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ELMER VERNER McCOLLUM March 3 . 1 879_Novem her 15 7 967 , By HARRY G. DAY THE FORMATIVE YEARS EEMER VERNER MCCOLLUM was the child of a pioneer family. Pioneering was also the hallmark of his scientific achieve- ments and humanitarian contributions. He was the first son and fourth child of Cornelius Armstrong McCollum and Martha Catherine Kidwell McCollum who sixteen years before had become homesteaders on one hundred sixty acres ten miles west and one mile north of Fort Scott, Kansas. His only brother, Burton, was sixteen months younger. The two were inseparable companions throughout their youth, and each influenced the other as long as they both lived. Each of the three sisters grad- uated from Lombard University, a Universalist Divinity School with a preparatory division, and each married a Universalist minister. Since the brother as well as Dr. McCollum graduated from the University of Kansas, all five of the McCollum children attained a much higher level of formal education than the parents. Dr. McCollum developed in humble circumstances. But in spite of the stark realities of frontier life, with parents who had received scarcely any formal schooling, he showed unusual capacity to learn and reflect on much that he observed. The parents and the other children also had high regard for learning. 263

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264 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The mother had attended a backwoods school only two winters. She could scarcely read when the first child was born. But in spite of all the burdens of farm chores, raising and preserving food for the family, and innumerable household duties, she learned to read well, and she devoted time to the education of all the children. As Dr. McCollum wrote of her, "She valued education for its own sake and for its influence on human dignity and refinement, because it enabled people to escape drudgery, increased their earning power, and won the esteem of people who cared for culture." Her determination, high ethical values, and respect for culture and her thrifty management of the family and its meager income and expendi- tures evidently were continuously felt in the family circle. The father read every moment that he had opportunity, but the supply of books and magazines was markedly limited and there were scarcely any well-informed and scholarly persons around him. As Dr. McCollum described him, "He was con- tinually thinking inquiringly," but the unevenness of his knowledge and the driving necessity of devoting nearly all his time to manual work kept him imprisoned by some remarkably naive beliefs. The parents were innovative and strongly motivated to at- tain economic security and were in fact leaders in their com- munity. The mother frequently assisted the neighbors in sick- ness and bereavement. Her resourcefulness proved highly essential to the family at the beginning of her elder son's tenth year. The father became chronically ill, possibly due to tuberculosis of the bones. With the onset of this family crisis, it became necessary for the young McCollum to assume some of the responsibilities of an adult. In spite of the father's illness, it was economically necessary to continue operation of the farm until the year that the boy became seventeen. For the entire family these years were marked by never-ending toil and anxiety.

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ELMER VERNER McCOLLUM 265 Elmer McCollum, with his younger brother, attended a one-room school which at best provided limited educational experiences. The pressure of duties on the farm caused him to miss school many days in autumn and spring. In his auto- biography, produced sixty-eight years later, Dr. McCollum wrote of these early years: "While I lived on the farm I did not come into contact with a single individual who was both well informed and well endowed intellectually in any branch of learning, or who was motivated to inquire into the phenomena of nature. My environment was without stimulation of mental activity." In 1893, when Elmer was fourteen years old, Mrs. McCollum took the two boys to the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. This experience broadened his horizons even though it also was devoid of much intellectual stimulation. Probably one of the most significant actions for Dr. McCol- ~um, and ultimately for advances in nutritional sciences, was the brave decision by the mother in 1896 to move the family to the vicinity of Lawrence, Kansas. The purpose was to pro- vide opportunity for her two sons to attend high school and then the University of Kansas. In this decision she was sup- ported by her invalid husband, but at that time neither son had a strong desire for much formal education. The McCollum family's strategy was similar to that of many other rural families in that era in the Middle West. They secured as much cash as possible by selling nearly all the live- stock and farm implements. The farm was rented as a source of income, and with the cash they purchased a fifteen-acre tract almost adjacent to the campus of the University of Kansas. This was converted to a fruit farm on which they hoped to produce enough income, along with the farm rental income, to meet the essential needs of the parents as well as the sons. Because the income was never enough, it became necessary for the boys to obtain employment in Lawrence.

