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278 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS physico-chemical constants. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 7:201-3. With i. Howard Mathews. The relation between compressibility, surface tension, and other properties of material. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 30:8-13. With A. W. Rowe. A new method for the determination of the specific heats of liquids. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 43:475-88. Withy. Howard Mathews. Concerning the use of electrical heating in fractional distillation. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 43:521-24. Note concerning the silver coulometer. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 44:91-94. Les travaux de l'Universite de Harvard sur les poids atomiques. Journal de Chimie Physique, 6:92-136. 1909 Modern chemistry and medicine. Atlantic Monthly, 103:39-43. Wolcott Gibbs. Ber., 42:5037-54. With l. Hunt Wilson and R. N. Garrod-Thomas. Electrochemical investigation of liquid amalgams of thallium, indium, tin, zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and lithium. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ., 118: 1-72; I. Z. physik. Chem., 72: 129-64; II. Ibid., 72: 165-201, 1910. Extended investigations of precise values of atomic weights; and a study of volume and energy relative to material in relation to the new hypothesis of compressible atoms. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 8:219-21. \\lith Paul Kothner and Erich Tiede. Further investigation of the atomic weights of nitrogen and silver. 20. To J. Am. Chem. Soc., 31:6- TVith W. N. Stull, F. N. Brink, and F. Bonnet, Jr. The compres- sibilities of the elements and their periodic relations. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 31:154-58. With G. Jones. The compressibilities of the chlorides, bromides, and iodides of sodium, potassium, silver, and thallium. i. Am. Chem.Soc.,31:158-91. A modified form of Gooch crucible. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 31:1146. \Vith J. Howard Mathews. Further note concerning the efficiency of fractional distillation by heat generated electrically. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 31: 1200-2. .,

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 279 Recent investigations in thermochemistry. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 31: 1275-83. Experimentelle Untersuchungen uber die Atomgewichte, 1887-1908. Hamburg and Leipzig, Leopold Loss. 890 pp. 1910 With Hobart Hurd Willard. Further investigation concerning the atomic weights of silver, lithium and chlorine. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 32:4-49. With Richard Henry Jesse, Jr. The heats of combustion of the octanes and xylenes. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 32:268-98. With Laurie Lorne Burgess. The adiabatic determination of heats of solution of metals in acids. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 32:431-60. With Gregory P. Baxter. Concerning the correction of the ap- parent weight of a salt to the vacuum standard. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 32:507-12. With Allan W. Rowe and L. L. Burgess. The adiabatic determina- tion of heats of solution of metals in acids. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 32:1176-86. With Otto Honigschmid. A revision of the atomic weight of cal- cium. I. Analysis of calcium bromide. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 32: 1577-90. With F. G. Jackson. The specific heat of the elements at low temperatures. Z. physik. Chem., 70:414-51. With Gregory P. Baxter and Bruce Wyman. Henry Augustus Tor- rey. Science, 32: 50-51. lDll With Otto Honigschmid. Revision of the atomic weight of calcium. Second paper. Analysis of calcium chloride. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 33:28-35. \Vith George Leslie Kelly. The transition temperatures of sodium chromate as convenient fixed points in thermometry. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 33: 847-63. \Vith I. Howard Mathews. A method for determining heat of evaporation as applied to water. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 33:863-88 The possible solid solution of water in crystals. i. Am. Chem. Soc. 33:888-93. The fundamental properties of the elements. (Faraday Lecture.) Journal of the Chemical Society, 99:1201-18.

