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RUDOLF RUEDEMANN 293 Professor ~aeckel's thesis on the mode of existence of Orthoceras and other cephalopocls. Am. Geologist, 31:199-217. With l. NI. Clarke. Guelph fauna in the State of New York. N.Y. State Mus. Stem. 5, 195 pp. 1904 Go aptolites of New York, Part 1: Graptolites of the lower beds. N.Y. State Flus. Mem. 7, 349 pp. 1905 The structure of some primitive cephalopods. N.Y. State NIus. Bull., 80:296-341. 1906 Cephalopods of the Beekmantown and Chazy formations of the Champlain basin. N.Y. State Mus. Bu11.90, 223 pp. 1908 Graptolites of New York, Part 2: Graptolites of the higher beds. N.Y. State NIus. Mem. 1 1, 583 pp. Note on Dictyonema websteri Dawson (D. retiforme). Nova Scotian Institute of Science Proceedings and Transactions, Vol. 11, Part 4, p. 47. 1909 Types of inliers observed in New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 133: 164-33. Some marine algae from the Trenton limestone of New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 1 33: 194-216. 1910 With i. F. Kemp. Geology of the Elizabethtown and Port Henry quadrangles. (Chapters 5-8 by Ruedemann.) N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 138, 165 pp. On the symmetric arrangement in the elements of the Paleozoic plat- form of North America. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 140:141~9; also in Am. J. Sci., 30:403-11. With H. P. Cushing, H. Fairchild, and C. H. Smythe. Geology of the Thousand Islands region. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 145, 194 pp.

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294 Anatomy and physiology in invertebrate extinct organisms. Popu- lar Science Monthly, 77: 142-45. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1911 Stratigraphic significance of the wide distribution of graptolites. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 22:231-37. 1912 Note on a specimen of Plectoceras jasoni (Billings). Bull., 158:141~2. With i. M. Clarke. The Eurypterida of New York. N.Y. State Mus. Mem. 14, Vol. 1, 439 pp.; Vol. 2, 190 pp. The Lower Siluric shales of the Mohawk Valley. N.Y. State Mus Bull. 162, 151 pp. N.Y. State Mus. 1913 Graptoloidea. Chapter in: Text-Book of Paleontology, by K. A. von Zittel, ed. by C. R. Eastman, pp. 125-33. New York, The Macmillan Co. 1914 With H. P. Cushing. Geology of Saratoga Springs and vicinity. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 169, 177 pp. 1916 Bather's studies in Edrioasteroidea. Science, 43:244. On the presence of a median eye in trilobites. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc 2:234-37. Account of some new or little known species of fossils, mostly from the Paleozoic rocks of New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 189:7- 112. Note on the habitat of the eurypterids. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 189:113-15. Two new starfishes from the Silurian of Argentina. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 189:116-20. The presence of a median eye in trilobites. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 189: 127-43. The cephalic suture lines of Cry/?tolithus (Trinucleus auct.~. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 189:144-48.

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RUDOLF RUEDEMANN 1917 295 The paleontology of arrested evolution. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 196: 105-34. (Presidential address, 1916 meeting of the Pale- ontological Society.) 1918 The phylogeny of the acorn barnacles. 4: 382-84. 1919 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., On some fundamentals of pre-Cambrian paleogeography. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 1-6. 1920 A recurrent Pittsford (Saline) fauna. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 219- 20:205-22. 1921 Observations on the mode of life of primitive cephalopods. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 32:315-20. Homeomorphic development of so-called species and genera of graptolites in separate regions. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 227- 28:63-68. On sex distinction of fossil cephalopods. 227-28:68-70. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., On some cases of reversion of trilobites. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 227-28:70-79. On color bands in Orthoceras. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 227-28:79-88. A new eurypterid from the Devonian of New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 227-28:88-92. Preservation of alimentary canal in an eurypterid. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 227-28:92-95. Note on Caryocaris Salter. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 227-28:95-100. Fauna of Dolgeville beds. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 227-28:100-1. Additions to the Snake Hill and Canajoharie faunas. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 227-28:101-8. The age of the black shales of the Lake Champlain region. N.Y. State Plus. Bull., 227-28:108-16.

