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CYRIL N ORMAN H U GH LON G June 19, 1901-July 6, 1970 BY 0. L. K. SMITH AND J. D. HARDY CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG, the elder son of John Edward and Rose Fanny (Langdill) Long, was born on June 19, 1901, in a village in Wiltshire, England. Most of his youth, however, was spent near Manchester, where his family had set- tled in the industrial town of Wigan. He spoke of his childhood often, as if it were of some special importance to the rest of his life. Mr. John Long was the son of an impressive Color Sergeant ire the Scots' Guards. He had shown great academic promise as a boy, but for some reason failed to pursue the life of a scholar or scientist, to which he might have been well suited, and instead entered government service, becoming a Tax Surveyor. As such he was known for his rigid honesty and retiring dispo- sition. On the other hand, he pursued at home a lively interest in history and literature, and his creative energies poured forth in a number of hobbies. Wearing a white coat he experimented in the making of perfumes and jams or inlaid delicate wood- work. He collected rare books and knew some authors per- sonally, notably Joseph Conrad. It may be imagined that his son inherited unusual intellectual ability, versatility, curiosity, and manual dexterity from his father, who encouraged him to be a serious student and to become a scientist. It also seems likely that the Long family set high standards for both moral character and achievement. 265

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266 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Mrs. Long was more of a companion to her two boys than their father. Cyril, as be was then known, often mentions in his diaries (191~1917) "going out with mother," perhaps to the library, sometimes to tea or even the theater. He was said to resemble her physically, and it may have been the gentle good nature and flexibility inherited from her that were to distin- guish him in later life in the role of teacher and administrator. The Longs were conservative people, and one can only specu- late as to how much they might have felt the effects of changing times in England at the turn of the century, but it is worthy of note that they were living near the city of Dickens' Hard Times, the cradle of a great liberal tradition, during a period of social reform and of expanding interest in education. Intel- lectual life in Edwardian England as a whole, moreover, as has been pointed out recently by J. B. Priestley, had some unique qualities that influenced its youthfirst, a distinct optimism that Priestley has termed "an atmosphere of hopeful debate" and, second, a peculiar climate "in which English genius, talent and generosity of mind could flourish." As to his own education, Dr. Long was fond of describing to his American grandsons the Wigan Grammar School, where he and his brother Reggie began their studies, as a strict old- fashioned British boys' school. It was then directed by a Rev- erend Chambres, a scholar himself, who had the gift of inter- esting others in learning. Classes were small, especially in the upper grades, and the group became quite competitive, doing well in their outside examinations. Cyril was developing a keen interest in history and soon became known for his excep- tional memory and ability to write good essays. The latter he afterward attributed to early experience with corporal punish- ment, but memories of hard work and even canings seem to have been mellowed by those of the headmaster's charming wit and of pleasant holidays. For the legendary Mr. Chambres, after a strenuous academic term, would take his boys on a

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 267 bicycle or camping trip at his own retreat in Wales rather than seek relaxation for himself. These were pleasant days. Even World War I was. remote, although the boys did participate in some civilian volunteer activities and Cyril's first experience in a hospital was probably that of writing letters for wounded soldiers. Little guessing that his love of sports was to have an unex- pected part in his future, Cyril was a skillful and enthusiastic player of soccer or cricket after school. In fact, his father some- times had to remind him to return home to study. Like most boys, he also loved such robust activities as "tenting," hiking, or bicycle tours. Wet days found him building models or in the library readingJules Verne or historical novels, for he was naturally too precise to enjoy literature as an art. His boyhood diaries give glimpses, too, of the early development of certain other familiar aspects of their writer's personality. Facts and figures, such as cricket scores, everyone's term grades, cash flow "in" at a birthday and "out" afterward, are carefully recorded in a boyish hand, observation without comment, much as in the laboratory notebooks that followed in later years. His growing interest in stamp collecting and Photography shows the sci- 1 ~ A ~ ~ ~ entrust s taste for doing things by himself and also for arranging things each in its own place. No wonder that he became addicted to crossword puzzles in later life. Stamps continued to interest him for many years, so that his final collection was of such high value that eventually it was lost through an unsolved burglary in 1968. He became a skillful and artistic photogra- pher, producing both landscapes and portraits of professional quality. It is interesting to note in view of later events that at the age of fifteen he was already developing his own pictures. He was generally well liked and had several close friends, typically from among the top-ranking students at school. He was always friendly, but most attracted to those with the keenest minds. He said in his mature years that his membership in the Ameri-