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280 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1912 With John W. Shipley. A new method for the quantitative analysis of solutions by precise thermometry. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 34:599- 603. Atomic weights. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 34:959-71. With W. N. Stull, I. H. Mathews, and C. L. Speyers. Compres- sibilities of certain hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, amines, and organic halides. ~ ~ r-,--- i. Am. Chem. Soc., 34:971-93. The control of temperature in the operations of analytical chem- istry. Orig. Com. 8th Internat. Confer. Ano1. Chem.. 1 :40.~-9 i. v ~ 1 ne measurement ot temperature In the operations of analytical chemistry. Orig. Com. 8th Internat. Congr. Appl. Chem., 1:411- 21. Nephelometry. Orig. Com. 8th Internat. Congr. Appl. Chem. 423-27. 1913 , 1: The chemical significance of the crystallin form. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 35:381-96. With A. W. Rowe. An improved method for determining specific heats of liquids, with data concerning dilute hydrochloric, hy- drobromic, hydriodic, nitric, and perchloric acids and lithium, sodium, and potassium hydroxides. 49: 173-99. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 1914 With John W. Shipley. A convenient method for calibrating thermometers by means of floating equilibrium. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 36:1-10. With Augustus H. Fiske. ^ -I 1 _ 1 . _ r ~. ~ On the transition temperatures of the hydrates ot sodium carbonate as fixed points in thermometry. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 36:485-90. The critical point, and the significance of the quantity b in the equation of van der Waals. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 36:617-34. With Marshall W. Cox. The purity of fused lithium perchlorate, and its bearing upon the atomic weight of silver. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 36:819-28. Further remarks concerning the chemical significance of crystalline form. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 36: 1686-95.

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 281 With \lax E. Lembert. The atomic weight of lead of radioactive origin. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 36:1329-44. With Clarence L. Speyers. The compressibility of ice. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 36:491-94. The present aspect of the hypothesis of compressible atoms. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 36:2417-39. 1915 With F. O. Anderegg. The inclusion of electrolyte by the deposit in the silver voltameter. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 37:7-23. \\lith Charles R. Hoover. Molecular weight of sodium carbonate and the atomic weight of carbon referred to silver and bromide. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 37:95-108. \Vith Charles R. Hoover. Molecular weight of sodium sulfate and the atomic weight of sulfur. ~ -~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J. Am. Chem. Soc., 37:108-13. \Vith Edward P. Bartlett. Compressibilities of mercury, copper, lead, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten and silver bromide. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 37:470-81. With F. O. Anderegg. The complications at the anode in the silver coulometer (voltameter). i. Am. Chem. Soc., 37:675-93. With Frederick Barry. The l~eats of combustion of aromatic hy- drocarbons and hexamethylene. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 37: 993- 1020. Concerning the compressibili~ties of the elements and their relations to other properties. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 37:1643-56. \\7ith Leslie B. Coombs. Surface tensions of water, methyl, ethyl, and isobutyl alcohols, ethyl butyrate, benzene and toluene. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 37:1656-76. 1916 \~\lith Charles Wadsworth 3d. The density of lead from radioactive minerals. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 38:221-27. Suggestion concerning the statement of the phase rule. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 38: 983-89. With J. M7. Shipley. Compressibility of certain typical hydrocar- bons, alcohols and ketones. T. Am. Chem. Soc., 38:989-99. \Vith C. Wadsworth 3d. Density of radio-lead from pure Norwegian cleveite. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 38:1658-60.

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282 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The essential attributes of the elements. I. Franklin Inst., 182:78- 86. Ideals of chemical investigation. Science, 44:37-45. 1917 With H. W. Richter. On the absence of thermal hysteresis in the copper-constantin thermoelement between 30 and 100 . I. Am. Chem. Soc., 39:231-35. With Norris F. Hall. Attempt to separate the isotopic forms of lead by fractional crystallization. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 39:531-41. With W. Buell Meldrum. Melting points of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium and cesium, and the freezing points of binary and ternary mixtures of these salts, including also potassium and sodium chloride. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 39: 1816-28. With Harold S. Davis. Improvements in calorimetric combustion, and the heat of combustion of toluene. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 3:50-58. With Victor Ynave. 1918 ~ The transition temperatures of strontium chloride and strontium bromide as fixed points in thermometry. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 40:89-96. With V. Yngve. The solubility of sodium sulfate as a means of determining temperature. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40:164-74. With Walter C. Schumb. The refractive index and solubilities of the nitrates of lead isotopes. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40:1403-9. 1919 With Sven Palitzsch. Compressibility of aqueous solutions, espe- cially of urethane, and the polymerization of water. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 41:59-69. With W. M. Craig and l. Sameshima. The purification by sub- limation and the analysis of gallium chloride. J. Am. Chem. Soc.,41:131-32. With Sylvester Boyer. The purification of gallium by electrolysis, and the compressibility and density of gallium. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 41:133-34. With Farrington Daniels. Concentrated thallium amalgams: their electrochemical and thermochemical behavior, densities and freezing points. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 41:1732-68. With J. W. Shipley. The dielectric constants of typical aliphatic

