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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 243 1935 With S. E. Hill. Positive variations in Nitella. l.G.P., 18:369-75. With S. E. Hill. Nature of the action current in Nitella. II. Special cases. [.G.P., 18:377-83. With S. E. Hill. Nature of the action current in Nitella. Some ad- ditional features. l.G.P., 18:499-514. With S. E. Hill. Restoration of the potassium effect by means of action currents. i.G.P., 18:681-86. Mechanical restoration of irritability and of the potassium effect. ~.G.P., 18: 687-94. With A. G. Jacques. The kinetics of penetration. XI. Entrance of potassium into ~Vitella. }.G.P., 18: 967-85. Chemical restoration in Nitella. I. Ammonia and some of its com- pounds. J.G.P., 18: 987-95. With S. E. Kamerling. The accumulation of electrolytes. VIII. The accumulation of KC1 in models. ~.G.P., 19:167-78. With S. E. Hill. Pacemakers in Nitella. I. Temporary local dif- ferences in rhythm. l.G.P., 19: 307-9. How do electrolytes enter the cell? Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 21: 125-32. How do electrolytes penetrate the cell? Collecting Net, 10:1-8. With S. E. Hill. The role of ions in Valonia and Nitella. Biol. Bull., 69:329. \Vith S. E. Hill _ Some experimental modifications of the protoplasmic surface. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:715-16. With S. E. Hill. Some aspects of anesthesia and irritability. Sci- ence, 81:418-19. Mechanism of salt absorption by plant cells. Nature, 136: 1034-35. 1936 Chemical restoration in Nitella. II. Restorative action of blood. |.G.P., 19:423-25. Electrical phenomena in large plant cells. Physiological Reviews, 16:216-37. The absorption of electrolytes in large plant cells. Bot. Rev., 2:283-315. U ber e~n~ge chemische und elektrische Eigenschaften von proto- plasmaoberflachen. Kolloid-Zeitschrift, 77:373-85. With S. E. Hill. Some ways to control bioelectrical behavior. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 4: 43-52.

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244 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Changes of apparent ionic mobilities in protoplasm. I. Effects of guaiacol on Valonia. J.G.P., 20: 13~3. 1937 Changes of apparent ionic mobilities in protoplasm. II. The action of guaiacol as affected by pH. {.G.P., 20:685-93. Electrochemical methods in the study of plant cells. Transactions of the Electrochemical Society, 71:93-99. The protoplasmic surface in certain plant cells. Transactions of the Faraday Society, 33:997-1002. 1938 With S. E. Hill. Calculations of bioelectric potentials. II. The concentration potential of KC1 in Nitella. J.G.P., 21:541-56. Effects of potassium on the potential of Halicystis. i.G.P., 21:631- 34. With A. G. Jacques. The accumulation of electrolytes. X. Accumu- lation of iodine by Halicystis and Valonia. i.G.P., 21 :687-93. Changes of apparent ionic mobilities in protoplasm. III. Some ef- fects of guaiacol on Halicystis. J.G.P., 21:707-20. With A. G. Jacques. The accumulation of electrolytes. XI. Ac- cumulation of nitrate by Valonia and Halicystis. J.G.P., 21:767- 73. With S. E. Hill. Nature of the action current in Nitella. IV. Pro- duction of quick action currents by exposure to NaCl. l.G.P., 22:91-106. With S. E. Hill. Delayed potassium effect in Nitella. J.~.P., 22: 107-13. With S. E. Hill. Pacemakers in Nitella. II. Arrhythmia and block. J.G.P., 22:115-30. With S. E. Hill. Calculations of bioelectric potentials. IV. Some effects of calcium on potentials in Nitella. ~.G.P., 22:139-46. With I. W. Murray. The movement of water from concentrated to dilute solutions through liquid membranes. Science, 87:430. (A) With l. W. Murray. Movement of water against a gradient in models. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 38:468-70. Potentials in Halicystis as affected by non-electrolytes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 24:75-76. With S. E. Hill. Calculations of bioelectric potentials. III. Varia-

