Click for next page ( 449


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 448
~ " 6 I'd

OCR for page 448
OSCAR RIDDLE September 27, Z877-November 29, 1968 BY GEORGE W. CORNER OSCAR RIDDLE, zoologist and proponent of the freedom of science teaching, was born September 27, 1877, in Greene County, Indiana. His birthplace was a log house near a village called Cincinnati, twenty miles from the university town of Bloomington. His boyhood in this countryside of heavily wooded hills and narrow valleys is well described in autobio- graphical notes Riddle prepared for the files of the National Academy of Sciences. The first part of the present account of his life, scientific career, and writings largely follows his own narrative. Oscar Riddle's father, Jonathan Riddle, came from a North- of-England family that had settled first in Virginia. On his Indiana land he made a comfortable living by farming and breeding livestock, though always with the narrow economic margin characteristic of pioneer life. He kept a racehorse and was an enthusiastic hunter of deer, wild turkey, and the bears that were then to be found in the hills of Indiana and neigh- boring states. It is of interest, in connection with his son's attitude toward dogmatic religion, that Jonathan Riddle was . . . . never active In any re lglOUS sect. Oscar's mother, Amanda Emeline Carmichael, was born at Cincinnati, Indiana, of Scottish and northern Irish ancestry. Her father, relatively prosperous among the villagers, kept a 427

OCR for page 448
428 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS general store and a flour mill. Something of a philosopher, Mr. Carmichael wrote a number of unpublished essays, well worded (according to his grandson) and showing deep interest in the question of free will and similar religiophilosophical topics. Sometimes, in the absence of the local Baptist preacher, he took the pulpit and preached sermons appreciated by the congre- gat~on. Jonathan Riddle died in 1882 at the age of fifty-five, leaving nine children of whom the youngest was six months old. His wife, then forty-five years of age, raised all of them to maturity and lived on to the age of eighty-nine. Although during her husband's lifetime she professed no religious faith, after he died she joined the local Baptists, often remarking, however, that site did not believe In eternal punishment nor did she think it sinful not to be a professed Christian. Her husband's death left the family in straitened circumstances, and all the older children had to help with the farm work. In his written reminiscences Oscar gives a graphic account of his early boyhood and schooling. "In our home, and on our farm, there was much work for even the smallest hands to do. Drinking water had to be carried up a steep hill from a cold, fast-flowing spring 60 or 70 yards away; and in summer, to and from the milk-house at this spring all the milk, some fruits, and vegetables were carried. Each winter and spring some acres had to be cleared of forest; later a variety of crops had to be planted and this rough and stub- born terrain had to be cultivated and harvested. "In order to obtain some money, it was necessary for the sons of our family to obtain work on nearby farms or in stores. Thus during all of my ninth and tenth years, except for the short term of school, I supported myself by work on a farm two miles from my home." Oscar Riddle's first school, a one-room cabin, was a mile from the Riddle farm by way of a narrow path through woods . . . . . .

OCR for page 448
OSCAR RIDDLE 429 and across fields. Like other boys of the neighborhood, Oscar walked barefoot, even in frosty weather, wearing boots only when snow lay on the ground. The school term was brief, about seventy days in each year. After two years at the country school, Oscar attended school in the village, with somewhat longer terms, as much as one hundred days. To attend school and such events in the village as spelling bees, debates, and church sup- pers, the Riddle children walked two miles each way. When twelve years old, Oscar helped in a store and delivered newspapers; at thirteen he trapped forbearing animals in wintertime; and for two years he swept the schoolroom floor and built the fire, for ten cents a day. From his fourteenth year he not only supported himself year-round, but like his older brothers was able to turn over a little money to his mother. Through hunting and trapping Oscar developed his lifelong interest in the habits of birds and mammals. As early as the age of eight his curiosity had been awakened by fossil shells and imprints he had noticed in the banks and gullies around his hillside home. These shapes in sandstone and limestone, he was told, represented animals of kinds that lived only in the sea. "This seemed to indicate, and led me to suspect, that our earth must be very old. Yet all the preachers I had heard in- sisted, and cited the Biblical record in support, that the earth was created about 6,000 years ago, and that there had been one and only onebig and short-lived flood. How could this flood have brought animals to our high hill from a sea that is almost a thousand miles away? Even more disconcerting to me were the dicta of these preachers, again supported by a Heaven-born Bible, that a hot Hell exists, and that after death all unbelievers go there and burn everlastingly. And I had to regard myself as such an unbeliever!" This conflict between dogma and observed fact caused the boy great distress of a kind not uncommon in those days in youngsters whose inquiring minds were breaking away from the