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 283 and aromatic hydrocarbons, cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexanol. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 41:2002-12. With Emmett K. Carver and Walter C. Schumb. Effect of pressure and of dissolved air and water on the melting point of benzene. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 41:2019-28. The problem of radioactive lead. Science, 49:1-11. With iitsusaburo Sameshima. Am. Chem. Soc., 42:49-54. 1920 The compressibility of indium. J. With ~itsusaburo Sameshima. The atomic weight of lead from a Japanese radioactive mineral. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 42:928-30. \Vith Setsuro Tamaru. A calorimetric method for standardizing thermometers by electrical energy. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 42:1374- 77. With Norris F. Hall. The melting points and thermoelectric be- havior of lead isotopes. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 42:1550-56. zenith Harold S. Davis. The heats of combustion of benzene, toluene, aliphatic alcohols, cyclohexanol, and other carbon com- pounds. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 42: 1599-1617. \\lith Allan W. Rowe. An indirect method of determining the specific heat of dilute solutions, with preliminary data concern- ing hydrochloric acid. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 42:1621-35. \\Jith Henry Krepelka. A revision of the atomic weight of alumi- num. The analysis of aluminum bromide. Preliminary paper. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 42:2221-32. 1921 With Sylvester Boyer. Further studies concerning gallium. Its electrolytic behavior, purification, melting point, density, co- efficient of expansion, compressibility, surface tension and latent heat of fusion. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 43:274-94. \\lith A. W. Rowe. The heats of dilution and the specific heats of dilute solutions of nitric acid and of hydroxides and chlorides and nitrates of lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 43:770-96. NAlith Emmett K. Carver. A critical study of the capillary rise method of determining surface tension, with data for water, benzene, toluene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ether and dimethyl aniline. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 43:827~7. \Vith Edward P. Bartlett and {ames H. Hodges. The compres-

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284 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS sibility of benzene, liquid and solid. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 43: 1538-42. With W. Buell Meldrum. The existence of tetrahydrated sodium sulfate in mix-crystals with sodium chromate. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 43: 1543-45. The magnitudes of atoms. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 43:1584-91. 1922 With Charles P. Smyth. Solid thallium amalgams and the elec- trode potential of pure thallium. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 44:524~5. With James Bryant Conant. The electrochemical behavior of liquid sodium amalgams. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 44:601-11. With Theodore Dunham, fir. The effect of changing hydrogen-ion concentration on the potential of the zinc electrode. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 44:678-84. With Allan W. Rowe. The heats of neutralization of potassium, sodium and lithium hydroxides with hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic and nitric acids, at various dilutions. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 44:684-707. With Thorbergur T. Thorvaldson. The heat of solution of zinc in hydrochloric acid. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 44:1051-60. With Setsuro Tamaru. The heat of solution of cadmium in hydro- chloric acid. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 44:1060-66. 1923 Compressibility, internal pressure and atomic magnitudes. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 45: 422-37. With William M. Craig. The atomic weight of gallium. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 45: 1155-67. With Charles P. Smyth. thallium amalgams. The heat of solution of thallium in dilute J. Am. Chem. Soc., 45: 1455-60. 1924 Atomic weights and isotopes. Chem. Rev., 1: 1-40. With William T. Richards. The effect of a magnetic field on the potential of hydrogen occluded in iron. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 46:89-104. With Edouard P. R. Saerens. The compressibilities of the chlorides, bromides, and iodides of lithium, rubidium and cesium. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 46: 934-52.