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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 245 tion in partition coefficients and ion mobilities. Sci., 24:312-15. With S. E. Hill. Reversal of the potassium effect in Nitella. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 24:427-29. 1939 Proc. Nat. Acad. Changes of apparent ionic mobilities in protoplasm. IV. Influence of guaiacol on the effects of sodium and potassium in Nitella. J.G.P., 22:417-27. Calculations of bioelectric potentials. V. Potentials in Halicystis. J.G.P., 23:53-57. Calculations of bioelectric potentials. VI. Some effects of guaiacol on Nitella. i.G.P., 23: 171-76. With S. E. Hill. Chemical restoration in Nitella. III. Effects of in- organic salts. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25:3-5. With I. W. Murray. Science, 90:397-98. Note on water in non-aqueous solutions. 1940 Alfred George Jacques. Science, 91: 133-34. With l. W. Murray. Behavior of water in certain heterogeneous systems. [.G.P., 23: 365-90. Some chemical aspects of the potassium effect. l.G.P., 23:429-32. Effects of hexylresorcinol on Nitella. ~.G.P., 23:569-73. With S. E. Hill. Action curves with single peaks in Nitella in re- lation to the movement of potassium. J.G.P., 23:743~8. Effects of guaiacol and hexylresorcinol in the presence of barium and calcium. ~.G.P., 23: 749-51. Chemical restoration in Nitella. IV. Effects of guanidine. {.G.P., 24:7-8. With S. E. Hill. The experimental production of double peaks in Chara action curves and their relation to the movement of potassium. J.G.P., 24: 9-13. Some models of protoplasmic surfaces. Quant. Biol., 8: ~ 1-52. 1941 Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Effects of hexylresorcinol on Valonia. J.G.P., 24: 311-13. Effects of nitrobenzene and benzene on Valonia. J.G.P., 24:699-702. Positive potentials due to aniline and the antagonistic action of ammonia. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology, 18: 129-35.

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246 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1942 Increased irritability in Nitella due to guanidine. 1943 Diffusion potentials in models and in living cells. 307. Pacemakers in Nitella. III. Electrical alternans. J.G.P., 26:457-65. Nature of the action current in Nitella. V. Partial response and the all-or-none law. l.G.P., 27:61-68. A model of the potassium effect. l.G.P., 27:91-100. Studies of the inner and outer surfaces of large plant cells. I. Plas- molysis due to salts. t.G.P., 27: 139~2. William Albert Setchell (1864-1943~. American Philosophical So- ciety Yearbook, pp. 431-32. J.G.P., 26:65-73. J.G.P., 26:293- 1944 Studies of the inner and outer protoplasmic surfaces of large plant cells. l.G.P., 28: 17-22. Differing rates of death at inner and outer surfaces of the proto- plasm. I. Effects of formaldehyde on Nitella. ~.G.P., 28:23-36. Differing rates of death at inner and outer surfaces of the proto- plasm. II. Negative potential in Nitella caused by formaldehyde. J.G.P., 28:37-41. Differing rates of death at inner and outer surfaces of the proto- plasm. III. Effects of mercuric chloride on Nitella. J.G.P., 28:343-47. 1945 Effects of hydroxyl on negative and positive cells of Nitella. l.G.P., 29:43-56. Water relations in the cell. I. The chloroplasts of Nitella and of Spirogyra. J.G.P., 29:73-78. 1946 Some properties of protoplasmic gels. I. Tension in the chloroplast of S/?irogyra. l.G.P., 29:181-92. Nature of the action current in Nitella. VI. Simple and complex action patterns. J. G. P., 30:47-59.