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268 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS can Philosophical Society gave him great pleasure because of the variety of distinguished scholars it brought together. Cyril continued to do well in school, in such subjects as English, mathematics, French and Latin, geography, Bible, and history. He placed fourth in his class in 1917. In that year, however, he also discovered chemistry, in which he rose imme- diately to the top of the class. Perhaps it was only natural talent and previous experience in the darkroom that accounted for this new interest, but many years later, when considering the ~ . . . . selection and training of young scientists, he wrote of the pri- mary importance of contact with inspiring teachers, "I was attracted at an early age to chemistry, largely by my own for- tunate contact in an English school with a science master, who . . . was not a distinguished investigator, but had an enthusi- asm for his subject, and a way of teaching it that was so effective that a large number of his students have become scientists." Thus it was that Long embarked upon what he later called the "exciting life adventure" of science. On completion of gram- mar school he enrolled immediately in the Honours School of Chemistry at nearby Manchester University. His choice, according to a description hv ~ F Falcon we ~ ~ 1 ~ , ~ ~ ~ --rig ~ Jo -I a school wltn a long and alstlngulshed record, especially in the training of men. Founded by Dalton early in the 19th century, such chemists as Sir William Roscoe and Carl Schor- lemmer later added great lustre to the school, Schlorlemmer's chair being the first in organic chemistry in England. In the 20th century it helped to produce men like W. H. Perkin, Waynflete Professor of Chemistry at Oxford and his successor at Oxford, Robert Robinson who was appointed in 1930. Long had part of his training under Robinson but principally under . . . Arthur Lapworth." Years later, when Long had become a champion of acceler- ated education for talented young American scientists, he wrote that in the British universities "in order to accommodate those

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 269 students who enter the University solely for the purpose of obtaining competence in a particular field the Honors Schools are provided. To my mind this is an excellent way to recruit scientists, and while it is true that they may emerge somewhat deficient in what is called a liberal arts education, they are likely to be exceedingly competent in their area of study. You may also be sure that only those who want to do nothing else but pursue their life work in a particular field will be attracted to such an exacting course of study." Long might have become a different sort of young man if he had gone to Cambridge, which was at first considered, but he seems to have been satisfied to commute to Manchester and to live at home with father and mother. At any rate he obtained a thorough training in both inorganic and organic chemistry, prepared his first two publications on the subject of the Friedel- Crafts reaction, and received his Bachelor of Science degree with first class honors in chemistry in 1921. Now twenty years of age, he was apparently well on the way to a career as an organic chemist when something unexpectedly set him off in quite a different direction. His own version of what happened is as follows: "During my years in the School of Chemistry I had become interested in organic chemistry, particularly in that of carbo- hydrates, and had thought that I might devote myself to this subject after Graduation. ~ However, one day in 1921, I was asked to see A. V. Hill, the newly appointed Professor of Physi- ology at the University. He told me that he was working on the physical and chemical changes underlying muscular contrac- tion, and that the latter was associated with the breakdown of glycogen to lactic acid. He needed the assistance of a chemist to follow these changes both in animals and in the blood of humans who were exercising. I must say that my first reaction was not too enthusiastic, I had had but little experience in biology, and in those days the efforts of the so-called biochem-

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270 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ists were not held in too high regard by many of their colleagues in pure chemistry. I was used to dealing with substances that could be crystallized, whose physical constants and chemical properties were predictable. The heterogeneous, messy and unknown properties of extracts of cells or of blood which this investigation required me to analyze seemed to offer nothing but a struggle against large odds. Nevertheless, as Professor Hill talked about the enormous possibilities for the understand- ing of living processes that the methods of chemistry and physics were able to offer, I began to be caught up in his enthusiasm and vision. I accepted the great opportunity he offered me and in due course wondered why I had not had the sense to see for myself the challenge and excitement that these 'messes' offered to young students of chemistry and physics; that they were indeed the only keys that would unlock the mysteries of living cells and organisms.... ~ ~ ~ V ~ 5 "When I began my work with Hill and his colleague Lup- ton, I soon began to suspect that their interest in me had not been entirely due to my extensive training in chemistry. I was at that time an enthusiastic player of football, field hockey, and cricket and this interest was soon put to practical uses by my superiors for I found myself running up and down stairs, or round the professor's garden while at intervals healthy samples of blood were withdrawn from my arms. When I had recovered from my exertions I was asked to sit down and analyze these for lactic acid." Professor Hill's story is a little different and gives Long credit for more initiative: "Long came and joined me in 1922 in Manchester. It.was his own idea. He had just got a first class degree in chemistry there and I think he possessed a microscope which set him think- ing about biology.... "Long was a charming fellow to work withthere was quite a party of usand enjoyed attempts to break world records of