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THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS 285 With Clarence L. Speyers and Emmett K. Carver. The determine. tion of surface tension with very small volumes of liquid, and the surface tensions of octanes and xylenes at several temperatures. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 46:1196-1207. The internal pressure of solids. T. Am. Chem. Soc., 46:1419-36. (Comoressibilitv. internal Pressure and change of atomic volume. J. Franklin Inst., 198: 1-27. With William T. Richards. Preliminary attempt to measure gravimetrically the distance-effect of chemical amenity. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 9: 379-83. ----rig ~~ - - 1 1925 A brief history of the investigation of internal pressures. Chem. Rev., 2:315~8. Internal pressures produced by chemical affinity. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 47:731~2. With Frank T. Gucker, [r. An improved differential method for the exact determination of specific heats of aqueous solutions; including results for various salts and organic acids. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 47:1876-93. With Harris Marshall Chadwell. The densities and compressi- bilities of several organic liquids and solutions, and the polymer- ization of water. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 47:2283-2302. 1926 With Harold S. King and Lawrence P. Hall. Attempts to frac- tionate mixed isotopes of lead, and the atomic weight of this metal. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 48:1530~3. Further evidence concerning the magnitude of internal pressures, especially that of mercury. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 48:3063-80. 1927 Edith Alfred L. Loomis. The chemical effects of high frequency sound waves. I. A preliminary survey. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 49:3086-3100. 1928 With Harry L. Frevert and Charles E. Teeter, in A thermochem- ical contribution to the study of the system cadmium-mercury. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 50:1293-1302.

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286 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With Marcel Franc,on. The atomic weight of cesium. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 50:2162-66. With Joseph D. White. The compressibility of thallium, indium, and lead. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 50:3290-3303. With L. P. Hall and B. i. Hair. The compressibility of sodium, barium, and beryllium. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 50:3304-10. 1929 With Arthur W. Phillips. The atomic weight of copper from the Lake Superior region and from Chile. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 51 :400-10. With Lawrence P. Hall. Specific heats of sodium and potassium hydroxide solutions. With Frank T. Gucker. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 51:707-12. The heats of dilution of sodium hydroxide, acetic acid and sodium acetate, and their bearing on heat capac- ities and heat of neutralization. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 51:712-27. With B. I. Mair and L. P. Hall. Heats of dilution and heat capac- ities of hydrochloric acid solutions. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 51:727- 30. With Lawrence P. Hall. Further studies on the thermochemical behavior of sodium hydroxide solutions. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 51 :731-36. With Beveridge l. \lair. The heats of neutralization of acetic acid. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 51:737-40. With Beveridge l. Mair. A study of the thermochemical behavior of weak electrolytes. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 51:740-48. With Malcolm Dole. The heats of dilution and specific heats of barium and calcium chloride solutions. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 51 :794-802. Ideals of chemical investigation. 6:2239~5. With Marcel Frances. The decomposition of mercurous chloride in concentrated solutions of other chlorides. J. Phys. Chem., 33:936-50. Journal of Chemical Education,

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RUDOLF RUEDEMANN October 76, ]864-June 1S, 1956 BY JOHN RODGERS RUDOLF RUEDEMANN was born in Georgenthal, Saxe-Coburg- Gotha, the son of Albert and Franziska (Seebach) Ruede- mann. His paternal ancestors had been Lutheran ministers for nearly 300 years, but his father was a grocer in a small town in the Thuringerwald. Both father and mother were enthusiastic amateur naturalists and, abetted also by a helpful science teacher in the Progymnasium, Ruedemann early acquired an interest in botany. At the University of Jena, however, he changed to geology (petrology at first), and in 1887 he received the degree of doctor of philosophy. He then took a position as assistant in stratigraphy and paleontology at the University of Strassburg and earned a second doctor's degree. It was here that he met his wife, Elizabeth Heitzmann, whom he married on October 17, 1890. To eke out the family income, he secured a license to teach in secondary schools, and then, judging his chances of obtaining a higher university post in Germany very small, he emigrated to the United States in 1892. Very soon after his arrival, he obtained a position teaching science in the high school at Lowville, New York; a year later he moved to a similar position at Dolgeville, New York. It was in the years at Dolgeville that he took up the study of fossil graptolites (a fairly large class of extinct animals incertoe sedisJ, 287