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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 247 1947 Some properties of protoplasmic gels. II. Contraction of chloro- plasts in currents of water entering the cell and expansion in outgoing currents. {.G.P., 30: 229-34. The absorption of electrolytes in large plant cells. II. Bot. Rev., 13: 194-215. Some aspects of secretion. I. Secretion of water. 1948 |.G.P., 30:439-47. Abnormal protoplasmic patterns and death in slightly hypertonic solutions. J.G.P., 31 :291-300. Effects of hypertonic solutions on Nereis eggs. Biol. Bull., 95:269. (A) Solubility of the vitelline membrane of Nereis eggs. Biol. Bull., 95:269. (A) Experiments on chloroplasts and on photosynthesis. Biol. Bull., 95:270. (A) 1949 Movements of water in cells of Nitella. ~.G.P., 32:553-58. Transport of water from concentrated to dilute solutions in cells of Nitella. [.G.P., 32:559-66. Some bioelectric problems. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 35:548-58. Extrusion of jelly by eggs of Nereis limbata under electrical stimulus. Biol. Bull., 97:260. (A) 1950 Higher permeability for water than for ethyl alcohol in Nitella. J.G.P., 33:275-84. Effects of electrical currents on the absorption of water by eggs of Nereis km bata. l.G.P., 33: 379-88. Distant effects of toxic agents. The mechanism of accumulation. Biol. Bull., 99:308. (A) Activation of Nereis eggs by a detergent. Biol. Bull., 99:362. (A) Relative solubility of the components of the Nereis egg. Biol. Bull., 99:362. (A) J.G.P., 34:279-84. 1951 Injury in relation to cell organization. J.G.P., 34:321-23.

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248 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Behavior of jelly in eggs of Nereis limbata. Biol. Bull., 101:226. (A) Detergent action of sperm extract in Nereis limbata. Biol. Bull., 101:226. (A) lg52 Some aspects of protoplasmic motion. J.G.P., 35:519-27. Mechanism of accumulation in living cells. ~.G.P., 35:579-94. Activation of eggs of Nereis limbata by a surface active extract of dead sperm. Biol. Bull., 103:305-6. (A) Reversible contraction of protoplasmic structures by changes in pH values. Biol. Bull., 103:306. (A) 1953 Protamin in an extract of the sperm of Nereis limbata. Biol. Bull.. 105:379-80. (A) Surface active material obtained from Nereis limbata. Biol. Bull., 1 05; 380. (A) With Theodore Shedlovsky. Surface active properties of an extract of the sperm of Ne'-eis limbata. Biol. Bull, 105:383-84. (A) 1954 Changes in resting potential due to a shift of electrolytes in the cell produced by non-electrolytes. l.G.P., 37 :423-32. Apparent violations of the all-or-none law in relation to potassium in the protoplasm. l.G.P., 37:813-24. Note on the work of Jacques Loeb. In: Ion Transport Across Mem- branes, pp. 1-2. New York, Academic Press, Inc. Reversible clotting in Sp~rogyra. Biol. Bull., 107:317. (A) 1955 Reversible shrinkage in Chaetomorpha. Biol. Bull., lO9: 366. (A) Apparent violations of the all-or-none law in relation to potassium in the protoplasm. In: Electrochemistry in Biology and 2VIedi- cine, ed. by T. Shedlovsky, pp. 213-24. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1956 The role of water in protoplasmic permeability and in an- tagonism. J.G.P., 39:963-76.

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WINTHROP JOHN VANLEUVEN OSTERHOUT 249 Effect of electric current on the contraction of the chloroplasts of Spirogyra. Biol. Bull., 111:310. (A) 1957 The use of aquatic plants in the study of some fundamental prob- lems. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 8:1-10.