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296 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The graptolite zones of the Ordovician shales of New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 227-28:116-30. Report on fossils from the so-called Trenton and Utica beds of Grand Isle, Vermont. State Geologist, Vermont, Report for 1919-1920, pp. 90-100. With i. M. Clarke and C. H. Smytl~e. Henry Platt Cushing. Science, 53:510-52. With E. O. Ulrich and R. S. Bassler. Notes on the ventral ap- pendages of Neolenus serrates. Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Coll., 67: 366-68. 1922 Additional studies in arrested evolution. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 8:54-55. The existence and configuration of pre-Cambrian continents. N.Y. State Pius. Bull., 239-40: 65-151. On the occurrence of an A pus in the Permian of Oklahoma. journal of Geology, 30:311-18. Further notes on the paleontology of arrested evolution. Am. Nat- uralist, 56: 256-72. Positions of the ancient continents. 1923 Pan-Am. Geol., 38:367-77. Fundamental lines of North American geologic structures. Am. I. Sci., 6:1-10. 1924 Recent publications on the origin and habitat of the Eurypterida. Am. J. Sci., 7: 227-32. An ancestral acorn barnacle. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 251:93-104. With G. M. Ehlers. Occurrence of the Collingwood formation in Michigan. Michigan University Museum of Geology Contribu- tions, 2:13-18. Notes on graptolites. In: A new graptolite locality in central Maine, by E. H. Perkins. The phylogeny of the Cirripedia. History, 14~83~:533-44. Am. J. Sci., 8:223-27. Annals and Magazine of Natural Report on graptolites. In: Geological formations of Beaverfoot- Brisco-Stanford Range, by C. D. Walcott. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology V. Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Coll., 75: 12-13, 15.

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RUDOLF RUEDEMANN 1925 297 The Utica and Lorraine formations of New York. Part 1, Stra- tigraphy. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 258, 175 pp. Fundamental lines of North American geologic structure. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 260:71-80. The Utica and Lorraine formations of New York. Part 2, Systematic paleontology, No. 1: Plants, sponges, corals, graptolites, crinoids, worms, bryozoans, brachiopods. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 262, 171 PP Some Silurian (Ontarian) faunas of New York. Bull. 265, 134 pp. With C. Schuchert. John Mason Clarke, 1857-1925. Science, 62: 117-21. Siluric faunal facies in juxtaposition. Pan-Am. Geol., 44:309-12. Geological history of the Hudson River. New York State Water- ways Association Annual Report 16, pp. 76-82. N.Y. State Mus. 1926 Report on paleontology and paleobotany. 267:32-33. Faunal facies differences of the Utica and Lorraine shales. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 267:61-77. A Devonian starfish from Gaspe. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 276:79. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., The Utica and Lorraine formations of New York. Part 2, Systematic paleontology, No. 2: Mollusks, crustaceans and eurypterids. j\T.y. State NIus. Bull. 272, 227 pp. Report on graptolites. In: Geology and mineral deposits of Winder- mere Map Area, British Columbia, by I. F. Walker. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir No. 148, pp. 25-31. Hunting marine fossils in New York State. Natural History, 26: 505-14. Neuere amerikanische Theorien uber die Entstehung der Kon- tinente und Ozeane. Geologische Rundschau, Band 17a (Gustav Steinmann Festschrift), pp. 49-61. 1927 "Singing" earthworms. Science, 65: 163.