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 271 rate of oxygen consumption during a total oxygen debt after severe exercise to which my colleagues and I were rather addicted." Hill's reputation must have preceded him to Manchester, and in view of later patterns of behavior it seems quite likely that Long got up courage to seek him out. He knew the use of a microscope well, for they had studied one at Wigan Grammar School, and he had taken bacteriology as an undergraduate. He was, in addition, probably familiar with some other biology courses offered the chemists. The classical work done in 1907 by F. G. Hopkins and W. Fletcher (who had been Hill's tutor at Cambridge), describing the production of lactic acid from glycogen during contraction of the isolated frog muscle, must have excited his curiosity, especially since he was already inter- ested in the chemistry of carbohydrates. Although neither account mentions it specifically, Long's next course of study took him to the medical school at Man- chester where, having received a scholarship, he began his work in October of 1921. We now know that although he was study- ing for his M.Sc., Hill encouraged him to qualify also for the medical examinations because he could see his young associate's "mind was already bending towards medicine." In the meanwhile the conversion of Long the chemist to Long the physiologist took place rapidly and, after receiving his master's degree from Manchester in 1923, he continued on with Hill to join Starling's department at University College, Lon- don, for the next two years. Of this move he wrote: "tThere was] freedom in those days to take advantage of unexpected opportunities and to choose one's own course. Today's young scientist may find himself working in a very limited area.... There are tremendous pressures on him, mainly financial ones, to stay within a specialized area. When I was a Demonstrator in physiology fat University College] in London, my salary was equivalent to only $250 a year, but I was free to work in any

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272 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS area of physiology that interested me. I think it would be impossible to duplicate my career today." Eight papers were published by Long alone or in collabora- tion with Hill and others on correlating what was then known about the chemistry and physiology of isolated muscle with what could be observed after exercise in the whole animal. particularly man, and later on about more clinical aspects of the same subject. It is interesting to note that this early work was also carried out under the watchful eye of Walter Fletcher, by now director of the Medical Research Council, and that the papers were usually submitted to the exacting Professor I. N. Langley of Cambridge (owner and editor of the Journal of Physiology), who wouldn't have hesitated to return them com- pletely written over in red pencil! A further connection with Cambridge was made during a summer when Long worked in Joseph Barcroft's laboratory. The years with Hill were important, too, not only for acquir- ing technical training, but also for leading to the development of a philosophy. The growth of biological science in England at the turn of the century owed much to the Cambridge school of physiologists, under Michael Foster and later Langley, where Hill had received his own training. Under Fletcher's super- vision Hill had worked in an odoriferous, unglamorous cellar side by side with Lucas and others, for the physiology labora- ~ory at ~amor~c~ge In those days was crowded with many "giants per square foot." Thus it is not surprising to find Long assimilat- ing some progressive ideas about science and education. Always a staunch adversary of Victorian utilitarianism, he quoted Sir Edward Appleton in 1955 - "Knowledge and insight are suffi- cient reward in themselves"to express a view that has not c~Joye(1 universal popularity as the century progressed. Also, Long began to believe, as Hill and Hopkins did, that the great- est discoveries are made from astute observation as a matter of chance"things just happen" rather than being planned. Fur- ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ , 1_ ~

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 273 ther, he believed that the function of the scientific mind is. simply as it says in the dictionary. to revise "accented conclu- s~ons In the light of newly discovered facts." All of this means that the most important piece of equipment in the laboratory is the scientist himself, and it demands that the scientist be given, as Long would say, the minimum of requirements and the maximum opportunity. This was the state that suited his own temperament so well. It might also be observed that such individualized endeavors thrive best in a climate of friendship and the strong personal bonds that were to provide an impor- tant ingredient in the course of Long's own career. Leaving his home district and parents for the first time may nave been difficult for Long, but once settled in London he soon made many new friends. ~ gala farewell party a few years later at the Astoria tells of their high regard for him, and his fondness for his companions is recorded in many snapshots showing them in the laboratory, enjoying parties, or boating together. It was not long before his interests widened, and his responsibilities were increased when it became evident that their colleague Harvey Lupton was dying of cancer. Interest- ingly enough, a letter from Lupton from the nursing home suggests that some of their techniques for studying exercise in man be applied to diabetic patients. It is not unlikely that Long was himself already thinking about the subject that was ever after on his mind: the syndrome of diabetes and how the various endocrine glands play upon metabolism during its development. He had a great admiration for Ernest Starling, and it is possible that his interest in diabetes dates from 1924 when a photograph of Long was taken with a dog depancreatized by the professor (Banting's and Best's dis- covery of insulin was still only three years old and was receiving much attention throughout the world). Having appreciated the . . . . . advantages of applying chemistry to physiology, Long again began to apply what he knew of one discipline to another,