OCR for page 448
430 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS rigid beliefs of their elders. From the age of ten until he was thirteen, Oscar tells us, the threat of hellfire often wrung a prayer from him and brought frightened tears to his pillow before he slept at night. These fears were suddenly brushed away one night when the boy attended a lecture at the village church, the very place where he had so often heard the threat of damnation. A college mate of his elder brother, named Francis Price, was studying zoology at Indiana University under a twenty-seven-year-old professor, Carl H. Eigenmann, who later became a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Price had arranged to give a talk at the church on the evolution of living things and to illustrate it borrowed from Eigenmann a collection of fishes preserved in alcohol, chosen to illustrate the principles of adap- tation and natural selection. Either Price was very bold for the time or the current pastor was more liberal than those Oscar had heard earlier. At any rate the lad was so thrilled by the talk that he had Price invited to the Riddle house for the night. Thus enabled to examine the wonderful specimens for him- self, with Price's kindly guidance, he understood the relics of ancient life in the hillside strata that had worked so powerfully upon his youthful mind. "I never prayed or wept upon my pillow again," he wrote in old age. "Nothing in a long life has equaled the release, thrill, and resolution obtained from this message, so simply delivered by a young man from a neigh- boring farm." After completing grade school in the village of Cincinnati, Oscar Riddle attended high school in Bloomfield, the county seat of Greene County, and entered Indiana University in the spring of 1896. He began at once the formal study of biology and spent two summers at the university's biological field station, then at Turkey Lake, Indiana. In the summer of 1899 his good work on a survey of Winona Lake led Professor

OCR for page 448
OSCAR RIDDLE 431 Eigenmann to recommend him to the U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries for assignment to collect tide-pool and freshwater fishes of Puerto Rico, which had just become a possession of the United States. Taking a hasty course in Spanish, Riddle inter- rupted his college work and left for Puerto Rico in the autumn of 1899. The island's Commissioner of Education promptly asked him to teach biology to students of pharmacy and of edu- cation in the newly established Model and Training School at San Juan. Early in 1900 he also took over a beginning class in chemistry. That summer he was one of five men chosen to conduct teachers' institutes in the ten largest cities of Puerto Rico. By this time he was able to lecture in Spanish. Traveling by rail- way, horse-drawn carriage, ox cart, and steamer, he covered much of the island and the neighboring smaller isle of Vieques. During a second year at San Juan Riddle taught classes in biology in the high school, some of them in Spanish, and followed up his course in chemistry for pharmacy students by teaching them zoology and physiology. Several of his class of fourteen, he learned years later, became physicians, one a lawyer, one a banker, another a legislator, and one a professor of Spanish in the new University of Puerto Rico. All this teaching had left but little time for zoological collecting, but in 1901 Riddle, at his own expense, made a summer's scientific expedition to the delta of the Orinoco River, south of Trinidad. Returning home in the autumn of 1901, he registered at Indiana University for the final year required for his bachelor's degree. In January and February 1902 he accompanied Carl Eigenmann on a six-week trip to collect blindfishes (a special interest of Eigenmann's) in the caves and underground streams of western Cuba. During that year also he prepared an article on the fishes he had himself collected in Venezuela and Trini-