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298 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1928 Reef character of Capitan limestone. Letter to P. B. King in: The Pennsylvanian and Permian stratigraphy of the Glass Moun- tains, by P. B. and R. E. King. Univ. Tex. Bull., 2801:139. 1929 With Winifred Goldring. Making fossils popular in the New York State Museum. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 279:47-51. Neuere Beobachtungen an Graptolithen-schiefern in Amerika. Leopoldina, Amerikaband, K. Leopoldinischen deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher zu Halle, Berichte, Band 4, pp. 7-12. Note on Oldhamia (Murchisonitesj occidens (Walcott). N.Y. State lotus. Bull., 281 :47-50. Coralline algae, Guadalupe Mountains. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 13: 1079-80. Alternating oscillatory movement in the Chazy and Levis troughs of the Appalachian geosyncline. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 40:409- 16. Fossils from the Permian tillite of Sao Paula, Brazil, and their bear- ing on the origin of tillite. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 40:417-26. Description of Climacograptus innuatus var. brasiliensis and other fossils. In: Una zone de Graptolitos do Llandovery inferior no Rio Trombetas, Estado do Para, Brazil, by C. l. Maury. Servi~o Geologico e Mineralogico do Brazil, Monografia, Vol. 7, pp. 21- 24, 27-29, 47-53. Lists of Silurian graptolites of southeastern Alaska and Ordovician graptolites of Prince of Wales Island. In: Geology and mineral deposits of southeastern Alaska, by A. F. Buddington and T. Chapin. United States Geological Survey Bulletin, 800:76, 81. 1930 A study of fossils. New York State Education, 17:612-15. A graptolite from the Chushina formation. Am. l. Sci., 20:308-11. Geology of the Capital District (Albany, Cohoes, Troy and Sche- nectady quadrangles), with a chapter on glacial geology by John H. Cook. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 285, 218 pp. 1931 Age and origin of the siderite and limonite of the Burden iron mines

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RUDOLF RUEDEMANN 299 near Hudson, New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 286:135-52. With E. O. Ulrich. Are the graptolites bryozoans? Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 42: 589-603. With Winifred Goldring. Some museum methods developed in the New York State Museum. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 288:71-83. Tangential master streams of the Adirondack drainage. Am. I. Sci., 22:431-40. Some new Nfiddle Cambrian fossils from British Columbia. Proc. U.S. Nat. plus., Vol. 79, Article 27, 18 pp. 1932 Development of the drainage of the Catskills. Am. l. Sci., 23:337- 49. Guide to the fossil exhibits of the New York State Museum. New York State Museum Circular, No. 9, 53 pp. Utica to Albany, New York. In: Paleozoic Stratigraphy of New York, by D. H. Newland and others. XVI International Geo- logical Congress Guidebook 4, pp. 121-36. Interior markings of Colpocaris elytroides. In: A crustacean fauna from the Woodford formation of Oklahoma, by C. L. Cooper. I. Paleontol., 6:348. 1933 Paleozoic planktonic faunas of North America. Sci., 19:157-59. Camptostroma, a Lower Cambrian floating hydrozoan. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 82:1-8. Albany to Lake George, New York. In: Eastern New York and Western New England, by C. R. Longwell and others. XVI International Geological Congress Guidebook 1, pp. 14-20. Ordovician graptolites from the Marathon and Solitario regions, Texas. In: The geology of Texas, by E. H. Sellard, W. S. Adkins, and F. B. Plummer. Univ. Tex. Bull. 3232, Plate 4, with explanation. The Cambrian of the Upper Mississippi Valley. Part 3, Grapto- litoidea. Milwaukee Public Museum Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 307-48. Graptolites. In: Brisco-Dogtooth Map Area, British Columbia, by C. S. Evans. Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report 1932, Part AII, pp. 137 AII-138 AII. Proc. Nat. Acad.

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300 With C. E. Decker. Geol., 50:237. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Graptolites of the Viola limestone. Pan-Am. 1934 Vorweltliche Meerestiere in lebenden Bildern: "Aquarien der Vor- welt." Natur und yolk, Band 64, pp. 9-14. Eurypterids from the Lower Devonian of Beartooth Butte, Wyo- ming. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 73: 163-67. Eurypterids in graptolite shales. Am. I. Sci., 27:374-85. Cambrian graptolites. Science, 80: 15. With C. E. Decker. The graptolites of tl~e Viola limestone. .T- Paleontol., 8: 303-27. Paleozoic plankton of North America. PP Paleozoic rocks of the Lowville Quadrangle. 296: 193-94. 1935 Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 2, 141 N.Y. State NIus. Bull., Ecology of black mud shales in eastern New York. i. Paleontol.? 9:79-91. With I. W. Laverdibre. Notes sur quelques graptolites nouveaux des environs de Quebec (1~. Le Naturaliste Canadien, Ser. 3, Vol. 6 (Vol. LXII), pp. 6-12. A review of the eurypterid rami of tl~e ~enus Pte'~otus with descriptions of two new Devonian species. Annals. Vol. XXIV. Serial 164. no. 69-72 , (D Carnegie NIuseum ~ 7 1 1 ~ With G. H. Chadwick. Ordovician shales of New York. Science. 81:400. Silurian phyllocarid crustaceans from Oklahoma. l. Paleontol., 9:447-48. The eurypterids of Beartooth Butte. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 75: 129-41. With E. S. C. Smith. The Ordovician in Maine. Am. J. Sci., 30: 353-55. 1936 Ordovician graptolites from Quebec and Tennessee. i. Paleontol., 10:385-87. The dates of publication of the earlier New York State Museum reports. Science, 84: 373-74.

