieren und Pflanzen. Die Schutzwirkung des Natriums fur Pflanzen. Jahrb. wissensch. Bot., 46: 121-36.

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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 235 1909 Proeven met planter. Netherlands. The nature of balanced solutions. Translated by S. i. Geerts-Ronner. The Bot. Gaz., 47: 48-49. On similarity in the behavior of sodium and potassium. 48:98-104. 1910 Bot. Gaz., With E. W. Hilgard. Agriculture for Schools of the Pacific Slope. New York, The Macmillan Company. xix + 428 pp. On the penetration of inorganic salts into living protoplasm. Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, 70:408-13. 1911 The permeability of living cells to salts in pure and balanced solu- tions. Science, 34:187-89. 1912 The permeability of protoplasm to ions and the theory of an- tagonism. Science, 35: 112-15. Plants which require sodium. Bot. Gaz., 54:532-36. Reversible changes in permeability produced by electrolytes. Sci- ence, 36:350-52. Some chemical relations of plants and soil. Science, 36:571-76. 1913 The effect of anesthetics upon permeability. Science, 37:111-12. Also in Proceedings of the American Physiological Society (1911-12), 29:xi. The organization of the cell with respect to permeability. Science. 38 :408-9. Protoplasmic contractions resembling plasmolysis which are caused by pure distilled water. Bot. Gaz., 55:446-51. Some quantitative researches on the permeability of plant cells. Plant World, 16: 129-44. 1914 The chemical dynamics of living protoplasm. Science, 39:544-46. The effect of alkali on permeability. J. Biol. Chem., 19:335-43.

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236 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The effect of acid on permeability. J. Biol. Chem., 19:493-501. Antagonism between acids and salts. i. Biol. Chem., 19:517-20. Quantitative criteria of antagonism. Bot. Gaz., 58:178-86. The measurement of antagonism. Bot. Gaz., 58:272-76. The forms of antagonism curves as affected by concentration. Bot. Gaz., 58: 367-71. Stetige Anderungen in den Formen van Antagonismus-Kurven. tahrb. wissensch. Bot., 54: 645-50. Uber den Temperaturkoeffizienten des elektrischen Leitvermogens im lebenden und toten Gewebe. Biochemische Zeitschrift, 67: 272-77. Vitality and injury as quantitative conceptions. Science, 40:488-91. 1915 Extreme alterations of permeability without inj ury. Bot. Gaz., 59:242-53. On the decrease of permeability due to certain bivalent kations. Bot. Gaz., 59:317-30. The effects of some trivalent and tetravalent kations on permeabil- ity. Bot. Gaz., 59:464-73. The determination of additive effects. Bot. Gaz., 60:228-34. The measurement of toxicity. l. Biol. Chem., 23:67-70. Normal and abnormal permeability. Am. I. Botany, 2: 93-94. On the nature of antagonism. Science, 41:255-56. 1916 The decrease of permeability produced by anesthetics. Bot. Gaz., 61:148-58. A dynamical theory of antagonism. Philosophical Society, 55: 533-53. Proceedings of the American Tl~e dynamics of antagonism. Science, 43:721. Eduard Strasburger (1844-1912~. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 51, No. 14. The nature of mechanical stimulation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 2:237-39. Permeability and viscosity. Science, 43: 857-59. Antagonism and Weber's Law. Science, 44:318-20. The penetration of balanced solutions and the theory of antagonism. Science, 44:395-96. Specific action of barium. Am. J. Botany, 3:481-82.

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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 237 1917 Antagonism and permeability. Science, 45:97-103. The dynamics of the process of death. i. Biol. Chem., 31:585-89. Also in Science, 46:542. Some aspects of the temperature coefficients of life processes. i. Biol. Chem., 32:23-27. With A. R. C. Haas. An adaptation of Winkler's method to bio- logical work. I. Biol. Chem., 32:141~6. With A. R. C. Haas. The dynamics of photosynthesis. Science. 46:343. The role of the nucleus in oxidation. Science, 46:367-69. Similarity in the effects of potassium cyanide and of ether. Bot. Gaz., 63:77-80. Tolerance of fresh water by marine plants and its relation to adaptation. Bot. Gaz., 63: 146-49. Does the temperature coefficient of permeability indicate that it is chemical in nature? Bot. Gaz., 63:317-20. 1918 The basis of measurement of antagonism. l. Biol. Chem., 34:363- 68. The determination of buffer effects in measuring respiration. l. Biol. Chem., 35: 237-40. Conductivity as a measurement of permeability. 36:485-88. T. Biol. Chem., A demonstration of photosynthesis. Am. I. Botany, 5:105-11. With A. R. C. Haas. Dynamical aspects of photosynthesis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 4: 85-91. Endurance of extreme conditions and its relation to the theory of adaptation. Am. l. Botany, 5:507-10. With A. R. C. Haas. On the dynamics of photosynthesis. 1: 1-16; A method of studying respiration. T.G.P.. 1:17-22. J.G.P., , ~ ~ J An indicator method of measuring the consumption of oxygen. J.G.P., 1: 167-69. Note on the effect of diffusion upon the conductivity of living tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 36:489-90. A method of measuring the electrical conductivity of living tissues. [. Biol. Chem., 36:557-68.