OCR for page 448
432 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS dad, but the manuscript that would have yielded his first publication in zoology was stolen from him. He sold his collec- tion to the Field Museum in Chicago. After graduation from college Riddle declined a generous offer from a family friend of a mercantile position in Indi- anapolis. He also declined a teaching post at the University of the Philippines and instead enrolled as a graduate student in the University of Chicago. There he was under the general leader- ship of Charles O. Whitman, but also followed (as he had hoped) the lectures of Jacques Loeb. His plan was to prepare himself for teaching and research, aiming for a career on the preclinical side of a medical school. In his first term he took Loeb's radically planned course in physiology, or rather general physiology as we would term it today. Although Riddle does not say so, it is obvious in retrospect that Loeb's departure that winter for the University of California was an intellectual loss to the young man, who could have benefited much if he had gone on to research under Loeb, from the latter's rigorous analytical thinking, of a kind that the still largely descriptive methods of zoology did not demand. Riddle's postgraduate training was interrupted by his ap- pointment in the spring of 1903 to teach physiology in Central High School of St. Louis, Missouri. Loeb's department had been asked to recommend a man capable of introducing ]abora- tory work into their didactic course. The project interested Riddle, who moreover needed money to help a sister go to college in St. Louis. He spent altogether five half-year periods there (1903-1906) interspersed with other activities, including participation in the summer course in physiology at Woods Hole in 1903, a summer assistantship in zoology and biology at Indiana in 1904, and a similar post at Indiana for eight months in 1905 while on leave of absence from St. Louis. At St. Louis he was also principal of one of the city's evening schools and

OCR for page 448
OSCAR RIDDLE 433 filled in what was left of his working hours by studying French and German at the local Berlitz school. In February 1906, Riddle resigned his St. Louis post and returned to Chicago to complete his postgraduate studies while resuming his assistantship in zoology. He found Loeb's suc- cessor in the chair of physiology, G. N. Stewart, less sympathetic to the kind of training he wished to obtain than was Professor Whitman and therefore decided to make zoology, under Whit- man's tutelage, his major subject for the doctorate. Even though he had accumulated sufficient credits for a minor in physiology, with Whitman's approval he chose biochemistry under Albert P. Matthews as his designated minor subject. Whitman put him to work for his doctoral dissertation on a problem of considerable theoretical importance, the cause of the alternation of light and dark bars seen on the feathers of many kinds of birds, notably fob and pigeons. Whitman's own long studies of the evolution of birds, and especially of their color patterns, had brought him face to face with this question, which, as he perceived, called for both genetic and biochemical studies. Thus was the course of Riddle's career as an investi- gator set by the time he took his Ph.D. in zoology, in June 1907. The guidance and companionship of Whitman, he says in his autobiographical statement, provided one of the most profitable and delightful epochs of his life: "Whitman became nearer to being a father to me than anyone I have known." After taking his doctorate, Riddle remained at the Univer- s~ty of Chicago as an associate (a rank between assistant and instructor) in zoology and embryology and also as an assistant in experimental therapeutics (a research post). The next year he was promoted to instructor in zoology and embryology, and in the following two years he twice gave the course in embryology for medical students and organized new courses in vertebrate zoology and genera] biology and a graduate course in the

OCR for page 448
434 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS physiology of development, a quite novel topic. From his laboratory he published several papers on color formation in feathers, the development of yolk in hens' eggs, and the rate of digestion in cold-blooded animals. In July 1910, he obtained leave of absence for a year of travel and study in Europe. Whitman had assured him that upon his return he would be made assistant professor of biology and given charge of two of the three terms of the introductory course in zoology. Riddle began serious work abroad by settling for a few weeks In Berlin, where in the university library he wrote a paper on melanin formation in feathers, which he presented at the Eighth International Zoological Congress, at Graz. After the Congress he visited various European countries as a tourist. In Frank- furt he called on Paul Ehrlich, who advised him about intra- vitam stains for studying oxidation and reduction in animal tissues, a topic he intended to investigate in the autumn at the Naples Zoological Station. Riddle had not been long at Naples when he received the distressing news of Whitman's death on December 6, 1910. It can do no harm now to the memory of the distinguished per- sonages upon whom Riddle's career depended at that critical time to say that Whitman's death was very unfortunate for him. Frank R. Lillie of the Chicago department of zoology, who had regarded himself as Whitman's heir apparent and in fact suc- ceeded to the senior chair, was planning a radical redisposition of the staff. Lillie wrote to Riddle in January 1911 that there was internal opposition to him (as indeed there had been to Whitman) and that he would not be reappointed. At about the same time Whitman's friends in the university wrote of their fears that the late professor's extensive unpublished researches on the evolution of pigeons would never be published under the new regime. Riddle, therefore, with self-sacrificing loyalty to his late chief and mentor, left Naples and went home to see what could be done to salvage Whitman's lifework. The