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS January 31,1 868-A pril 2,1928 BY JAMES BRYANT CONANT THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS was a precocious son of distin- guished parents. He was born in Philadelphia on January 31, 1868, the third son and fifth child of William Trost Richards and Anna Matlack Richards, who had been married on June 30, 1856. As strict members of the Society of Friends, the Matlack family looked askance at a young man who earned his living painting pictures. Anna was "read out of meeting." The Quaker marriage ceremony took place in the house of a friend. The first months of the honeymoon were devoted to the com- position and illustration of a manuscript volume of poems for the lady who had first brought the young couple together. A mutual interest in Browning and Tennyson had started an acquaintanceship which rapidly became a romance. An old friend and fellow artist of Philadelphia reminiscing long after W. T. Richards had established his reputation as a landscape painter said, "He amazed me by getting married and resigning his position as designer fin a local firm manufacturing gas fixtures] in order to devote himself entirely to his art. I don't remember which event took place first but I thought the latter extremely unwiseand so it would have been with anyone else, but timidity had no place in his nature." Of the struggle of a largely self-taught artist to support a family in the Civil War years there is little record. By the time the third son, 251

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 267 Amend is that concerning the electromotive force of iron under varying conditions and the effect of occluded hydrogen. In this research he not only for the first time discovered the true single potential difference exhibited by iron, but explained the reasons for the low results obtained by others and threw new light upon the nature of hydrogen occluded by iron and the mechanism of overvoltage. All his results on this subject have subsequently been confirmed by Forster in a monograph pub- lished by the Bunsen Gesellschaft. With regard to his work upon electromotive forces produced by dilute amalgams, it is enough to say that with the help of pupils he has studied amalgams of cadmium, zinc, thallium, indium, lead, tin, copper, and lithium, in many cases using very concentrated solutions of the metal in mercury, and these varied data were made the basis not only for a striking verification of the exactness of the law of concentration-effect at great dilution but also a basis for a thermodynamic analysis of the cases of the deviations exhibited by concentrated solutions. The work upon the significance of changing atomic volume and atomic compressibility which has occupied much of Pro- fessor Richards's time during the last thirteen years has both a practical and a theoretical aspect. His views concerning the nature of the liquid and solid state have led him to make a large number of determinations of compressibility, of surface tension, and heat of evaporation, which have enriched consid- erably our knowledge upon this subject, and which cannot but be of lasting value, even independent of any hypothesis. Prom- inent among these data are the determinations of the compressi- bilities of the elements. In a series of investigations using an entirely new method, devised by himself, for determining compressibility, he determined the relative compressibilities of thirty-five liquid or solid elements, so distributed as to depict for the first time clearly the periodic nature of this property.

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268 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The close correspondence between compressibilities of the solid elements and their atomic volumes is shown by the two curves in the accompanying diagram, cut from one of his publications. In addition to these data concerning the elements he has, with the help as before of a number of pupils, determined the compressibilities of a variety of simple compounds, such as the halides of lithium, sodium, potassium, and thallium, on the one hand, and hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, amines, and organic halides, on the other hand. These data, many of them entirely new, afford a basis for a variety of interesting, theoretical con- clusions concerning the mechanism of the compression of solids and liquids. His work on surface tension and heat of evapora- tion, which was undertaken in order to test his hypothesis con- cerning the relation of these properties, has never yet been fully published, and therefore cannot be fully discussed at present, but enough has appeared in print to show the im- portance of the work. As has been stated, all these investigations were suggested or inspired by Richards's theory of atomic compressibility which differs radically from the current kinetic conception of the structure of solid and liquid bodies. His hypothesis first arose in his mind from the consideration of the behavior of gases, and the now generally accepted variability of the quantity b in the equation of van der Waals. He reasoned that if b is changeable, the actual size of the molecules to which b is probably nearly related must also be changeable. This implies molecular com- pressibility, and if molecules are compressible, they must be much compressed by the great forces of cohesion and chemical affinity which exist in solid and liquid substances. Accordingly he immediately sought for evidence of the compressing effect of chemical affinity and cohesion, and promptly found it in the rediscovery of the general but not invariable rule;greater af- finity usually causes greater contraction on combination. This ~ This diagram is not reproduced here.