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274 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS clinical medicine. The result was "The Metabolism of the Diabetic Individual During and After Muscular Exercise," written with K. S. Hetzel from the Department of Medicine. About this time he discovered Graham Lusk's The Science of Nutrition, which was to influence his work for many years to come. He was also seeing a great deal of his friend Alan Parkes, who was studying medicine. Their discussions together led to another clinical paper, on fetal reabsorption, Parkes's interest at the time. Accordingly, A. V. Hill arranged an opportunity for Long to return to his medical studies: "In 1925 Jonathan Meakins, Professor of Experimental Medicine at McGill University, Montreal, asked me if I could recommend somebody to join his team there. This led to Long going to McGill where he continued experimental studies in the intervals during his study of clinical medicine." During the next two years Long held the post of lecturer in medical research in the Department of Biochemistry at McGill. Upon receiving his M.D.C.M. degree, in 1928, he took charge of the medical laboratory at the Royal Victoria Hospital for the Department of Medicine, becoming assistant professor of medi- cal research at McGill in 1929. Writing of the talented and kindly Meakins in an obituary in 1959 he said, "My acceptance of this opportunity was perhaps the most fortunate decision I have made in my scientific career." While it would have been easy for Long to enjoy moderate fame (a contemporary news- paper article refers to him as a "noted physiologist"), he had detected in the McGill offer, quite apart from the opportunity to get his medical degree, some of his favorite ingredients. First of all, Dr. Meakins had written that there would be "no interference on the part of others" with one's own laboratory work. In acldition, Dr. Meakins, who had lately arrived himself as the first full-time chief of medicine at McGill, had some interesting new ideas about the future of medicine. His posi-

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 299 and hypophysectomy upon the fatty infiltration of the liver fol- lowing total pancreatomy in the cat. Am. i. Physiol., 116:96. Disturbances of the endocrine balance and their relation to diseases of metabolism. Ann. Intern. Med., 9: 1619-27. The interrelationships of the glands of internal secretion concerned with metabolism. (Newbold Lecture) Am. I. Med. Sci., 191: 741-59. With F. D. W. Lukens. The effects of hypophysectomy and adrena- lectomy upon pancreatic diabetes. Transactions of the Associa- tion of American Physicians, ~ 1: 123-28. Tl~e relation of the anterior pituitary to carbohydrate metabolism. Proc. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 17:276-86. 1937 With F. D. W. Lukens and F. C. Dohan. Adrenalectomized-depan- creatized dogs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 36:553-54. Studies on the "diabetogenic" action of the anterior pituitary. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 5:344-56. With S. Zuckerman. Relation of the adrenal cortex to cyclical changes in the female accessory reproductive organs. Nature, 139: 1106-7. The interrelationships between the pituitary, pancreas and adrenal glands. In: Practitioners Handbook, chap. III, pp. 20-32. New York, D. Appleton & Company. The influence of the pituitary and adrenal glands upon pancreatic diabetes. Harvey Lectures, 1936-1937, pp. 194-228. With A. White and H. R. Catchpole. A crystalline protein with high lactogenic activity. Science, 86:82-83. With A. White. Intermediary carbohydrate metabolism. Physiol., 40: 164-203. 1938 With B. Katzin. Effect of adrenal cortical hormone on carbo- hydrate stores of fasted hypophysectomized rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 38: ~ 16-18. With B. Katzin. The effect of the adrenal cortical hormone on the liver and muscle glycogen of normal fasting mice and rats. Am. J.Physiol.,123:113-14. With E. G. Fry and K. W. Thompson. The effect of adrenalectomy and adrenal cortical hormones upon pancreatic diabetes in the rat. Am. J. Physiol., 123:130-31.