OCR for page 448
OSCAR RIDDLE 435 struggle to take on this task, he records, and the labor of com- pleting it were more formidable than any other efforts of his lifetime. Albert P. Matthews, Professor of Biochemistry, managed to get him a six-month appointment on the payroll of the Labora- tory of Experimental Therapeutics, a research unit of Matthews's department. The Sprague Institute gave him $300 toward the expenses of maintaining ~7hitman's large breeding colony of pigeons, which was still kept at the late professor's home. In 1912 came a great step forward in Riddle's career when the Carnegie Institution of Washington made him a salaried research associate, with funds to continue the pigeon colony, and undertook to pay for publishing the Whitman papers when- ever they might be ready for the press. Late in 1913 Riddle moved, with the birds and the manuscripts, to the Carnegie Institution's Station for Experimental Evolution, at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island. This appointment must have been initi- ated by Charles B. Davenport, founder in 1904 and director of the station. Yet Riddle states in his autobiographical notes that he had a constant struggle to obtain adequate quarters for his birds and efficient laboratory space for himself and indeed received little encouragement for his research until, after many years, Albert F. Blakeslee and later Milislav Demerec succeeded to the directorship. Davenport's coolness toward Riddle arose, no doubt, not only from differences of temperament, but also from Riddle's devotion to the memory of Whitman, whose scientific ideas as revealed in the documents that his disciple was editing were deeply at variance with those of Davenport. The research pro- gram at Cold Spring Harbor was based on the Mendelian principles that, since their rediscovery in 1900, had revolu- tionized genetics. Whitman, on the other hand, had remained unresponsive to much of the new genetics. He had begun to study evolution in birds in 1892, at the age of fifty, under the

OCR for page 448
436 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS influence of an older school of biological thought. To him recapitulation was the central fact of heredity; and he had, moreover, chosen as the hereditable factors to be studied in his hybrid birds three that did not lend themselves easily to Mendelian analysis: color patterns, which are exceedingly com- plex in birds, and sex determination and fertility, which are complex phenomena in all animals. He had never accepted the Mendelian ideas of unit characters and genetic dominance; he doubted the importance of mutations for evolution and declared that he had found evidence for evolution by orthogenesis. The presence in Davenport's laboratory of an outspoken, enthusiastic pupil of an anti-Mendelian must have irked the sensitive spirit of its director. At any rate, Riddle, while organizing, against what he felt to be his chief's indifference, a laboratory that never quite matched his own standards and getting under way a broad program of research, toiled on and on with \\lhitman's volumi- nous and, to a large extent, ill-sorted papers. The task was varied and immense, requiring rearrangement and assemblage of misplaced portions of chapters, analysis of numerous tables, and placement of numerous illustrations. In this task also he did not get all the help he needed, for Mrs. Whitman had for reasons of her own at times limited his use of the materials. At last, in 1914, the Carnegie Institution published the Whit- man papers in three large and handsomely illustrated volumes. The first two, edited solely by Riddle, present a clear statement of Whitman's studies on natural and hybrid pigeons and doves, their growth, and particularly their inheritance of feather patterns. In the third volume Riddle gathered together Whit- man's intensive observations of sex behavior and reproductive activities. Feeling himself not competent to assess this material, he turned the detailed editing over to Harvey A. Carr, Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Chicago. This third volume, largely free of the conjectural and controversial bias of