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266 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS When the family arrived at Lawrence, Elmer was already seventeen years old, and he had not yet received any formal education beyond that afforded by the district school. He had suffered the humiliation of failing the general certification ex- aminations held that spring. Because he lacked the certificate of graduation, the high school principal, Mr. Frank A. Olney, inquired concerning his preparation. On the strength that he had read many books and that he had memorized many poems, such as Lowell's "Vision of Sir Launfal," Mr. Olney admitted him provisionally. This was a great relief to the new student. In later years Dr. McCollum often recalled with appreciation this understanding action. The intellectual competence and interests of the youth were quickly and unmistakably revealed in the high school record. His studies included Latin, history, mathematics, chemistry, and physics. He learned in such depth that when he entered the university, advanced credits were awarded in English com- position, chemistry, and physics. Owing to the excessive hours of employment and his responsibilities on the family acreage, there was little time for social contacts. Nevertheless, he was elected class president in both his junior and senior years. In this role he delivered an oration at the graduation exercises. The subject was "The Puerto Rican Tariff," a lively topic at that time. Dr. McCollum's wide interests and knowledge were greatly influenced by his discovery and instant love of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, which was kept in the assembly room of the high school. He was so strongly impressed that he arranged for a book dealer in Lawrence to obtain for him a good used set. This cost him $25, an amount representing about two months of his earnings at that time. He retained the set and used it assiduously for about twenty-five years, when he purchased a new edition.

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ELMER VERNER McCOLLUM 267 Throughout his adult life Dr. McCollum liked to recount some of his vivid memories of these high school years. They were largely concerned with his grinding preoccupation with physical labor through which he earned the money needed for his education and to supplement the meager resources of his family. His main job was lighting and extinguishing the gas lamps on the streets of one half of Lawrence. This job was continued throughout high school and his first two years in the university. Since this did not provide enough money to meet all his needs, he also obtained employment in the office of the Lawrence Daily World. Each day a little before sunset he reported at the gasworks. If it was cloudy or if the moon was not shining brightly, he would start his lamplighting rounds; but if the manager decided that the moon would shine brightly, he did not work. For such nights he did not receive wages, since he was paid only when he tended the lamps. Moonshine was literally for him an occu- pational handicap. After finishing the lighting he slept in a hammock in an attic above the retorts until midnight, when he would begin his rounds extinguishing the lamps. This required about one and one-half hours. Following this he would walk about one-half mile to his home and, after eating, he would sleep the rest of the night. The work at the newspaper office was largely in the after- noons following school. Frequently on Saturdays he collected for advertising by the merchants of Lawrence. Thus it is doubtful that any other boy in high school during that period had so little free time as the young McCollum. On many occasions Dr. McCollum expressed his gratitude for the influence of several of the high school teachers on his development. For example, he wrote, "Listening to them talk, individually or in classes, and observing their ways of doing things opened my eyes to new and creditable standards of

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268 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS thought and conduct. Four of them greatly influenced my thinking and standards, although they were doubtless quite unaware of what they were doing for me." About the time the young McCollum entered high school he joined the Unitarian church. Throughout his life he had a broad and active interest in the religions and philosophies of all ages, but he did not attend church services or participate in any kind of church programs. After entering the University of Kansas, in September 1900, he continued to light lamps and work at the newspaper office until he received an appointment as a student instructor in his third year. The latter provided more income and an opportunity for adequate sleep. Owing to his initial interest in preparing for medicine, dur- ing his first college year he devoted much time to the study of human anatomy. He also gave time to bacteriology and to courses in qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. At the begining of the second year he studied organic chemistry under Dr. Edward Bartow. He became so fascinated with the subject that he abandoned all thought of becoming a physician. There were few limiting regulations of the university on the distribution of study time or in the choice of courses. Thus the young McCollum devoted nearly all his attention to courses in chemistry and to special work on the preparation of many compounds described in Gatterman's textbook, Organic Chem- istry. Toward the end of his second year he began the analysis of samples of petroleum sent to Dr. Bartow by crude oil producers in the Oklahoma Territory and in southern Kansas. Thus a new and valuable source of income was established. Through academic work during the summers and the op- portunity to receive credits through special examinations, Mc- Collum earned his A.B. degree in three years. He was immediately admitted for work leading to an M.S.