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300 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With R. A. Shipley. I. The relation of ketonaemia to ketonuria in the rat. II. A method for the assay of the ketogenic activity. III. The nature of the ketogenic principle. Biochem. l., 32: 2242-56. The adrenal cortex and carbohydrate metabolism. Sigma Xi Quar- terly, 26: 175-86. 1939 Diabetes mellitus in the light of our present knowledge of metabo- lism. (Hatfield Lecture) Transactions Sc Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 7:21-46. With E. G. Fry and H. B. Ritter. The aggravation of pancreatic diabetes by adrenal cortical extract. Am. i. Physiol., 126:497. With H. C. Harrison. The effect of anterior pituitary extract on the metabolism of fasting normal and adrenalectomized rats. Am. J. Physiol., 126:526-27. With B. Katzin. The effect of adrenal cortical extract on the carbo- hydrate and protein metabolism of the rat. Am. l. Physiol., 126:551. With K. W. Thompson and B. F. Lyons. The effect of hypophysec- tomy on the hypercholesterolemia of the thyroidectomized dogs. Am. .T- Physiol., 126:643-44. 1940 Recent research on the control of metabolism by the endocrine glands. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 16:395- 406. With B. Katzin and E. G. Fry. The adrenal cortex and carbo- hydrate metabolism. Endocrinology, 26:309-44. With H. C. Harrison. The distribution of ketone bodies in tissues. I. Biol. Chem., 133:209-18. With H. C. Harrison. Effects of anterior pituitary extracts in the fasted rat. Endocrinology, 26:971-78. Evidence for and against control of carbohydrate metabolism by the hypothalamus. Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, Research Publications, 20:486-500. 1941 With l. R. Brobeck. The influence of hypothalamic lesions on pancreatic diabetes. Am. l. Physiol., 133:224.

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG With K. W. Thompson. 301 The effect of hypophysectomy upon hyper- cholesterolemia of dogs. Endocrinology, 28:715-22. With C. A. Elvehjem and E. V. McCollum. Nutrition. In: The End ocrine Control of Metabolism, pp. 13-33. University of Pennsylvania Bicentennial Conference. Philadelphia, Univer- sity of Pennsylvania Press. 1942 Pituitary hormones influencing growth in higher animals. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 10:91-103. Carbohydrate metabolism. In: Diseases of Metabolism, chap. II, pp. 19-72. 1st ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co. Etiology, diabetes mellitus. In: Diseases of Metabolism, chap. XVI, pp. 711-21. 1st ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co. With W. R. C. Golden. The influence of certain hormones on the carbohydrate levels of the chick. Endocrinology, 30:675-86. A discussion of the mechanism of action of adrenal cortical hor- mones on carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Endocrinol- ogy, 30:870-83. Metabolic functions of the endocrine glands. Ann. Rev. Physiol., 4:465-502. With E. G. Fry and M. Miller. The "corticomimetic" action of stilbestrol on carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Endo- crinology, 30: S1029-30. With A. White and R. W. Bonsnes. Prolactin. J. Biol. Chem., 143:447~4. With W. R. C. Golden. Absorption and disposition of glucose in the chick. Am. i. Physiol., 136:244~9. The endocrine control of carbohydrate metabolism and its relation to diabetes in man. Proceedings of the American Diabetes Association, 2:99-115. 1943 With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, and A. White. Effect of pituitary adrenotropic hormone on cholesterol content of rat adrenal glands. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 52:200-202. The growth and metabolic hormones of the anterior pituitary. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 43:383-426. With i. Tepperman and F. L. Engel. A review of adrenal cortical hypertrophy. Endocrinology, 32:373~02.