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 269 idea has been suggested by Davy one hundred years ago, and several others since have revived it; but the idea nevertheless made no impression upon chemical literature as a whole, and was entirely overlooked by Richards until after the publication of his first papers. It must be said, however, that the oversight leas perhaps more fortunate than not, because the entirely new approach to the subject led Richards to penetrate much more fundamentally into it than those who had preceded him. He has been able to show without much room for doubt that the reasons for the occasional deviations from the general rule, de- viations which probably destroyed earlier confidence in the whole matter, are almost certainly due to the concomitant action of both chemical affinity and cohesion; in other words he by approximate quantitative evidence was able to show that not only the combination of atoms to make molecules causes com- pression, as the affinity is greater, but also that the molecules in cohering to one another in order to form a liquid or a solid compress one another in this process also. Hence the total vol- ume of a liquid or solid appears according to his hypothesis to be the result of these varying and very different affinity-pres- sures. He has been able to show that in a great many cases this hypothesis which has led him to consider atoms and molecules as closely packed without spaces between them in liquids and solids is consistent with a great variety of widely different phenomena both physical and chemical. For example, it gives entirely a new insight into the tenacity, ductility, hardness, brittleness, and surface tension; it gives a new and easily con- ceivable interpretation of the critical point; the peculiar rela- tions of material and light, such as magnetic rotation, fluores- cence, partial absorption, etc., may be referred to the modified vibrations of compressed atoms. He has pointed out also that the theory gives a very plausible explanation to the reason why as a rule among isomers the denser isomer is less volatile, less

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270 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS compressible, and possesses a greater surface tension than the less dense isomer. A clear kinetic picture of the asymmetric carbon and in general the mechanism of the actual chemical affinities of any two atoms may be based upon this hypothesis. As he has said in the Faraday Lecture: "The satisfying of each valence of an atom would cause a depression on the atomic surface, owing to the pressure exerted by the affinity in that spot. The stronger the affinity, the greater should be this distortion. Evidently this conception gives a new picture of the asymmetric carbon atom, which combined with four other different atoms, would have upon its surface depressions of four unequal magnitudes, and be twisted into an unsymmetrical tetrahedron. The combining atoms would be held on the faces of the tetrahedron thus formed, instead of impossibly perching upon the several peaks. According to this hypothesis, the carbon atom need not be imagined as a tetrahedron in the first place; it would assume the tetrahedral shape when combined with the other four atoms. One can easily image that the development of each new valence would change the affinities previously exercised, somewhat as a second depression in the side of a rubber ball will modify a forcibly caused dimple in some other part. Thus a part of the effect which each new atom has on the affinities of the other atoms already present may be explained." He has published a number of papers upon the subject of atomic compressibility; the whole matter is summed up briefly in his Faraday Lecture of 1911. During the twelve years since his first publication upon the subject, no one seems to have been able to advance a first-rate argument against this theory of compressible atoms, and if it continues to gain ground, as it has during this period, one may safely predict that before long it is bound to cause nothing short of a revolution in the kinetic point of view concerning the nature of equilibrium and change in solid and liquid substances as well as a better understanding of the deviations of gases from the exact gas law.