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ELMER VERNER McCOLLUM 269 degree in chemistry. This included an appointment as teach- ing assistant in chemistry with a stipend of $300 for the year. His courses included a series of lectures in physiological chem- istry. The master's thesis was based on a study of the composi- tion of the gas in the hollow stems of the giant water lily, Nelumbo lutes (American lotusy, when the plant was exposed to sunlight and during the hours of darkness. This thesis was accepted, but the work was never published. Dr. Arthur Harris, who was highly respected by the young McCollum, directed the work. A few years earlier Harris had served with him in light- ing the gas lamps of Lawrence. Other influential teachers respected by the young McCollum included Professor E. C. Franklin and Dr. H. P. Cady. The latter was especially helpful in guiding him toward a superior graduate school for further training in organic chemistry. Through his study of current chemical journals he decided that the work of Dr. H. L. Wheeler and Dr. T. B. Johnson at Yale University was the most promising for him. In 1904 the young man applied to Yale for admission and a fellowship. He was promptly admitted, but he was given only a scholarship exempting him from paying tuition. Un- daunted, he accepted the offer in the belief that some way would be found to earn the money needed for his maintenance. On his way by train to New Haven, McCollum stopped in St. Louis for one day to visit the Lewis and Clark Exposition and to attend briefly the International Congress of Chemists that was in session. There he introduced himself to Professor Russell Chittenden, with whom he had been in correspondence concerning his admission to Yale. This began a lasting and fruitful friendship. Assured that every effort would be made to assist him, he resumed his journey to New Haven. He arrived there with $82 in his pocket and with no firm prospects of securing more. The tall, extremely thin young man had come into a new

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270 world. With hard work, foresight, and desire to accommodate to that world, the two years he spent in earning the Ph.D. degree proved to be extraordinarily fruitful and pleasing. The system for the conduct of graduate study that he experienced and the patterns of work and self-development that he pursued were followed throughout his life. When he arrived in New Haven he had rarely been away from home more than a few hours at a time. Most of the students he had known in high school and in undergraduate school were similar to him in background and experience. Scarcely any came from families of wealth and position. But at Yale he met every variety of person. He tried to learn from all, and he cultivated the qualities of their lives that seemed to be important in making the most of his own life. During the first year he found it possible to live in the home of one of his former high school teachers, Arthur L. Corbin, who had studied law and was at the time a faculty member in the Yale law school. After this transition period in the Corbin family he was invited by Professor Chittenden to live in one of the two suites of living rooms on the top floor of the chemistry building. This was home for him during the remaining two years at Yale. His roommate was Phillip Mitchell, who was a student of Professor Lafayette B. Mendel and later became Professor of Physiology at Brown University. Immediately after entering the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale, McCollum became associated with Professor Treat B. Johnson, who directed his doctoral research. The research was concerned with the preparation and study of pyrimidines. Students closely associated with him included Stanley R. Bene- dict, Stanley Bristol, Samuel H. Clapp, William B. Cramer, Samuel Dudley, George S. ~amieson, Eli M. K. Ryder, Carl O. Johns, and Johannes G. Statiropulous. The young McCollum appreciated Dr. Johnson's method of providing guidance. To suggest steps that might be taken to BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS