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RUDOLF RUEDEMANN 301 Proc. Geol. Soc. Am., Memorial to Charles Henry Richardson. 1935, pp. 301-5. With T. Y. Wilson. Eastern New York Ordovician cherts. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 47:1535-86. Eastern New York Ordovician cherts, supplementary notes. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 47:2016-17. 1937 A new North American (Quebec) graptolite faunule. Am. I. Sci., 33:57-62. Observation on excitation on fireflies by explosives. Science, 85: 222-23. With D. H. Newland. Brief sketch of the geological work of the State Museum. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 313:89-92. Different views held on the origin of the Saratoga mineral waters. Science, 86:531-32. 1938 Graptolites from Silurian shale at Galena Creek, tributary of Prairie River, 14~/2 miles east of gates of South Nahanni River, North- west Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 52: 18-21. \Vith W. J Schoonmaker. Beaver dams as geologic agents. Sci- ence, 88: 523-25. 1939 Edith R. R. Shrock. A new Wisconsin Upper Cambrian foraminifer. Am. J. Sci., 237:66-71. Tl~e Hudson River. Hudson River Magazine, 2:19-23. Editor, with Robert Balk. Geology of North America, Vol. 1: In- troductory chapters and geology of the stable areas. (Geologic der Erde, ed. by Erich Krenkel.) Berlin, Gebrrider Borntraeger. 643 pp. Graptolithina. Unit 1 in: Type Invertebrate Fossils of North America (Devonianj. Science. 13 cards. Philadelphia, Wagner Free Institute of Xiphosura (Eurypterids). Unit 11 in: Type Invertebrate Fossils of North America (Devonian). Philadelphia, Wagner Free Insti- tute of Science. 17 cards.

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302 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1942 Oldhamia and the Rensselaer grit problem. 327:5-13. Cambrian and Ordovician fossils. N.Y. State Flus. Bull., 327:19-30. Notes on Ordovician Machaeridia of New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 327: 33-44. Notes on Ordovician plankton and radiolarian chert of New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 327: 45-71. With Christina Lochman. Graptolites from the Englewood forma- tion (Mississippian) of the Black Hills, South Dakota. l. Pale- ontol., 16:657-59. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 1944 With B. F. Howell. Impression of a worm on the test of a Cambrian trilobite. l. Paleontol., 18: 96. With Winifred Goldring. Memorial to David H. Newland. Proc. Geol. Soc. Am., 1943, pp. 209-16. The Hudson Valley belt of graptolite shales and negative anomalies of gravity. Am. i. Sci., 242:391-96. 1945 Geology of the Catskill and Kaaterskill quadrangles, Part I: Cam- brian and Ordovician geology of the Catskill Quadrangle, N.Y. (With chapter on glacial geology by J. H. Cook; on economic geology by D. H. Newland.) N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 331, 188 pp. ~ 1 942~; geological map ~ 1 945~. An Ordovician Ceratiocaris. American Midland Naturalist, 34: 547-48. 1947 Memorial to Edward Oscar Ulrich, 1857-1944. National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, 24:259-80. Washington, Na- tional Academy of Sciences. Graptolites of North America. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 19, 652 pp.