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 271 BIBLIOGRAPHY Note: As was customary in the last century, Richards usually published the results of his researches in both English and German scientific journals. To list all of Richards's papers would be to expand this bibliography un- necessarily. Therefore only one explicit reference is listed below for the report of an investigation. KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS Am. Chem. J. American Chemical journal Am. i. Sci. American Surreal of Science Ber. Berichte der Deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft (later, Chemische Berichte) Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publica- tion Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book Chem. News Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science (later, Chem- ical Products and the Chemical News) Chem. Rev. _ Chemical Reviews J. Am. Chem. Soc. _ journal of the American Chemical Society J. Franklin Inst. journal of the Franklin Institute J. Phys. Chem. _ Journal of Physical Chemistry Orig. Com. 8th Internat. Congr. Appl. Chem. - Original Communications of the 8th International Congress of Applied Chemistry Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (later, Daedalus) Proc. Nat. .\cad. Sci. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Z. anorg. Chem. Zeitschrift fur anorganische Chemie (later, Zeitschrift fur anorganische und allgemeine Chemie) Z. physik. Chem. Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, Stochiometrie und Verwandtschaftslehre (later, Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie) 1888 On the constancy in the heat produced by the reaction of argentic nitrate on solutions of metallic chlorides. Chem. News, 57:16- 17. With Josiah Parsons Cooke. The relative values of the atomic weights of hydrogen and oxygen. Am. Chem. J., 10:81-110. A determination of the relation of the atomic weights of copper and silver. Am. Chem. J., 10:182-87. Further investigation on the atomic weight of copper. Am. Chem. J., 10:187-91. 1889 A method of vapour density determination. Chem. News, 59:87-88.

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272 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With P. iannasch. The determination of sulphuric acid in presence of iron. Chem. News, 60:19-20. 1890 Ueber cupriammoniumbromide. Ber., 23: 3790-91. 1891 The analysis of cupric bromide and the atomic weight of copper. Chem. News, 63:20-23, 34-36, 43~4. 1892 A revision of the atomic weight of copper. Chem. News, 65:236-37, 244~5, 260-61, 265-68, 281-82, 293, 302-3. A revision of the atomic weight of copper. Chem. News, 66:7, 20-21, 29-31, 47-48, 57-58, 74, 82-83. 1893 With Elliot Folger Rogers. On the occlusion of gases by the oxides of metals. Am. Chem. i., 15: 567-78. With Hubert Grover Shawl Cupriammonium double salts. Am. Chem. i., 15: 642-53. A revision of the atomic weight of barium. First paper. The analysis of baric bromide. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 28:1-30; Z. anorg. Chem., 3:441-71. A revision of the atomic weight of barium. Second paper. The analysis of baric chloride. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 29:55-91; Z. anorg. Chem., 6: 89-127, 1894. 1894 A revision of the atomic weight of strontium. First paper. The analysis of strontic bromide. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 30:369- 89; Z. anorg. Chem., 8: 253-73, 1895. With H. George Parker. On the occlusion of baric chloride by baric sulphate. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 31:67-77; Z. anorg. Chem., 8:413-23, 1895. 1895 With Andrew Henderson Whitridge. On the cupriammonium double salts. Am. Chem. i., 17:145-54. With George Oenslager. On the cupriammonium double salts. Am. Chem. J., 17: 297-305.

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 273 With Elliot Folger Rogers. A revision of the atomic weight of zinc. First paper. The analysis of zincic bromide. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 31: 158-80; Z. anorg. Chem., 10: 1-24. 1896 With H. George Parker. A revision of the atomic weight of mag- nesium. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 32:55-73; Z. anorg. Chem., 13:81-100. 1897 With John Trowbridge. The spectra of argon. 15-20. With John Trowbridge. The multiple spectra of gases. Am. J. Sci., 4S.3:117-20. With John Trowbridge. The effect of great current strength on the conductivity of electrolytes. Philosophical Magazine, 43:376-78. On the temperature coefficient of the potential of the calomel electrode, with several different supernatant electrolytes. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 33:3-20; Z. physik. Chem., 24:39-54. Note on the rate of dehydration of crystallized salts. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 33:2 1-27; Z. anorg. Chem., 1 7: 1 65-6D, 1 898. With Allerton Seward Cushman. A revision of the atomic weight of nickel. First paper. The analysis of nickelous bromide. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 33:97-111; Z. anorg. Chem., 16:167-83, 1898. With Gregory Paul Baxter. A revision of the atomic weight of cobalt. First paper. The analysis of cobaltous bromide. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 33: 115-28; Z. anorak. Chem.. 16: 362-76. 1898. Am. l. Sci., 4S.3: Judith Benjamin Shores Meri~old. On the cuprosammonium bro- mides and the cupriammonium sulphocyanates. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 33:131-38; Z. anorg. Chem., 17:245-52, 1898. 1898 The relation of the taste of acids to their degree of dissociation. Am. Chem. J., 20:121-26. A convenient gas generator, and device for dissolving solids. Am. Chem. J., 20: 189-95. A table of atomic weights. Am. Chem. l., 20:543-54. On the cause of the retention and release of eases occluded bY the oxides of metals. With I. B. Churchill. cam Am. Chem. J., 20:701-32. The transition temperature of sodic sulphate,