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288 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS being stirred to it by some extraordinarily well-preserved ma- terial showing the complete ontogeny of Diplograptus, the first such material to be described in detail. His studies of these and other fossils brought him into contact with fames Hall and John M. Clarke at the State Museum in Albany, New York, which Hall had made one of the major centers of paleontologic research in North America. After Hall's death in 1898, Clarke, who succeeded Hall as State Paleontologist, urged Ruedemann to stand for the examination for Assistant State Paleontologist; he was appointed to this post in March 1899 and he held it until 1926, when he succeeded Clarke as State Paleontologist. He retired in 1937 but worked actively at the Museum until 1942. He continued to live in Albany until his death in 1956; he was survived by his wife, seven children (four with doctor's degrees), 16 grandchildren, and 19 great-grandchildren. Although Dr. Ruedemann's paleontologic and stratigraphic interests were broad (he made significant studies of corals, conularids, cephalopods, trilobites, and eurypterids), his central interest remained the graptolites, of which he was for decades the outstanding specialist in North America. In his earlier vears at Albany, he specialized in the Ordovician graptolites of eastern New York State, and soon he showed that they could be readily zoned and that the black shale facies in which they mainly occur represents a far longer time span than had been realized. In particular, by 1912 he had used his findings to demonstrate a major lateral facies change from limestone east- ward through black shale into graywacke (we would now say flysch), one of the very first demonstrations of large-scale facies changes in American geology. (His appreciation of the sig- nificance of such changes he probably owed to his contact with iohannes Walther at Jena.) Part of this change takes place in the flat-lying strata of east-central New York, but part in the badly deformed rocks at the west edge of the Appalachian

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RUDOLF RUEDEMANN 289 erogenic belt, and Ruedemann's work played an important part in the unraveling of that deformation; in particular, he was one of the first, if not the first, to suggest (in 1909) the allochthonous or klippe hypothesis for the so-called Taconic slate, a hypothesis by now very widely accepted. As a result of his acknowledged preeminence in the study of graptolites, graptolite collections from all over North America were sent to him at Albany for specific determination and stratigraphic control, and he thus became thoroughly familiar with the graptolite faunas of the whole continent. Two major works developed from this familiarity. One of these (in the 1930s) was a detailed study of the other fossils associated with the graptolites, which he showed to represent not a benthonic but a planktonic fauna, and he further concluded that the graptolitic black shale and associated strata were deposited in large part in deep water; this idea was not well received at the time, but the recognition of the role of turbidity currents in the deeper ocean about 1950 showed that Ruedemann had been quite right. The other major work was his monumental memoir on the graptolites of North America, his last published work. During his long career, Ruedemann concerned himself with many other geological topics. Some of these interests were ephemeral, and nothing came of them, but more than once he was a pioneer; for example, already in 1897 he used the orienta- tion of fossil graptolites to deduce the direction of former oceanic currents, and in 1928 he contributed substantially to the recognition that the Capitan limestone (Permian of West Texas) is a fossil reef. Dr. Ruedemann was widely and favorably known among paleontologists and geologists all over the world. He was elected president of the Paleontological Society in 1916 and a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1928, as well as cor- responding or honorary member of several European societies. But he was always a very informal person, especially cordial and

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290 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS helpful to beginning students, as the present writer can attest, and he was always willing to relate, in a German accent that seemed to thicken with the years, a string of delightful anecdotes, often funny and irreverent, but often pertinent and revealing. In her memorial to him, the late Dr. Winifred Goldring, his successor as State Paleontologist of New York, summed up his life as follows: "There were just two important interests in Doctor Ruede- mann's life, his scientific work and his family. He often re- marked that he judged all women by comparison with his wife; and he relied greatly upon her good sense and jud'~rnent, real- izing that she was more practical than he. In spite of the fact that he pursued his work at home as well as in the office, he still found time to be with his children when they were young; and he spoke many times of the long Sunday hikes he had with them. In later years he took deep satisfaction in their successes. He was very proud of his family and rightly so. During the course of a conversation in his last years, Doctor Ruedemann remarked that he had been happy in his work and had enjoyed seeing it in print, that he had been happy with his family, notwithstanding the difficult years, that his life as a whole had been a satisfaction to him and he had no regretsa wonderful way to feel at the end of a long life."