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306 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS he had almost equal enthusiasm for other kinds of literature, including poetry. Had he not elected to follow science as a career, it is almost certain that journalism and the business of editing and publishing would have become his lifetime pursuit. In actual fact, however, his interest in journalism and his ability to write so well explain in large measure why he was able to make such great and lasting contributions to science. Even though he was not a student of music and painting,, Ed had a deep appreciation for these arts. His liking for singing, music, and painting could also be attributed to his mother. She was an accomplished amateur pianist who reportedly could play virtually any tune. Moreover, at the age of seventy, Ed's mother took up painting as a diversion and won local prizes for her work. Ed's opinion: "She was as good as Grandma Moses ever was. , , The years of the depression, coupled with a serious drought in the thirties, made a deep imprint on Dr. Steinhaus's outlook on life. It is probable that the hardships experienced by people of the farming and business community of Max during this trying period were the motivating forces behind Ed's strong desire to help the oppressed. The economy of the community was affected not only by the general depression and droughts but by a fire which destroyed most of the business section of Max. When relating the effects of the depression and natural disasters on the people, Dr. Steinhaus stated, "The 'Grapes of Wrath' were evident all about them." He marveled that his father was able to keep the general store open during the years when farmers profited little from their crops and could not pay bills. His father eventually had to "write off" thousands of dollars owed him for clothing, farm machinery, general supplies, and other items. Yet he continued to extend credit even though the chances for payment were nil. Steinhaus entered the North Dakota Agricultural College (now called North Dakota State University) in 1932. For a time he had difficulty deciding whether to major in entomology or

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EDWARD ARTHUR STEINHAUS 307 bacteriology, but finally elected the latter. Later, as a graduate student, he consolidated his interest in both subjects when he recognized the opportunities for new research on the interre- lationship of insects and their associated microbes. In 1936, after graduation from the Agricultural College, Dr. Steinhaus was granted an assistantship in bacteriology at the Ohio State University. His requirements for a Ph.D. degree were completed in 1939, with a major in bacteriology and a minor in entomology. Dr. Steinhaus's decision to enter into a career of scientific investigation of the microbes of insects was made in 1939 after winning a postdoctoral Muelhaupt Scholarship. I had occasion to hear him speak of the difficulty he had in deciding to enter a field of study that most members of the scientific community felt was of little practical consequence. Yet, his interest and vision prevailed, with some encouragement from Dr. Alvah Peterson, Professor Emeritus of The Ohio State University and one of the leading teachers of entomology of our era. In this period of growing worldwide concern over the de- terioration of our overpopulated and misused environment, all of those who are engaged in dealing with pest problems and who, at the same time, are striving to alleviate environmental pollution caused by pesticides can appreciate fully the good fortune of fate that made Dr. Steinhaus elect to undertake a career investigating insect pathogens. This line of investigation, which only a few years ago seemed so inconsequential, is now recognized as one of the great hopes for the eventual develop- ment of safer alternative means of dealing with many insect pest problems. Moreover, the increasing need for food, fiber, and other essential agricultural crops to feed the ever-expanding world population will demand the availability of effective as well as safe ways to control insect pestsman's greatest com- petitor for the food that the environment is capable of pro- ducing. During the days of Ed's initial research in the early forties,

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308 certainly no one, including Ed, could have foreseen the breadth and scope of the interrelationship of microbes and insects. Yet, when we consider that insects exceed all other animals of the world and that every insect will no doubt be found to harbor microbes, either for their benefit or as deterrents to their wel- fare, one begins to appreciate the scope of the scientific field that Dr. Steinhaus brought to the forefront. Previous to his time, a few investigators had carried out superficial studies of the microbes associated with insects and other invertebrate animals. In this effort, several largely abortive attempts had been made to utilize pathogenic organisms to control insects, but these generally had failed. Considerable success had been achieved by investigators with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the control of the Japanese beetle with a microorganism. But, as Ed himself stated, research in the general field of insect pathol- ogy was a "lonely field" in the early years, since there were so few scientists to talk to who were knowledgeable and interested BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS in research on insect microbes. Dr. Steinhaus began his investigation by undertaking a systematic compilation of the microbes reported to be associated with insects. In 1940 he published an article reviewing his work. He continued compiling information and making obser- vations in his own studies, and his efforts led to a compendium of microorganisms associated with insects which was published in 1946 as a book entitled Insect Microbiology. In 1940 Dr. Steinhaus joined the U.S. Public Health Service staff at Hamil- ton, Montana, where he carried out research on diseases affect- ing man and on vaccines for controlling those diseases. The year 1940 was also the beginning of a new phase in the personal life of Ed Steinhaus. This is the year he married Mabry Clark. Mabry was born and grew up in Mississippi and grad- uated from Mississippi State University. She entered graduate school at The Ohio State University and while there met Ed. After receiving her master's degree in bacteriology, she taught