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274 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a new fixed point in thermometry. 39; Z. physik. Chem., 26:691-98. With Wentworth Lewis Harrington. Boiling point of mixed solu- tions. I. Z. physik. Chem., 27:421-25. With Gilbert Newton Lewis. Some electrochemical and thermo- chemical relations of zinc and cadmium amalgams. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 34: 87-99; Z. physik Chem., 28: 1-12, 1899. 1899 With Henry Burnell Faber. Chem. News, 78:229, 238- On the solubility of argentic bromide and chloride in solutions of sodic thiosulphate. Am. Chem. l., 21: 167-72. Note on the spectra of hydrogen. Am. Chem. I., 21:172-74. With Allerton Seward Cushman. A revision of the atomic weight of nickel. Second paper. The determination of the nickel in nickelous bromide. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 34: 327~8; Z. anorg. Chem., 20:352-76. With Gregory Paul Baxter. A revision of the atomic weight of cobalt. Second paper. The determination of the cobalt in co- baltous bromide. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 34:351-69; Z. anorg. Chem., 21: 250-72. With Edward Collins and George W. Heimrod. The electrochem- ical equivalents of copper and silver. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 35: 123-50; Z. physik. Chem., 32:321-47, 1900. 1900 Note on a method of standardizing weights. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 22: 144-49. The driving tendency of physico-chemical reaction, and its tempera- ture coefficient. J. Phys. Chem., 4:383-93. With Gregory Paul Baxter. A revision of the atomic weight of iron. Preliminary paper. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 35:253-60; Z. anorg. Chem., 23:245-54. On the determination of sulphuric acid in the presence of iron; a note upon solid solutions. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 35:377-83 Z. anorg. Chem., 23: 383-90. 1901 With E. H. Archibald. photomicrography. A study of growing crystals by instantaneous Am. Chem. J., 26:61-74.

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 275 With Frank Roy Fraprie. The solubility of manganous sulphate. Am. Chem. I., 26:75-80. With Charles F. NIcCaffrey and Harold Bisbee. The occlusion of magnesic oxalate by calcic oxalate, and the solubility of calcic oxalate. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 36:377-93; Z. anorg. Chem., 28:71-89. The possible significance of changing atomic volume. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 37:3-17; Z. physik. Chem., 40:169-84, 1902. 1902 Edith Sidney Kent Singer. chloric and hydrocyanic acids. Am. Chem. I., 27:205-9. zenith B. Shores \lerigold. A new investigation concerning the atomic weight of uranium. Chem. News, 85: 177-78, 186-88, 201, 207-9, 222-24, 229-30, 249. A redetermination of the atomic weight of calcium. Preliminary paper. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 24:374-77. \Vith Ebenezer Henry Archibald. The decomposition of mercurous chloride by dissolved chlorides: a contribution to the study of concentrated solutions. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 37: 347-61; Z. physik. Chem., 40: 385-98. The significance of changing atomic volume. II. The probable source of the heat of chemical combination, and a new atomic hypothesis. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 37: 399~ 11; Z. physik. Chem., 40:597-610. With George William Heimrod. On the accuracy of the improved voltameter. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 37:415-43; Z. physik. Chem., 41:302-30. The significance of changing atomic volume. III. The relation of changing heat capacity to change of free energy, heat of reaction, change of volume, and chemical affinity. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 38: 293-3 1 7; Z. physik. Chem., 42: 1 29-54. The quantitative separation of hydro- \Alith Wilfred Newsome atolls l he speed and nature of the re- action of bromine upon oxalic acid. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 38: 321 -37; Z. physik. Chem., 41: 544-59. \\lith Wilfred Newsome Stull. The universally exact application of Faraday's Law. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 38:409-13; Z. physik. Chem., 42:621-2b, 1903. With Kenneth Lamartine Mark. An apparatus for the measure- ment of the expansion of gases by heat under constant pressure.