OCR for page 448
456 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1929 Some interrelations of sexuality, reproduction and internal secre- tions. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 92:943-50. The special contribution of developmental mechanics to the thought and purpose of the man of tomorrow. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 68: 107-17. With F. G. Benedict. The measurement of the basal heat produc- tion of pigeons. Part I. Instrumental technique J. Nutrition, 1 :475-95. With F. G. Benedict. The measurement of the basal heat produc- tion of pigeons. Part II. Physiological technique. J. Nutrition, 1 :497-536. Endocrine regulation of reproduction. Endocrinology, 13: 311-19. The inheritance of thyroid size and the establishment of thyroid races in ring-do~res. Am. Naturalist, 63: 385~09. 1930 Complete atrophy of kidney in pigeons following section of the ureter. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 27:1022-24. The age distribution of mortality in bird embryos and its probable significance. Am. l. Physiol., 94:535-37. With G. Christman and F. G. Benedict. Differential response of male and female ring-doves to metabolism measurements at higher and lower temperatures. 1931 Am. J. Physiol., 95:111-21. Factors in the development of sex and secondary sexual character- istics. Physiological Reviews, 11 :63-106. With J. Krizenecky. Extirpation of thymus and bursa in pigeons with a consideration of the failure of thymectomy to reveal thymus function. Am. J. Physiol., 97:343-52. Season of origin as a determiner of age at which birds become sex- ually mature. Am. i. Physiol., 97:581-87. With P. F. Braucher. Control of the special secretion of the crop- gland in pigeons by an anterior pituitary hormone. Am. J. Physiol., 97:617-25. With I. Polhemus. Effects of anterior pituitary hormones on gonads

OCR for page 448
O S C A R R I D D L E 457 and other organ weights in the pigeon. Am. I. Physiol., 98: 121-30. Studies on pituitary functions. Endocrinology, 15:307~14. lg32 With R. W. Bates and S. W. Dykshorn. A new hormone of the anterior pituitary. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 29:1211-12. With S. W. Dykshorn. Secretion of crop-milk in the castrate male pigeon. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 29:1213-15. With D. R. Charles and G. E. Cauthen. Relative growth rates in large and small races of pigeons. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 29: 1216-20. With G. C. Smith and F. G. Benedict. Seasonal, endocrine and temperature factors which determine percentage metabolism change per degree of temperature change. Am. l. Physiol., 101:88. (A) With T. C. Nussmann and F. G. Benedict. Metabolism during growth in a common pigeon. Am. J. Physiol., 101:251-69. With G. C. Smith and F. G. Benedict. The basal metabolism of the mourning dove and some of its hybrids. Am. I. Physiol., 101 :260-67. Metabolism and sex. In: Sex and Internal Secretions, ed. by Edgar Allen, pp. 246-80. Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Com- pany. With R. W. Bates and S. W. Dykshorn. Prolactin, a new and third hormone of the anterior pituitary. Anat. Record, 54:25. (A) Sex and intersex in pigeons. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Inter- national Congress of Genetics, ed. by Donald F. tones, Vol. 2, pp. 165-68. Ithaca, New York. Brooklyn, Brooklyn Botanic Garden. (A) 1933 With R. W. Bates and S. W. Dykshorn. Thyroid hypertrophy as a response to the gonad-stimulating hormone of the pituitary. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 30:794-97. With R. W. Bates and S. W. Dykshorn. The preparation, identifica- tion and assay of prolactin a hormone of the anterior pituitary. Am. J. Physiol., 105: 191-216.

OCR for page 448
458 With R. W. Bates. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Concerning anterior pituitary hormones. En- docrinology, 17: 689-98. With G. C. Smith and F. G. Benedict. Basal metabolism and the temperature factor in brooding ring-doves. 105:428-33. With T. C. Nussmann. Am. J. Physiol., A sex difference in pituitary size and in- Anat. Record, 57: 197-204. testinal length in doves and pigeons. 1934 With G. O. Smith and F. G. Benedict. Seasonal and temperature factors and their determination in pigeons of percentage metab- olism change per degree of temperature change. Am. J. Physiol., 107:333-43. \Vith P. F. Braucher. Body size changes in doves and pigeons incident to stages of the reproductive cycle. Am. i. Physiol., 107:343-47. With P. F. Braucher. Hemoglobin and erythrocyte difference ac- cording to sex and season in doves and pigeons. Am. I. Physiol., 108:554-66. With R. W. Bates and E. L. Lahr. On the protein nature of pro- lactin and of follicle-stimulating hormones. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 31:1223-24. With L. B. Dotti. Action of parathyroid hormone in normal and hypophysectomized pigeons. 507-9. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32: With E. L. Lahr, 11. W. Bates and C. S. Moran. Response of adult rat testes, sex accessories and adrenals to injections of prolactin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:509-12. 1935 Contemplating the hormones. Endocrinology, 19:1-13. With R. W. Bates and E. L. Lahr. Prolactin induces broodiness in fowl. Am. J. Physiol., 111:352-60. With E. L. Lahr and R. W. Bates. The gross action of prolactin and follicle-stimulating hormone on mature ovary and sex accessories of fowl. Am. l. Physiol., 111:361-68. With E. L. Lahr and R. W. Bates. Maternal behavior induced in virgin rats by prolactin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:730-34. With E. L. Lahr and R. W. Bates. Demonstration of prolactin