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EDWARD ARTHUR STEINHAUS 309 at North Dakota State University, Ed's alma mater, for a year and a half before marrying Dr. Steinhaus. During their mar- riage, Mabry devoted most of her time to caring for the home and their three children: Margaret Ann, now Mrs. Steve Goetz, Timothy Clark, and Cynthia Alice. In addition, however, she worked professionally outside the home as a bacteriologist for a few years and inside the home as Ed's "nonprofessional" re- search assistant. Her activities such as searching literature, proofreading, and indexing for Dr. Steinhaus helped him to record his many important contributions in the field of insect pathology. She is continuing to bring together writings of Dr. Steinhaus that are to be published in the future. Having the understanding, support, and able assistance of one so close to and so familiar with his interests and goals must have added immeasurably to Ed's many achievements. One of Dr. Steinhaus's great disappointments in life came in 1942 when he was unsuccessful in his persistent efforts to enlist in the armed forces. His general philosophy concerning wars was definitely antimilitaristic and he deplored the United States involvement in Vietnam. But he viewed the defense of our country when under direct attack in a different light and was anxious to help defend it. It was during his half-dozen attempts to enlist in one or the other of the three branches of the armed forces that the seriousness of Dr. Steinhaus's physical defects was revealed. The series of rather thorough physical fitness examinations revealed a large number of serious internal physical defects, any one of which could have disqualified him for military duty. Subsequently, more detailed and refined medical examinations were made in attempts to offer the ex- planation for his many health problems which surfaced over the years. The true complete explanation did not come, however, until the year of his death. He was born with a damaged and nonfunctional hypothalmus on the left side. This accounted for missing or abnormal organs, including the absence of one

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310 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS kidney, incompletely formed baselar vertebra, a shortened leg, and an upside-down stomach. The physician who finally di- agnosed the cause of his many ills expressed wonderment over the fact that Dr. Steinhaus had lived so long and could not even imagine how any man could have been so creative and pro- ductive with so many defects. It is equally amazing to others that a person could so effectively submerge his discomforts and pains, yet carry on with enthusiasm, vigor, and efficiency many scientific activities day after day, month after month, and year after year. One can imagine that even Ed himself, not knowing what it was like to be well and healthy, did not know the extent of his defects. This situation magnifies the stature of a man who earned the admiration and respect of so many people even in the absence of knowledge of the obstacles with which he had to contend each day of his life. Dr. Steinhaus's eminence as a scientist and pioneer research worker, which earned him recognition as the "father of insect pathology," emerged at the University of California, Berkeley. There he received an appointment in the Department of Bac- teriology in 1944 and was soon transferred to the College of Agriculture and the Agricultural Experiment Station as Assis- tant Professor of Insect Pathology and Assistant Insect Pathol- ogist, respectively. His advancement to higher positions came steadily. By 1954, he had become Professor of Insect Pathology with the University and Insect Pathologist with the Experiment Station. He organized and directed the Laboratory of Insect Pathology, the first in the world. Later, in 1960, this small laboratory was elevated to the position of Department of Insect Pathology. In 1963 the Department became the Division of Invertebrate Pathology within the Department of Entomology and Parasitology. With the establishment of the University of California, Irvine, in 1963, Chancellor Daniel G. Aldrich prevailed upon Dr. Steinhaus to organize the School of Biological Sciences and

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EDWARD ARTHUR STEINHAUS 311 become its first Dean. In relating the selection of Dr. Steinhaus for this post, Dr. Aldrich stated: "He was my first appointment pro tne new university;, and what an example he set for us! He was a tireless administrator, an indefatigable researcher, and a concerned and understanding teacher, admired by undergrad- uates and graduates alike. Dean Steinhaus organized, staffed, and developed a program in the biological sciences that is unique in this country today." Dean Steinhaus trained and developed most of the senior insect pathologists of the world today. His graduate students came from all parts of the globe. The number was limited only by the available facilities and resources. After completing their training, the students returned to their countries or accepted posts in other parts of the world to establish new centers for teaching or research in a new scientific discipline. It is evident from the many sincere and eloquently stated letters of con- dolence received by Mrs. Mabry Steinhaus that Dr. Steinhaus's former students had an intense love, admiration, and respect for him, not only as a teacher, but also as a personal adviser and counselor. Dr. Steinhaus demanded of his students thorough- ness, accuracy, and efficiency, but he had seemingly unlimited patience in considering their ~rohlewc Epic ~~rrer~rv Marc in . , ~ . /~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ T ~ 1 J structea by Ld to budget his time so that he could give primary consideration to the needs and problems of his students. He made himself available for counseling with students even dur- ing his busiest times. Ed, a prolific and articulate writer of scientific publications, was described by his secretary as a scientific writer with "soul." His bibliography consisted of more than 150 technical articles and books. It contains research papers on bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan diseases of insects. In his research deal- ing primarily with insect viruses, he found that two different types of viruses occur in insectsthe granulosis and the non- inclusion viruses. In his research on viruses he recorded or