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302 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With J. Tepperman and F. L. Engel. Effect of high protein diets on size and activity of the adrenal cortex in the albino rat. Endocrinology, 32: 403-9. With F. L. Engel and M. G. Winton. Biochemical studies on shock. I. The metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrate during hemorrhagic shock in the rat. l. Exp. Med., 77: 397~10. With I. R. Brobeck and I. Tepperman. Experimental hypothala- mic hyperphagia in the albino rat. Yale T. Biol. Med., 15: 831-53. With J. Tepperman and J. R. Brobeck. mic hyperphagia and of alterations metabolism of the albino rat. Yale With V. C. Dickerson and l. Tepperman. The effects of hypothala- in feeding habits on the J. Biol. Med., 15: 855-73. The role of the liver in the synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrate. Yale I. Biol. Med., 15:875-92. With l. R. Brobeck and I. Tepperman. The effect of experimental obesity upon carbohydrate metabolism. Yale i. Biol. Med., 15: 893-904. With G. Sayers and A. White. Preparation and properties of pitui- tary adrenotropic hormone. I. Biol. Chem., 149:425-36. 1944 With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, E. G. Fry, and A. White. The effect of the adrenotrophic hormone of the anterior pituitary on the cholesterol content of the adrenals. Yale I. Biol. Med., 16: 361-92. With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, and H. L. Lewis. Effect of adreno- tropic hormone on ascorbic acid and cholesterol content of the adrenal. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 55:238-39. With i. A. Russell and F. L. Engel. Biochemical studies on shock. II. The role of the peripheral tissues in the metabolism of pro- tein and carbohydrate during hemorrhagic shock in the rat. J. Exp. Med., 79: 1-7. With F. L. Engel and H. C. Harrison. Biochemical studies on shock. III. The role of the liver and the hepatic circulation in the metabolic changes during hemorrhagic shock in the rat and the cat. l. Exp. Med., 79:9-22. With i. A. Russell and A. E. Wilhelmi. Biochemical studies on

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 303 shock. IV. The oxygen consumption of liver and kidney tissue from rats in hemorrhagic shock. i. Exp. Med., 79:23-33. 1945 With H. N. Harkins. Metabolic changes in shock after burns. Am..~. Physiol., 144:661-68. With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, and T.-Y. Liang. The cholesterol and ascorbic acid content of the adrenal, liver, brain and plasma following hemorrhage. Endocrinology, 37:96-110. With A. E. Wilhelmi, I. A. Russell, and M. G. Engel. Some aspects of the nitrogen metabolism of liver tissue from rats in hemor- rhagic shock. Am. J. Physiol., 144:674-82. With A. E. Wilhelmi, I. A. Russell, and F. L. Engel. The effects of hepatic anoxia on the respiration of liver slices in vitro. Am. J. Physiol., 144: 683-92. Edith E. G. Fry. Effect of epinephrine on adrenal cholesterol and ascorbic acid. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 59:67-68. With M. A. Sayers, G. Sayers, M. G. Engel, and F. L. Engel. Eleva- tion of plasma amino nitrogen as an index of the gravity of hemorrhagic shock. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 60:20-22. With H. C. Harrison. I. Biol. Chem., 161: 545-57. The regeneration of liver protein in the rat. 1946 Biochemical changes associated with the activity of the adrenal cortex. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 78:317-21. With G. Sayers, M. A. Sayers, and T.-Y. Liang. The effect of pituitary adrenotrophic hormone on the cholesterol and ascorbic acid con- - tent of the adrenal of the rat and the guinea pig. Endocri- nology, 38:1-9. With M. A. Sayers and G. Sayers. The standardization of hemor- rhagic shock in the rat: observation on the effects of transfusions of whole blood and some blood substitutes. Am. i. Physiol., 147: 155-64. With i. A. Russell. Amino nitrogen in liver and muscle of rats in shock after hemorrhage. Am. I. Physiol., 147:175-80. With A. E. Wilhelmi and M. G. Engel. The influence of feeding on the effects of hepatic anoxia on the respiration of liver slices in vitro. Am. I- Physiol., 147: 181-90.

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304 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1947 The conditions associated with the secretion of the adrenal cortex. Fed. Proc., 6:461-71. Recent studies on the function of the adrenal cortex. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 23:260-82. The relation of cholesterol and ascorbic acid to the secretion of the adrenal cortex. Recent Prog. Horm. Res., 1: 99-122. 1948 Presidential address at thirtieth annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Internal Secretions. Endocrinology, 43:89-96. With H. Gershberg. The activation of the adrenal cortex by insu- lin hypoglycemia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, 8:587-88. With A. E. Wilhelmi. Metabolic changes associated with hemor- rhage. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 49:605-21. 1949 The adrenal gland, a regulatory factor. In: The Chemistry and Physiology of Growth, chap. X, pp. 266-84. Princeton, Prince- ton University Press. With G. B. Pinchot and V. P. Close. Adrenal changes produced in rats by infection with B. tularense and B. coli. Endocri- nology, 45: 135~2. Factors regulating the adrenal cortical secretion. In: Pituitary- A drenal Function, pp. 24-30. Washington, D.C., American Association for the Advancement of Science. Report of the Dean of the School of Medicine, Yale University. 1950 With W. V. McDermott, E. G. Fry, and J. R. Brobeck. Release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone by direct application of epineph- rine to pituitary grafts. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 73:609-10. With H. Gershberg, E. G. Fry, and i. R. Brobeck. The role of epinephrine in the secretion of the adrenal cortex. Yale J. Biol. Med., 23:32-51. With W. V. McDermott, E. G. Fry, and J. R. Brobeck. Mechanism of control of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Yale I- Biol. Med., 23:52-66.