OCR for page 448
OSCAR RIDDLE 45Q induced activities which express maternal behavior in virgin rats. Am. I. Physiol., 113:110. With l. P. Schooley. Absence of follicle-stimulating hormone in pituitaries of young pigeons. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32: 1610-14. With G. C. Smith and C. S. Moran. Effects of complete and incom- plete hypophysectomy on the basal metabolism of pigeons. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:1614-16. Aspects and implications of the hormonal control of the maternal instincts. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 75:521-25. With R. W. Bates and E. L. Lahr. An assay of three hormones present in the anterior pituitaries of seven types of cattle classi- fied for age, sex, and stage of reproduction. Am. l. Physiol., 113:259-64. With G. C. Smith. The effect of temperature on the calorigenic action of dinitrophenol in normal and thyroidectomized pigeons. i. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap., 55:173-78. With R. W. Bates. The preparation of prolactin. l. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap., 5~:365-71. ., With R. W. Bates and T. Laanes. Evidence from dwarf mice against the individuality of growth hormone. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 33:446-50. 1936 With G. C. Smith, R. W. Bates, C. S. Moran and E. L. Lahr. Action of anterior pituitary hormones on basal metabolism of normal and hypophysectomized pigeons and on a paradoxical influence of temperature. Endocrinology, 20: 1-16. The confusion of tongues. Science, 83:41-4b, 69-74. With E. L. Lahr and R. W. Bates. Histological changes induced in the testes of immature doves and pigeons by gonadotropic hor- mone. Am. l. Physiol., 116:94-95. (A) With R. W. Bates. of prolactin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 34:847~9. With E. L. Lahr. Temporary suppression of estrous cycles in the rat by prolactin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 34:880-83. With L. B. Dotti. Blood calcium in relation to anterior pituitary and sex hormones. Science, 84: 557-59. Effect of route of administration on the bioassay

OCR for page 448
460 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With l. P. Schooley. Reciprocal weight changes in liver and testis of pigeons during reproduction. Anat. Record, 67:51. (A) 1937 With i. P. Schooley and R. W. Bates. Effective stimulation of crop- sacs by prolactin in hypophysectomized and in adrenalectomized pigeons. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 36:408-11. The relative claims of natural science and of social studies to a core place in the secondary school curriculum. Science Edu- cation, 21: 65-71. With R. W. Bates, E. L. Lahr and l. P. Schooley. Aspects of splanchnomegaly associated with the action of prolactin. Am. J. Physiol., 19:603-9. With R. W. Bates and E. L. Lahr. The mechanism of the anti- gonad action of prolactin in adult pigeons. Am. i. Physiol., 19:610-14. Physiological responses to prolactin. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 5:218-28. Carbohydrate metabolism in pigeons. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 5:362-74. 1938 With J. P. Schooley. The morphological basis of pituitary function in pigeons. Am. I. Anat., 62: 313~9. Science, 87: 375-80. With G. E. Cauthen. Erythrocyte number in young pigeons and its relation to heredity, growth and metabolism. Am. l. Physiol., 122:480-85. Educational darkness and luminous research. Prolactin, a product of the pituitary, and the part it plays in vital processes. Sci. Monthly, 47: 97-113. With E. L. Lahr. Proliferation of crop-sac epithelium in incubating and in prolactin injected pigeons studied with the colchicine technique. Am. J. Physiol., 123:614-19. 1939 With R. W. Bates and E. L. Lahr. The racial factor in the pigeon crop-sac method of bioassay. Am. i. Physiol., 125:722-29. The opportunity and obligation of the National Association of Biology Teachers. Am. Biol. Teacher, 1:115-21. With R. Miller. Stimulation of the adrenal cortex of pigeons by