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238 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With A. R. C. Haas. A simple method of measuring photosynthesis. Science, 47:420-22. Note on measuring the relative rates of life processes. Science, 48: 172-74. The nucleus as a center of oxidation. Memoirs, 1: 342-47. Brooklyn Botanical Garden A simple method of demonstrating the production of aldehyde by chlorophyll and by aniline dyes in the presence of sunlight. Am. J. Botany, 5:511-13. Comparative studies of respiration. 171-79. ~ 1919 With A. R. C. Haas. J.G.P., 1:295-98. A comparative study of permeability in plants. J.G.P., 1:299-304. Decrease of permeability and antagonistic effects caused by bile salts. J.G.P., 1 :405-8. A comparison of permeability in plant and animal cells. l.G.P., 1 :409-13. Antagonism between alkaloids and salts in relation to permeability. J.G.P., 1:515-19. Comparative studies on respiration. VII. Respiration and antago- nism. Introductory note. l.G.P., 2:1-4. Apparatus for the study of photosynthesis and respiration. Bot. Gaz., 68: 60-62. I. Introduction. J.G.P., 1: The temperature coefficient of photosynthesis. 1920 The mechanism of injury and recovery. l.G.P., 3:15-20. A theory of injury and recovery. I. Experiments with pure salts. ].G.P., 3: 145-56. 1921 A theory of injury and recovery. II. Experiments with mixtures. J.G.P., 3:415-29. A theory of injury and recovery. III. Repeated exposures to toxic solutions. J.G.P., 3:611-22. Conductivity and permeability. J.G.P., 4: 1-9. The mechanism of injury and recovery of the cell. 56. Science, 53:352-

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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 239 1922 Direct and indirect determinations of permeability. 83. Injury, recovery and death. American journal of Physiology, 59: 443. Some aspects of selective absorption. i.G.P., 5:225-30. 1923 J.G.P., 4:275- Exosmosis in relation to injury and permeability. i.G.P., 5:709-25. In jury, Recovery and Death in Relation to Cond activity and Permeability. Monograph on experimental biology. Philadel- phia, J. B. Lippincott Company. 259 pp. (Reviewed in J. Am. Chem. Soc., 45:1861.) The mechanism of injury, recovery and death. 17: 174-200. Harvey Lectures, Continuation of investigations on permeability in cells. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book, 22:290. The Nature of Life. New York, Henry Holt & Co. 117 pp. (solver Lectures, Brown University, 1922.) 1924 Jacques Loeb, the scientist. in Science, 59:428. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 21:iv; also 1925 On the importance of maintaining certain differences between cell sap and external medium. [.G.P., 7:561-64. With M. J. Dorcas. Contrasts in the cell sap of Valonia and the problem of flotation. l.G.P., 7: 633-40. Is living protoplasm permeable to ions? i.G.P., 8:131-46. With M. J. Dorcas. The penetration of CO2 into living protoplasm. J.G.P., 9:255-67. 1926 The behavior of electrolytes in Valonia. 24: 234-35. 1927 Some aspects of bioelectrical phenomena. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., J.G.P., 11 :83-99.

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240 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With E. B. Damon and A. G. Jacques. Dissimilarity of inner and outer protoplasmic surfaces in Valonia. ~.G.P., 11:193-205. Some Fundamental Problems of Cellular Physiology. (3d William Thompson Sedgwick Memorial Lecture) New Haven, Yale University Press. 55 pp. 1928 Jacques Loeb. [.G.P., 8: ix-fix. Jacques Loeb. Collecting Net, 25: 7. With E. S. Harris. Protoplasmic asymmetry in Nitella as shown by bioelectric measurements. ].G.P., 11:391-406. With E. S. Harris. The death wave in Nitella. I. Application of like solutions. J.G.P., 1 2:167-86. With A. G. Jacques. Internal vs. external toxicity in Valonia. J.G.P., 12:209-19. With E. S. Harris. Reversible changes in living protoplasm. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26:124-25. Note on the penetration of electrolytes. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26: 192-97. Some aspects of cellular physiology. In: Lectures on Plant Pathol- ogy and Physiology in Relation to Man, pp. 179-90 (Mayo Foundation Lectures, 1926-27~. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company. With E. S. Harris. unlike solutions. 1929 The death wave in Nitella. II. Applications of J.G.P., 12:355-61. With W. C. Cooper, fir., and M. l. Dorcas. strong electrolytes. J.G.P., 1 2:427-33. Edith E. S. Harris. The concentration effect in Nitella. ].~.P., 12:761-81. With E. S. Harris. Note on the nature of the current of injury in tissues. J.G.P., 13:47-56. With L. R. Blinks and E. S. Harris. Studies on stimulation in I\Titella. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26:836-38. With E. S. Harris. Bioelectrical aspects of the all-or-none law. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26:838-40. Some aspects of permeability and bioelectrical phenomena. In: Molecular physics in relation to biology. Bulletin of the Na- tional Research Council, 69:170-228. The penetration of