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 305 Problems in planning medical education. cal Journal, 14:313-15. With H. Mankin, l. A. F. Stevenson, i. R. Brobeck, and D. Stetten, Jr. The turnover of body fat in obesity resulting from hypo- thalamic injury studied with the aid of deuterium. Endocri- nology, 47:443~7. 1951 With M. T. Oesterlina. Connecticut State Medi- Adrenal cholesterol in the scorbutic guinea pig. Science, 113: 241~2. With J. C. Opsahl and E. G. Fry. Chronic gonadotrophin, ACTH, and the adrenalhyaluronidase relationship. Yale I. Biol. Med., 23:399~06. With i. C. Opsahl. Identification of ACTH in human placental tissue. Yale I. Biol. Med., 24: 199-209. The endocrine regulation of carbohydrate metaholi.sm an`] its Anti cation to the problems of diabetes mellitus. rr-+ Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Sept. 28 and 29. The adrenal mechanism in relation to shock. Symposium on Shock at the Army Medical Service Graduate School, May 7, pp. XII-1- XII-16. 1952 The endocrine control of the blood sugar. (Banting Lecture American Diabetes Association) Diabetes, 1:3-11. The endocrine control of the blood sugar. (Banting Lecture, Lon- don) Lancet, February 16, pp. 325-29. Regulation of ACTH secretion. Recent Prog. Horm. Res., 7:75- 105. With W. W. Winternitz. Participation of adrenal cortex in altera- tions in carbohydrate metabolism produced by epinephrine. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 81:683-85. The role of epinephrine in the secretion of the adrenal cortex. In: Ciba Foundation Colloquia on Endocrinology, vol. IV, p. 139 London, Churchill & Co. 1953 Regulation of ACTH secretion. Annual Lectures, National Insti- tute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, May 25, pp. 73-87.

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306 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Influence of the adrenal cortex on carbohydrate metabolism. In: Ciba Foundation Colloquia on Endocrinology, vol. VI, p. 136. London, Churchill & Co. The adrenals and growth hormone diabetes. In: Experimental Diabetes and Its Relation to Clinical Medicine, p. 172. Oxford, Blackwell. 1954 The hormones and metabolism. In: Symposium on Problems of Gerontology, pp. 106-19. Nutrition Symposium Series, no. 9. New York, The National Vitamin Foundation. 1955 Closing remarks. In: The Hypophyseal Growth Hormone, Nature and Actions, ed. by R. W. Smith, ir., O. H. Gaebler, and C. N. H. Long, chap. 30, pp. 573-76. International symposium. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co. With F. Ulrich. The effects of propylthiouracil and thyrotropic hormone on the uptake of radioactive thallium by the rat thy- roid. Yale I. Biol. Med., 27:371-78. With W. W. Winternitz and R. Dintzis. The effect of adrenal corti- cal hormones on the carbohydrate metabolism of the liver. Yale J. Biol. Med., 27:381-83. With D. Abelson and F. Ulrich. Identification of 20 beta-hydroxy- hydrocortisone in rat plasma after administration of hydrocorti- sone. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 89:386-88. The selection, care and preservation of research scientists. Pedi- atrics, 15: 203-10. With A. Brodish. Blood ACTH estimation by a cross-circulation technique. Fed. Proc., 14:18. (A) 1956 Pituitary-adrenal relationships. Ann. Rev. Physiol., 18:409-32. With A. Brodish. Changes in blood ACTH under various experi- mental conditions studied by means of a cross-circulation tech- nique. Proc. 20th Int. Congr. Physiol., p. 260, Brussels. (A) With E. G. Fry. The function of ocular and kidney transplants of pituitary tissue in the hypophysectomized rat. Proc. 20th Int. Congr. Physiol., p. 324, Brussels. (A) With A. Brodish. A technique of cross-circulation in the rat which