OCR for page 448
OSCAR RIDDLE 461 anterior pituitary hormones and by their secondary products. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. NIed., 41:518-22. With R. W. Bates. The preparation, assay and actions of the lacto- genic hormone. Chapter XX in: Sex and Internal Secretions, 2d ea., ed. by Edgar Allen, pp. 1088-1 1 17. Baltimore, The Williams 8c Wilkins Company. With R. W. Bates and E. L. Lahr. The role of sex, estrogenic hor- mone, fasting and diuresis in the response of crop-sacs of pigeons to prolactin. Am. J. Physiol., 127:422-29. With SKI. W. Johnson. An undescribed type of partial sex-reversal in dove hybrids from a sub-family cross. Anat. Record, 75:509- 27. With M. W. Johnson. Tests of mammalian gonad-stimulating hormones on gonads of fishes. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 42: 260-62. 1940 Lactogenic and mammogenic hormones. I- Am. \ted. Assoc., 115: 2276-81. 1941 With E. L. Lahr and L. H. Elwell. Mitosis observed under col- chicine in crop-sac tissue after subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of prolactin. Archives of International Pharmaco- dynamics and Therapeutics, 65:278-82. With E. L. Lahr and R. W. Bates. The response of testes of im- mature pigeons to gonadotrophins. Endocrinology, 28:681-93. With J. P. Schooley and R. W. Bates. Replacement therapy in hypophysectomized juvenile pigeons. Am. J. Anat., 69:123-54. Endocrine aspects of the physiology of reproduction. Annual Re- vie`N of Physiology, 3: 573-616. Preliminary impressions and facts from a questionnaire on secondary school biology. Am. Biol. Teacher, 3:151-59. With R. W. Bates. Annual variation in the crop-sac response by prolactin. I. Biol. Chem., 1 1 1: cxliii-iv. (A) With R. A. Miller. Cellular response to insulin in suprarenals of pigeons. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 47:449-53. Recognition and removal of barriers to effective teaching of sec- ondary school biology. Bulletin of the Department of Science Instruction of the National Education Association, pp. 20-27. 7

OCR for page 448
462 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With R. W. Bates and E. L. Lahr. A strain difference in responsive- ness of chick thyroids to thyrotrophin and a step-wise increase during three years in thyroid weights of Carneau pigeons. En- docrinology, 29:492-97. With R. W. Bates. Annual variation in the response of crop-sacs and viscera of pigeons to prolactin. Endocrinology, 29:702-9. 1942 With H. H. Dunham. Effects of a series of sterols on ovulation and reproduction in pigeons. Physiol. Zool., 15: 383-95. With H. H. Dunham. Transformation of males to intersexes by estrogen passed from blood of ring-doves to their ovarian eggs. Endocrinology, 30:959-68. With R. W. Bates, T. Laanes and E. C. MacDowell. Growth in silver dwarf mice, with and without injections of anterior pitui- tary extracts. Endocrinology, 31: 53-58. With B. B. Wells and H. N. Marvin. The Bomskov reports on thymus mediation of pituitary function. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 49:473-76. Amount and nature of biology teaching in secondary schools. Sec- tion VI in: The Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools of the United States, ed. by Oscar Riddle, pp. 54-76. Lancaster, Penn- sylvania, Science Press. Cyclic changes in blood calcium and phosphorus in relation to egg laying and estrogen production. Endocrinology, 31:498-506. General relationship of hormones to growth and development. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 10:7-14. With R. A. Miller. The cytology of the pigeon adrenal cortex in experimentally induced atrophy and hyperactivity. Am. l. Anat.,71:311-35. The preparation of high school science teachers. Am. Biol. Teacher, 5: 63-65. Hormone therapy viewed by the research physiologist. In: Proceed- ings of the American Pharmaceutical Manufacture's' Association New York City, pp. 82-89. 1943 With E. L. Lahr and R. W. Bates. Non-specific results obtained with the micromethod for assay of prolactin. Endocrinology, 32:251-59.