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ELMER VERNER McCOLLUM 271 prepare the desired compounds, Dr. Johnson used large sheets of newsprint, drew the formulas of known starting compounds, and indicated reagents and conditions to be used. Together they would discuss the procedures and the conditions that seemed to be most promising. During his second year McCollum contracted pneumonia. The enforced absences from classes and his debilitated health for some time thereafter seriously interfered with his progress. For a time it appeared that this might delay the completion of his degree. The illness and his intense preoccupation with re- search in organic chemistry had caused him to get seriously behind in crystallography, his second minor. When the teacher, Professor Samuel L. Penfield, learned about the situation he decided that the young man needed to improve his health more than he needed to spend time drawing crystals. He promised that if the student would spend time canoeing on the river three times a week the rest of the semester, he would re- ceive credit for the course! This unorthodox but extraordinary act of kindness was a significant influence throughout Dr. McCollum's long life with students. He never ceased to be grateful to Professor Penfield. The intensive reading habits cultivated during his graduate years were followed throughout Dr. McCollum's life. On his first visit to the laboratory Professor Horace L. Wells gave him a key to the large library provided by Professor Wheeler. There- after young McCollum spent many evenings in the library. This significant pattern is aptly described in his autobiography: "I took down in succession the volumes of a series of journals and turned every page, leisurely scanning them, until I came upon a title which interested me. Then I read carefully the introduction.... Next I examined the experimental observa- tions and studied the conclusions which the author drew from them. Before proceeding further I reflected on what I might do in order to shed more light on the program."

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272 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Earning money to pay expenses was still essential. McCol- lum was soon employed to give instruction in elementary chem- istry three evenings per week at the YMCA. This paid $10.00 per week, and it required only a small expenditure of time and labor. Another source of income was in tutoring students. After a few months, a number of students with money began to come to him for assistance. The tutors to whom students were attracted charged a minimum of $3.00 per hour. At such rates the young McCollum developed for the first time in his life a sense of financial security. Even while a full time and pro- ductive graduate student he began to earn enough money to accumulate savings. Another financial and scholastic advantage was gained by the young Kansan when he competed with six other students in a comprehensive chemistry examination at the end of the first year and earned the coveted Loomis Prize of $400. Through the help of his closest friend, Bill Cramer, he obtained work one summer as a clerk at a hotel on Block Island, Rhode Island. This added more to his financial resources and to his experience. He always cherished the warm friendship and great help of this thoughtful man. The doctoral research progressed so rapidly and well that two months before the degree was granted, in June 1906, Dr. McCollum began work in Dr. T. B. Osborne's laboratory. The work continued six months. During that time he used the Fischer ester method for the analysis of protein hydrolysates. Working with Samuel Clapp he learned about Osborne's puri- fied proteins from different seed grains and the general status ~ . . . . at protein Investigations. THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN: TEN PIONEERING YEARS Because there was no desirable academic position available at the end of the summer of 1906, McCollum went to Professor

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326 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With i. M. Newell. Studies on the role of zinc in nutrition. l. Nutr., 6: 289-302. With l. E. Becker. Food, Nutrition, and Health. 3d ed. Balti- more, Lord Baltimore Press. 146 an. The business value of research. Institute of American Poultry Industries, Chicago, 16 January. 14 pages. This was an address at the Sixth Annual Fact Finding Conference. A copy is in the Bitting Collection at the U.S. Congressional Library. 1934 With H. D. Kruse and M. M. Schmidt. Studies on magnesium deficiency in animals. V. Changes in the mineral metabolism of animals following magnesium deprivation. J. Biol. Chem., 106:553-72. With E. R. Orent and H. D. Kruse. Studies on magnesium de- ficiency in animals. VI. Chemical changes in the bone, with associated blood changes resulting from magnesium deprivation. I. Biol. Chem., 106:573-93. With H. D. Kruse and H. G. Day. The nutritive deficiencies of gelatin. Am. J. Hyg., 19:260-69. With N. D. Kehar. ventricular fibrillation. Bound water in cardiac muscle in relation to Am. l. Physiol., 110: 485-87. Nutritional aspects of milk pasteurization. Am. J. Public Health, 24: 956-58. The relation of the diet to mouth conditions. Proceedings of the First District Dental Society, New York. journal of Dentistry, 4:9-14. The contribution of business to the consumer through research. T. Home Econ., 26:510-11. 1935 With S. Itter and E. Orent. An effective method of extracting vita- min B. J. Biol. Chem., 108:571-77. With S. Itter and E. Orent. A simplified method for preparing lactoflavin and a study of its growth effect. J. Biol. Chem., 108: 579-83. With S. Itter and E. Orent. The possible role of the sulfhydryl group in vitamin B2 deficiency. J. Biol. Chem., 108:585-94.