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312 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS described fifty new viruses in insects. In addition to the many individual articles, he authored two books, Insect Microbiology, published in 1946, and Principles of Insect Pathology, published in 1949. At the time of his death, he was writing a book on the history of insect pathology and its development in North America. He had planned a book on "invertebrate pathology." Dr. Steinhaus also edited and contributed substantially to a two-volume work entitled Insect Pathology: An Advanced Treatise. In addition to his many publications, Dr. Steinhaus founded and edited the Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, initially called the Journal of Insect Pathology. Moreover, he organized the Society for Invertebrate Pathology and served as its first president in 1967 and 1968. His contributions to entomology were not limited to insect pathology; it was largely through his efforts that the Annual Review of Entomology was established in 195b, and he was its co-editor for the first six years. This is now regarded as the world's most important serial publication dealing with all aspects of the subject of entomology, to which hundreds of leading entomologists and associated scientists have contributed. Even though Dr. Steinhaus modestly expressed regret in not contributing more to applied insect pathology, he was the first to demonstrate that an insect could be controlled under field conditions by the use of a virus spray containing the nuclear polyhedral virus of the alfalfa caterpillar. Although the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis was known for years, he recog- nized its potential for controlling insects and investigated its pathogenic characteristics, including the associated endotoxin. His study of this organism included field tests which demon- strated the effectiveness of the organism for the control of several economic insect pests. Such results stimulated further work by other investigators and by industrial firms. This biological

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EDWARD ARTHUR STEINHAUS 313 organism is now produced and marketed as a highly selective biological insecticide for controlling a number of insect pests. Few scientists have attained the high level of admiration and respect of associates and peers so early in their professional careers as did Dr. Steinhaus. In 1959 he was among the first of the entomologists to receive the Founders' Memorial Award given each year by the Entomological Society of America for outstanding contributions to this field of science. In 1963 he served as the president of this society. His recognition as an out- standing entomologist was not limited to his associates in the United States. It was worldwide, as attested by his election to the Entomological Society of the USSR and several other foreign or international organizations. Recognition of his ability and stature in the field of science grew steadily, as evidenced by the demands for Dr. Steinhaus's services and by the many honors he received. His alma mater, North Dakota State University, awarded him an honorary Sc.D. degree in 1962. He served as visiting lecturer at a number of universities and declined many more invitations. In 1963 he delivered the principal address at the Second International Congress of Insect Pathology, held in Paris. He was a Fellow of the Entomological Society of America, the American Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science, and the American Acad- emy of Microbiology; in addition, he was an honorary member of the Society of Science and Technology, India, and the En- tomological Society of the USSR. Members of the National Academy of Sciences (Applied Biology Section) elected him to membership in 1968. In addition to his many contributions to scientific societies, Dr. Steinhaus contributed much of his time and talent to the advancement of science by serving on many national and inter- national committees and as a consultant to many scientific in- stitutions and organizations, including the Public Health Ser-