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RUDOLF RUEDEMANN BIBLIOGRAPHY KEY TO ABBREVIA TIONS 291 Am. GeologistAmerican Geologist Am. i. Sci. American Journal of Science Am. Naturalist American Naturalist Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. _ Bulletin of the Geological Society of America Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. Geological Society of America Memoir I. Paleontol. Journal of Paleontology N.Y. State Geol. Ann. Rept. New York State Geologist Annual Report N.Y. State Mus. Ann. Rept.New York State Museum Annual Report N.Y. State Mus. Bull.New York State Museum Bulletin N.Y. State Mus. NIem. New York State Museum Memoir Pan-.\m. Geol. _ Pan-American Geologist Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Proc. Geol. Soc. Am. Proceedings of the Geological Society of America Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Proc. U.S. Nat. talus. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum Smithsonian Inst. 1\liSC. Coll. _ Smithsonian Institution Miscellaneous Col- lections Univ. Tex. Bull. University of Texas Bulletin 1887 Die Contacterscheinungen am Granit der Reuth bei Gefrees. In- augural dissertation, Neues [ahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Geologic und Palaontologie, Beilage-band V, pp. 641-76. 1895 Vorlaufige Mittheilung uber Bau van Diplograptus. Berichte der Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Freiburg I/B, Band IX, pp. 174-75. Synopsis of the mode of growth and development of Diplograptus. Am. J. Sci., 49:453-55. Development and mode of growth of Diplograptus M'Coy. N.Y. State Geol. Ann. Rept. 14 (for 1894), pp. 217-49; N.Y. State Mus. Ann. Rept. 48, Vol. 2 (for 1894), pp. 217-49. 1896 Note on the discovery of a sessile Conula~ia, Article I. Am. Geol- ogist, 17:157-66. Note on the discovery of a sessile Conularia, Article II. Am. Geol- ogist, 18:65-71.

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292 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1897 Evidence of current action in the Ordovician of New York. Am. Geologist, 19: 367-91. The discovery of a sessile Conularia. 15 (for 1895), pp. 699-728. N.Y. State Geol. Ann. Rept. 1898 Synopsis of recent progress in the study of graptolites. Am. Nat- uralist, 22: 1-16. Additional note on the oceanic current in flee Utica epoch. Am. Geologist, 21: 75-81. The discovery of a sessile Conularia. N.Y. State Plus. Ann. Rept. 49, Vol. 2 (for 1895), pp. 699-728. On the development of Tetradi~`m cellulose Hall sp. Am. Geol- ogist 22:15-25. ' 1901 Hudson River beds near Albany and their taxonomic equivalents. N.Y. State NIus. Bull., 42:485-587. Trenton conglomerate of Rysedorph Hill, Rensselaer County, N.Y., and its fauna. N.Y. State NIus. Bull., 49:3-114. 1902 With I. M. Clarke. Contact lines of Upper Siluric formations on the Brockport and Medina quadrangles. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 52:517-23. The graptolite (Levis) facies of the Beekmantown formation in Rensselaer County, N.Y. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 52:546-75. Nlode of growth and development of Goniog,~aptus thureaui M'Coy. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 52:576-92. 1903 \Vith J. M. Clarke. Catalogue of type specimens of Paleozoic fossils in the New York State Museum. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 65, 847 PP The Cambric Diclyonema fauna of the slate belt of eastern New York. N.Y. State talus. Bull., 69:934-58. Noetling on the morphology of the pelecypods. Am. Geologist, 31 :33-40.