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ELMER VERNER McCOLLUM 327 With H. Klein and E. Orent. The effects of magnesium deficiency on the teeth and their supporting structures in rats. Am. I. Physiol., 112: 256-62. With H. G. Day and H. D. Kruse. Studies on magnesium deficiency in animals. VII. The effects of magnesium deprivation, with superimposed calcium deficiency, on the animal body, as revealed by symptomatology and blood changes. J. Biol. Chem., 112:337-59. Standardization of vitamin D milk. Milk Dealer, 24~4~:32-33. Nutritional aspects of milk pasteurization. Public Health News, New jersey Department of Health, 19:387-89. Recent advances in nutrition. The Pennsylvania Medical Journal, . . 39:61-66. Food, nutrition, and health. journal of Health and Physical Edu- cation, 6: 6-8. Nutrition. In: A Textbook of Biochemistry, ed. by B. Harrow and C. P. Sherwin, pp. 255-62. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company. 1936 The fat-soluble vitamins. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 5:379~02. With H. J. Prebluda. A chemical reagent for the detection and estimation of vitamin Be. Science, 84:488. 1937 With C. G. Mackenzie. Am. J. Hyg., 25:1-10. With S. W. Hoobler and H. D. Kruse. Studies on magnesium de- ficiency in animals. VIII. The effects of magnesium deprivation on the total and ultrafilterable calcium and magnesium of tl~e serum. Am. J. Hyg., 25: 86-106. With l. E. Becker. Some effects of dietary oxalate on the ~at. Food, Nutrition, and Health. 4th ed. revised. Baltimore, published by authors. 154 pp. With E. Orent-Keiles and A. Robinson. The effects of sodium deprivation on the animal organism. Am. J. Physiol., 119:651-61. Recent advances in nutritional research. I. The vitamins. Tour- nal of the Michigan State Medical Society, 36:211-20. II. The mineral elements. Ibid., 220-27.

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328 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With l. E. Becker. The inorganic elements in the nutrition of the rat. Science, 86:477. Diet in resistance to disease. Illinois Health Messenger, 9: 25-30. 1938 With l. E. Becker. Toxicity of MnCl2 4H2O when fed to rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 38:740-42. Present status of vitamin milks. Am. l. Public Health, 28:1069-71. With C. G. Mackenzie and I. B. Mackenzie. A simple method of concentrating vitamin E. Public Health Rept., 53:1779-82. The diet of the pregnant woman. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 36:586-93. Recent advances in nutritional research. I. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 14:8-24. Moderator and summarizer. A Research Conference on the Cause and Prevention of Dental Caries. Sponsored by the Good Teeth Council for Children, Inc., Chicago. 178 pp. 1939 With H. G. Day and I. E. Becker. Effect of ether peroxides in wheat germ oil on production of tumors in rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 40:21-22. With B. Ahmad. The cobalt content of some food materials from different parts of the United States. Am. J. Hyg., 29A:24-26. With H. J. Prebluda. A chemical reagent for thiamine. J. Biol. Chem., 127:495-503. With C. G. Mackenzie. Vitamin E and nutritional muscular dys- trophy. Science, 89: 370-71. With C. G. Mackenzie and I. B. Mackenzie. Growth and repro- duction on a low fat diet. Biochemical journal, 33:935-43. With H. G. Day. Mineral metabolism, growth, and symptoma- tology of rats on a diet extremely deficient in phosphorus. Biol. Chem., 130:269-83. With E. Orent-Keiles and H. G. Day. The Newer Knowledge of Nutrition. bth ed. revised. New York, Macmillan Co. 701 pp. 1940 With E. Orent-Keiles. Mineral metabolism of rats on an extremely sodium-deficient diet. i. Biol. Chem., 133:75-81.