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276 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 38:417-28; Z. physik. Chem., 43:475- 86, 1903. 1903 Note concerning the calculation of thermochemical results. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 25:209-14. The freezing-points of dilute solutions. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 25:291- 98. With Ebenezer Henry Archibald. A revision of the atomic weight of caesium. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 38: 443-70; Z. anorg. Chem., 34:353-82. With Frederic Bonnet, Jr. The changeable hydrolytic equilibrium of dissolved chromic sulphate. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 39:3- 30; Z. physik. Chem., 47: 29-51, 1904. The inclusion and occlusion of solvent in crystals. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 42: 28-36; Z. physik. Chem., 46: 189-96. 1904 With Sidney Kent Singer. Note on a method of determining small quantities of mercury. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 26:300-2. With Wilfred Newsome Stull. New method of determining com- pressibility, with application to bromine, iodine, chloroform, bromoform. carbon tetrachloride, phosphorus, water ~nr1 ~ln.~.c ~~ ~ ~ ~ . i. Am. Chem. Soc., 26: 399-412. The significance of changing atomic volume. IV. The effects of chemical and cohesive internal pressure. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 39:581-604; Z. physik. Chem., 49:15-40. With Harold Bisbee. A rapid and convenient method for the quan- titative electrolytic precipitation of copper. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 26:530-36. 1905 Note on the efficiency of centrifugal purification. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 27:104-11. With Burritt S. Lacy. Electrostenolysis and Faraday's Law. T. Am. Chem. Soc., 27:232-33. With Roger Clark Wells. A revision of the atomic weights of sodium and chlorine. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 27:459-529. A revision of the atomic weight of strontium. Second paper. The

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 277 analysis of strontic chloride. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 40:603- 7; Z. anorg. Chem., 47:145-50. 1906 \\Jith George Shannon Forbes. Energy changes involved in the dilution of zinc and cadmium amalgams. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ., 56, iii + 68 pp. With Roger C. \\lells. The transition temperature of sodic bro- mide: a new fixed point in thermometry. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 41:435-48; Z. physik. Chem., 56:348-61. With Frederick G. Jackson. A new method of standardizing ther- mometers below 0 C. physik. Chem., 56:362-65. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 41:451-54; Z. 1907 Neuere Untersuchungen uber die Atomgewichte. Ber., 40:2767-79. With Arthur Staehler, G. Shannon Forbes, Edward Mueller, and Grinnell tones. Further researches concerning the atomic weights of potassium, silver, chlorine, bromine, nitrogen, and sulphur. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ., 69: 7-88. \\lith \11. N. Stull, F. N. Brink, and F. Bonnet, in The compres- sibilities of the elements and their periodic relations. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ., 76:7-67. Investigations concerning the values of the atomic weights and other physico-chemical constants. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 6:193. Bemerkungen zum Gebrauch van Zentrifugen. Chemiker Zeitung, 31:1251. \\lith F. N. Brink. Densities of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubid- ium, and caesium. T. Am. Chem. Soc., 29:117-27. With Lawrence I. Henderson and Harry L. Frevert. Concerning the adiabatic determination of the heats of combustion of organic substances, especially sugar and benzol. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 42:573-93; Z. physik. Chem., 59:532-52. With F. Wrede. The transition temperature of manganous chlo- ride: a new fixed point in thermometry. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 43:343-50. 1908 Investigation of the values of atomic weights and other fundamental