OCR for page 448
OSCAR RIDDLE Edith R. A. Miller. 463 Effects of prolactin and cortical hormones on body weight and food intake of adrenalectomized pigeons. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 52:231-33. With R. A. Miller. Ability of adrenal cortical hormones, prolactin and thyroxin to maintain weight of body and viscera of hypo- physectomized pigeons. Endocrinology, 32:463-74. With W. F. Hollander. The inheritance of "scraggly" plumage and of ataxia in the pigeon. journal of Heredity, 34:167-72. 1944 With i. P. Schooley. Effect of light upon time of ovi-position in ring-doves. Physiol. Zool., 16: 187-93. Charles Benedict Davenport. Science, 99:441-42. With G. C. Smith and R. A. Miller. The effect of adrenalectomy on heat production in pigeons. Am. i. Physiol., 141:151-57. With G. C. Smith. The effects of fasting on heat production in normal and hypophysectomized young pigeons. Am. J. Physiol., 141 :303-11. With E. L. Lahr. On broodiness of ring-doves following implants of certain steroid hormones. Endocrinology, 35:255-60. With E. L. Lahr. The action of steroid hormones on the mature dove testis. Endocrinology, 35:261-66. With E. L. Lahr. Relative ability of various steroid hormones to promote growth in the oviduct of immature ring-doves. Yale journal of Biology and Medicine, 17:259-68. With V. M. Rauch and G. C. Smith. Changes in medullary bone during the reproductive cycle of female pigeons. Anat. Record, 90:295-305. 1945 With V. M. Rauch and G. C. Smith. Action of estrogen on plasma calcium and endosteal bone formation in parathyroidectomized pigeons. Endocrinology, 36:41-47. With M. R. McDonald. The partition of plasma calcium and in- organic phosphorus in estrogen-treated normal, parathyroidec- tomized and hypophysectomized pigeons. Endocrinology, 36: 48-~. With M. R. McDonald and G. C. Smith. Action of thyroxin on estrogen-induced changes in blood chemistry and endosteal bone. Endocrinology, 37: 23-28. .

OCR for page 448
464 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With W. F. Hollander. On partial melanism associated with para- thyroid enlargement in pigeons. Am. Naturalist, 78:456-63. With M. R. McDonald. The effect of reproduction and estrogen administration on the partition of calcium, phosphorus and nitrogen in pigeon plasma. i. Biol. Chem., 159:445-64. With W. F. Hollander and I. P. Schooley. A race of hermaphrodite- producing pigeons. Anat. Record, 92:401-23. With E. L. Lahr. Intersexuality in male embryos of pigeons. Anat. Record, 92 :425-31. With W. F. Hollander. Goiter in domestic pigeons. Poultry Science, 25:20-27. With L. B. Dotti. Pituitary ant! sex hormones which increase plasma calcium in birds and mammals. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 89:499-516. 1947 With seven associates. Studies on Carbohydrate and Fat Metabolism with Especial Reference to the Pigeon. Washington, D.C., Car- negie Institution of Washington. Publication No. 569. iv + 128 pp. Endocrines and Constitution in Doves and Pigeons. Washington, D.C., Carnegie Institution of Washington. Publication No. 572. xi + 306 pp. 1948 Charles Benedict Davenport (1866-1944~. In: National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, 25:75-110. Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences. 1954 High schools and biological literacy in the United States. Am. Biol. Teacher, 16: 179-84. The Unleashing of Evolutionary Thought. Press, Inc. xxi + 414 pp. 1958 New York, Vantage The new national interest in high school science. Am. Biol. Teacher, 20: 1 ~ 1-53. With Eugene F. Dubois. Francis Gano Benedict (1870-1957) . In:

OCR for page 448
OSCAR RIDDLE 465 National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, 32:67-99. New York, Columbia University Press. Is organized religion the source of today's moral impasse? Unity 144: 37-40. 1959 The origin of good and evil. Unity, 145:5-12. Must we fail in science education? Physiologist, 2:55-57. Must the humanities perpetuate supernaturalism? Realist, 2 1960 :1-7. The spreading spark of life. Am. Biol. Teacher, 22:228-32. Editorial. A real religious issue in the campaign. American Rationalist, 5:3-4. 1961 The nature of sex. In: Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior, ed. by A. Ellis and A. Abarbanel, pp. 757-68. New York, Hawthorn Books, Inc.

OCR for page 448