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ELMER VERNER MCCOLLUM 329 With C. G. Mackenzie. The cure of nutritional muscular dystrophy in the rabbit by alpha-tocopherol and its effect on creatine me- tabolism. J. Nutr., 19: 345-62. With M. Shils and H. G. Day. Bisulfite binding substances (B.B.S.) and thiamin deficiency. Science, 91:341. With C. G. Mackenzie and l. B. Mackenzie. Occurrence of tremors and incoordination in vitamin E-deficient adult rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 44:95-8. With R. H. Follis and H. G. Day. Histological studies of the tissues of rats fed a diet extremely low in phosphorus. }. Nutr., 20: 181-95. With C. G. Mackenzie and M. D. Levine. The prevention and cure of nutritional muscular dystrophy in the rabbit by alpha- tocopherol in the absence of a water-soluble factor. I. Nutr., 20:399-412. With H. G. Day. Effects of acute dietary zinc deficiency in the rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 45:282-84. With i. E. Becker. Food, Nutrition, and Health. 5th ed. Balti- more, published by the authors. 127 pp. Some contributions of nutritional research to clinical medicine. (The Jerome Cochran Lecture) Journal of the Medical Associa- tion of the State of Alabama, 9:365-70. 1941 The inorganic elements in nutrition. In: Nutrition, by C. A. Elvehjem, C. N. H. Long, and E. V. \IcCollum, pp. 35-46. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. With C. G. Mackenzie and J. B. Mackenzie. Uncomplicated vita- min E deficiency in the rabbit and its relation to the toxicity of cod liver oil. I. Nutr., 21: 225-34. With M. E. Shils and H. G. Day. The urinary excretion of bisul- fite binding substances by human adults on thiamin-low diets. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 201:561-69. With C. G. Mackenzie. Muscular dystrophy in the absence of testicular degeneration in vitamin E deficiency. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 47:148-52. With H. Blumberg. The prevention by choline of liver cirrhosis in rats on high fat, low protein diets. Science, 93:598-99. With C. G. Mackenzie and l. B. Mackenzie. The prevention by

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330 alpha-tocopherol of "cod liver oil muscular dystrophy" in the rabbit. Science, 94:216-17. With M. E. Sails and H. G. Day. The effect of thiamine deficiency in rats on the excretion of pyruvic acid and bisulfite-binding substances in the urine. I. Biol. Chem., 139:145-61. With E. Orent-Keiles. Potassium in animal nutrition. I. Biol. Chem., 140: 337-52. With R. H. Follis, in and H. G. Day. Histological studies of the tissues of rats fed a diet extremely low in zinc. i. Nutr., 22: 223-37. With I. B. Mackenzie and C. G. Mackenzie. The effect of sulfanilyl- guanidine on the thyroid of the rat. Science, 94:518-19. With C. G. Mackenzie. Effect of oral and parenteral administra- tion of vitamin E on creatinuria and symptoms of dystrophic rabbits. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 48:642-46. The diet in relation to dental caries. In: Dental Caries, by Henry Klein, Carroll E. Palmer, Basil G. Bibby, and Elmer V. Mc- Collum, pp. 45-53. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Diet in relation to dental caries. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Nature, 147: 104-08. 1942 Is there need for the fortification of milk? Journal of the American Public Health Association, 32:80~. With R. H. Follis, fir. and E. Orent-Keiles. Histologic studies of the tissues of rats fed a diet extremely low in sodium. Archives of Pathology, 33:504-12. With M. E. Shils. The trace elements in nutrition. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 120:609-19; also in Handbook of Nutrition. Chicago, Am. Med. Assoc., 1943. The protein element in nutrition. Proceedings of the 8th Scientific Congress. Public Health and Medicine, 6:57-61. With R. H. Follis, in and E. Orent-Keiles. The production of cardiac and renal lesions in rats by a diet extremely deficient in potassium. American journal of Pathology, 18:29-39. What is the right diet? (Vitamin enrichment of foods) New York Times Magazine, 13 Sept.; also reprinted in Baltimore Health News, 19:85.