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314 vice, Pacific Science Board, National Research Council, World Health Organization, Office of Science and Technology, and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dr. Steinhaus recognized the importance, and encouraged the exchange, of ideas and viewpoints among scientists as a means of advancing scientific developments. His role in the establish- ment of the Journal of Invertebrate Pathology and in organizing the Society for Invertebrate Pathology has been cited. How- ever, he was also the leading force in the establishment of a recognized new scientific discipline, invertebrate pathology. Quoting from his own statement, Dr. Steinhaus brought to- gether "loose strings of scattered thrusts in the study of diseases of insects and other invertebrates, molding it into a discipline called invertebrate pathology." This molding of a new scientific discipline was accomplished in the span of less than a dozen years. It is apparent that his next goal was to develop closer interrelationships between scientific disciplines. As he advanced to positions of greater responsibility, his obvious goal was to create a "new biology" that could deal with scientific problems on a broader, more solid front and thereby contribute even more to science and human welfare. This he did as Dean of the School of Biological Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. He organized the school into departments concerned with "organismic biology," "population and environmental biology," "molecular and cell biology," and "psychobiology." Also, while serving as Dean of the School of Biological BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Sciences, he continued his interest in invertebrate pathology, establishing and later electing to direct a new center for patho- biology. In establishing the center, he had in mind a program of study encompassing diseases of all forms of life. At the core was his lifelong interest in determining "what goes wrong with life." A manuscript by his colleagues entitled "In Memorium" states, "The formation of the Center for Pathobiology in 196S, with Professor Steinhaus as its first Director, was the culmina-

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EDWARD ARTHUR STEINHAUS 315 tion of a lifelong aspiration to centralize information and research facilities dedicated to the advancement of the under- standing of disease in all forms of life. Confirmed by the Uni- versity of California as a new development in biology, the Center for Pathobiology will grow as a memorial to Edward A. Steinhaus." Emphasis thus far has been given to Dr. Steinhaus's contri- butions to science per se and to the development of scientists, rather than to how he himself was more concerned with science as a means of benefiting the welfare of man in every aspect of life. He expressed concern over the lack of appreciation of the close interrelationships of science and other developments. Some of his last written words in his unpublished autobiograph- ical manuscript were ". . . society has been led by our institu- tionseducational, religious, communications . . . into wrong relationships with the natural world. Considerations of culture have been separated too greatly from nature, and the idea that man's relations to nature is a moral one has often been for- gotten." He went on to say that he believed with Albert Schweitzer that "the great fault of all ethics hitherto has been that they believed themselves to have to deal only with the relations of man to man." Concerned with the relation man has with nature, Dr. Steinhaus also wrote that he viewed "the pollution of the air, soil, water with the wastes of man's tech- nological advances as nothing less than a sin, in the classical meaning of the word." He also regarded as sin and poor eco- nomics "the indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides, the destruction of animal species to a point where they either have or are about to disappear from the Earth, the cutting of forests without reforestation, the attempts to dam and flood parts of the Grand Canyona creation of God's which cannot be du- plicated." The plight of the underprivileged was a matter of grave con- cern to Dr. Steinhaus. He himself wondered whether he "was

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316 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS miscast as a scientist" and should not have been a social worker. He believed that the social sciences were not keeping pace with the "hard sciences" and expressed the feeling that technical ills could be corrected "if only the political scientist, the economist, the social scientist, and the humanist concerned with communi- cation would do his share in leading the way." A biographical account of an individual of Dr. Steinhaus's stature would be incomplete without some reference to his re- ligious philosophy. He regarded himself as a religious man, but not necessarily in the classical sense. To him religion should be a way of life and not just a way of believing. As a youth he was exposed to the traditional concepts of religion existing in a Protestant community consisting principally of German Lutherans, the denomination to which his father belonged. His mother was originally a Presbyterian but after marriage became affiliated with the Lutheran church. One of his brothers became a Lutheran minister after serving as a navigator in World War II. After reaching adulthood, Dr. Steinhaus became affiliated with several different denominations, but eventually joined the Congregational faith. His views on religion were liberal and he was strongly in favor of freedom of religion. He had little patience for the pomp often attendant upon religious ceremonies and was more interested in the basic principles of religion. This is perhaps why he admired the practical approach to religion of the Salva- tion Army. Dr. Steinhaus had no difficulty in compromising his basic concepts of science and religion. Once when asked by a graduate . . . .. . student why he believed In a supreme intelligence or a God, Dr. Steinhaus replied, " lust look out of the windowwhy, He's all over the placein the trees, the grass, the people, here in these bacterial cultures, here in the insects, in the molecules and atoms of this chemical, and out there in infinite spaceit's all God." Characteristically, it was his view that people should