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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 241 1930 With E. B. Damon. The concentration effect with Valonia: poten- tial differences with concentrated and diluted sea water. ~.G.P., 13:445-57. With S. E. Hill. Negative variations in Nitella produced by chloro- form and by potassium chloride. l.G.P., 13:459-67. With S. E. Hill. Salt bridges and negative variations. J.G.P., 13:547-52. \~\lith A. G. Jacques. The kinetics of penetration. II. The penetra- tion of CO., into Valonia. J.G.P., 13:695-713. Calculations of bioelectrical potentials. I. Effects of KC1 and NaC1 on Nitella. ]. G.P., 13:715-32. With W. C. Cooper, fir. The accumulation of electrolytes. I. The entrance of ammonia into Valonia macrophysa. l.G.P., 14:117- 25. The kinetics of penetration. III. Eauations for the exchange of ions. [.G.P., 14:277-84. 1 - - O- The accumulation of electrolytes. II. Suggestions as to the nature of accumulation in Valonia. [.G.P., 14:285-300. With A. G. Jacques. The accumulation of electrolytes. III. Be- havior of sodium, potassium and ammonium in Valonia. ~.G.P., 14:301-14. 1931 Electrical phenomena in the living cell. 85, 1929-30. \\lith S. E. Hill. The death wave in Nitella. III. Transmission. [.G.P., 14:385-92. With S. E. Hill. Electrical variations due to mechanical transmis- sion of stimuli. ~.G.P., 14:473-85. Harvey Lectures, 25: 169- With S. E. Hill. The production and inhibition of action currents by alcohol. J.G.P., 14:611-16. Physiological studies of single plant cells. Biological Reviews, 6: 369-411. 1932 With A. G. Jacques. The accumulation of electrolytes. IV. Internal versus external concentrations of potassium. {.G.P., 15:537-50. NVith W. M. Stanley. The accumulation of electrolytes. V. Models showing accumulation and a steady state. }.G.P., 15:667-89.

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242 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The kinetics of penetration IV. Diffusion against a growing poten- tial gradient in models. J.G.P., 16:157-63. With W. M. Stanley. Models showing accumulation. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 29:577-78. Studies on large plant cells. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 9:135-39. 1933 The kinetics of penetration. V. The kinetics of a model as related to the steady state. l.G.P., 16: 529-57. With S. E. Hill. Anesthesia produced by distilled water. [.G.P., 17:87-98. Anesthesia in acid and alkaline solutions. l.G.P., 17:99-103. The electrical behavior of large plant cells. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 1: 125-30. Also in Collecting Net, 8:213-14. Osmotic pressure in relation to permeability in large plant cells and in models. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 1:166- 69. Permeability in large plant cells and in models. Physiologie, 35: 967-1021. Some aspects of cell physiology. 7: 396-400. With S. E. Hill. Reversible loss of the potassium effect in distilled water. l.G.P., 17: 105-8. Ergebnisse der Annals of Internal Medicine, 1934 With S. E. Kamerling and W. M. Stanley. The kinetics of penetra- tion. VI. Some factors affecting penetration. J.G.P., 17:445-67. With S. E. Kamerling and \\1. M. Stanley. The kinetics of penetra- tion. VII. Molecular vs. ionic transport. J.G.P., 17:469-80. With S. E. Kamerling. The kinetics of penetration. VIII. Tem- porary accumulation. |.G.P., 17:507-16. With A. G. Jacques. The accumulation of electrolytes. VI. The effect of external pH. J.G.P., 17: 727-50. Nature of the action currents in Nitella. I. General considerations. J.G.P., 18:215-27. With S. E. Kamerling. The kinetics of penetration. IX. Models of mature cells. ~.G.P., 18: 229-34. With A. G. Jacques. Penetration of potassium into Nitella. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 31:1121-22.