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ELMER VERNER McCOLLUM 331 Nutritional science and public health; Harben Lecture, 1941. Inorganic elements which present nutrition problems of prac- tical importance. l. Roy. Inst. Public Health Hyg., 5:165-73. Nutritional science and public health; Harben Lecture, 1941. Problems presented by availability of low-cost synthetic vitamins. I. Roy. Inst. Public Health Hyg., 5:187-93. Nutritional science and public health; Harben Lecture, 1941. Nutritional problems presented by low-income families. l. Roy. Inst. Public Health Hyg., 5:194-98. 1943 With l. B. Mackenzie. Production of pulmonary edema by thiourea in the rat, and its relation to age. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 54: 34-37. With M. E. Shils. Further studies on the symptoms of manganese deficiency in the rat and mouse. l. Nutr., 26:1-19. 1944 With H. Blumberg. Effect of protein quality in production of dietary cirrhosis of the liver in rats. Federation Proceedings, 2:70-1. With W. Grubb. A completely supplemented evaporated milk and its use as a food for infants. Am. i. Diseases Children, 68:231-35. With I. B. Mackenzie. Effect of prolonged and intermittent sul- fonamide feeding on the basal metabolic rate, thyroid and pituitary. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 74: 85-97. Informe de la Comision panamericana de alimentacion. Boll Ofic. Sanit. Panam., 23:507-13. Nutrition and human welfare. Report of Pan American Com- mittee on Nutrition. Boll Ofic. Sanit. Panam., 23:796-801. The future of nutritional research. Nutr. Rev., 2:321-22. Our national diet and future health. In: Implications of Nutrition and Public Health in the Postwar Period, pp. 159-71 (Proceed- ings of a Conference). Published by the Children's Fund of Michigan. Hess, Alfred Fabian (Oct. 19, 1875-Dec. 5, 1933~. In: Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by H. E. Starr, Vol. 32, pp. 397-98. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons.

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332 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1945 Bread "enrichment." Maryland Health Bulletin, 17:2-7; reply to Williams, Science, 102: 181-82. With R. M. Wilder, A. F. Morgan, and H. S. Mitchell. To enrich or not to enrich: A symposium. l. Home Econ., 37:397-402. 1946 With E. I. Parsons and M. Frobisher, in Effect of immunization against lactobacilli and acidogenic cocci on tooth flora of rat. Am. J. Hyg.,43:41-48. With E. I. Parsons and M. Frobisher, in Effect of dietary carbo- hydrates on dental flora of rat. Am. i. Hyg., 44:249-56. 1948 With A. A. Rider. Fractionation of the amino acids from hydroly- sates in nonaqueous systems. Science, 108: 111-12. Historical aspects of protein nutrition. Nutr. Rev., 6: 225-28. 1949 With A. A. Rider and H. Suss. Fractionation of amino acid mix- tures in acetone by means of alkyl acid phosphates. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 72:709-11. 1950 Fifty years of progress in nutritional research. 71: 376-79. 1951 Scientific Monthly, With A. A. Rider. The preparation of lysine from protein hydroly- sates. I. Biol. Chem., 190:451-53. Early speculations on significance of phosphorus in nutrition. l. Am. Dietet. Assoc., 27:650-53. Nutrition. In: Chemical progress during the 75 years of the Amer- ican Chemical Society; a series of historical papers. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 43:567-69. 1952 With A. A. Rider. Separation of amino acids from inorganic con-

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ELMER VERNER McCOLLUM taminants. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 40:20-1. Early experiences with vitamin A A retrospect. Nutr. Rev., 10: 161-63. Cooperative research experiences with Dr. Park. atrics, 41: 646-50. Stanley Rossiter Benedict, 1884- 1936. National Academy of Sci- ences, B iograph ical Memoirs, 27: 155-77. Journal of Pedi- 1953 Who discovered vitamins? Science, 118:632. My early experiences in the study of foods and nutrition. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 22:1-16. 1954 With A. A. Siegenthaler. 2,681,927. Separation of amino acids. U.S. Patent, 1955 With A. A. Rider. The extraction of amino acid-containing sub- stances from urine. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medi- cine, 45:215-18. - 1956 C. i. M. Mehu, A forgotten man of science. Education, 33:507. Journal of Chemical The beginnings of essential nutrition. Nutr. Rev., 14: 257-61. 1957 With A. A. Rider. The preparation of glutamine from beet juice. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 68: 39-41. History of Nutrition. The Sequence of Ideas in Nutrition In- vestigations. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company. 451 pp. Purification of glutamic acid. U.S. Patent, 2,815,374. 1958 Vitamin "A" in human nutrition. This is the commentary for a documentary film which is one of a series on problems of pedi- atrics. Produced by Mead Johnson & Co., Evansville, Indiana. 15 pp.

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334 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1959 With E. B. McCollum. Vitamins A, D, E, K. In: Food, The Year- book of Agriculture, pp. 130-38. U.S. Department of Agricul- ture. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. History of Nutrition. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 1:1-27. With A. A. Rider. 2,928,869. 1960 Purification of glutamine. U.S. Patent, 1964 From Kansas Farm Boy to Scientist. The Autobiography of Elmer Verner McCollum. Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 253 pp. 1967 The paths to the discovery of vitamins A and D. l. Nutr., 91 (Suppl. l): ll-16. 1970 Cereals in the diet. In: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Copyright 1970, Vol. 5, pp. 204-5. Chicago, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. The article was first prepared and submitted in 1945. It has appeared in subsequent revisions of the encyclopaedia since that time. BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES Adams, Georgian, 1968. Elmer Verner McCollum, 1879-1967. In: Year Book of the American Philosophical Society, pp. 152-156. Anonymous, 1968. Dr. Elmer Verner McCollum. Annals of Den- tistry, 27:60. Holt, L. E., ir., 1968. A Tribute to Elmer V. McCollum. In: The American journal of Clinical Nutrition, 21:1136-37. The tribute was made by Dr. Holt on the occasion of his receiving the McCollum Award from the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Kassel, V., 1968. Elmer Verner McCollum. Einiges zur Geschichte einiger Vitamine. Anlasslich des kurzlich erfolgten Todes dreier Vitaminforscher. Zahnaerztliche Rundschau, 77:204-5.

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ELMER VERNER McCOLLUM 335 Mickelsen, Olaf, 1968. Elmer Werner McCollum. In: Nutrition Notes, 4:8. Snyder, Eleanor McKnight, and ~ones, Edith A., 1968. Elmer Verner McCollum, March 3, 1879-November 15, 1967. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 52:49. Chick, Harriette, and Peters, R. A., 1969. Elmer Verner McCollum, 1879-1967. In: Biographical Memoirs of the Fellows of the Royal Society, Vol. 15, pp. 159-71. Rider, Agatha Ann, 1970. Elmer Verner McCollum A Biograph- ical Sketch (1879-1967) . In: The Journal of Nutrition, 100: 1-10.

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