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 307 permits accurate control of blood volume transfers. Yale l. Biol. Med., 28: 644-49. With A. Brodish. Estimation of blood ACTH by means of a cross- circulation technique. Yale I. Biol. Med., 28:650-56. With F. Ulrich. Effects of stress on serum Ci4 levels in rats follow- ing administration of hydrocortisone-4-Ci4 and corticosterone-4- Ci4. Endocrinology, 59: 170-80. With A. Brodish. Changes in blood ACTH under various experi- mental conditions by means of a cross-circulation technique. Endocrinology, 59:666-76. 1957 Studies on experimental obesity. J. Endocrinol., 15: vi-xv). With M. F. M: Bonnycastle. The rate of discharge of adrenocorti- cotrophic hormone as determined by timed hypophysectomy in the rat. Can. J. Biochem., 35: 929-33. With W. W. Winternitz and R. Dintzis. Further studies on the adre- nal cortex and carbohydrate metabolism. Endocrinology, 61: 724-41. With A. Brodish. Evidence of an ACTH-releasing neurohumor in peripheral blood. Proc. 39th Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 31. (A) 1958 With A. Brodish. Mechanism of inhibition of ACTH release by hydrocortisone. Proc. 40th Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 38. (A) With l. R. Paul. John Punnett Peters. In: Biographical Memoirs' vol. 31, pp. 347-75. Washington, D.C., National Academy of ~ - ~clences. The adrenal cortex and carbohydrate metabolism. Proc. 3d. Congr. Int. Diabetes Fed., pp. 6-7. Dusseldorf. Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag. (A) Recent observations on the role of the adrenal cortex in carbo- hydrate metabolism. Proc. 3d. Congr. Int. Diabetes Fed., pp. 41- 47. Dusseldorf. Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag. 1959 With O. K. Smith. Acute effects of adrenalectomy and hydrocorti- sone on glucose tolerance of diabetic and eviscerated rats. Proc. 41st Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 54. (A)

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308 With A. Brodish. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1960 Characteristics of the adrenal ascorbic acid response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in the rat. Endocrinology, 66: 149-59. With E. G. Fry and M. F. M. Bonnycastle. The effect of cortisol on carbohydrate deposition and urea nitrogen excretion in adre- nalectomized rat. Proc. First Int. Congr. Endocrinol., Copen- hagen, ed. by F. Fuchs, no. 411, p. 819. (A) With O. K. Smith. The effect of adrenalectorny and cortisol on alloxan diabetic rats. Proc. First Int. Congr. Endocrinol., Co- penhagen, ed. by F. Fuchs, no. 651, p. 1293. (A) N\lith O. K. Smith and E. G. Fry. Actions of cortisol and related compounds on carbohydrate and protein metabolism. In: Metabolic Effects of Adrenal Hormones, pp. 4-24. Ciba Founda- tion Study Group no. 6. London, Churchill & Co. Medical science and the future. Yale J. Biol. Med., 33:227-34. 1962 With O. K. Smith. Some recent studies on the adrenal cortex and carbohydrate metabolism. In: The Human Adrenal Cortex, pp. 268-93. Edinburgh & London, E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. With A. Brodish. ACTH-releasing hypothalamic neurohumor in peripheral blood. Endocrinology, 71: 298--306. With A. Arimura. The influence of a small dose of vasopressin upon the pituitary-adrenal activation in the rat. .Jap. J. Physiol., 12:411-22. With A. Arimura. Effect of intracarotid injection of pitressin, pitocin, epinephrine and acetyl choline on ACTH release in rats. Jap. J. Physiol., 12:423-28. With A. Arimura. Influence of various vaso-active materials upon the hypophyseal portal vessels of rats: observation in situ. Jap. J. Physiol., 12:429-32. 1964 With T. Hiroshige. Effect of insulin on the visceral organism in the rat. Fed. Proc., 23:461. (A) With T. Hiroshige. Effect of dexamethasone on gluconeogenesis in the visceral organism. Proc. 46th Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 100. (A) With T. Hiroshige. The preparation, maintenance and use of a

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CYRIL NORMAN HUGH LONG 309 visceral organism for metabolic studies in the rat. Yale .T- Biol. Med., 37: 75-92. 1965 With T. Hiroshige. Effect of dexamethasone and insulin on gluco- neogenesis in the adrenalectomized-diabetic visceral organism. Proc. 23d Int. Congr. Physiol., Tokyo, p. 259. With O. K. Smith. The effects of cortisol on the eviscerated adre- nalectomized-diabetic rat. Proc. 47th Meet. Endocr. Soc., p. 128. (A) 1967 With O. K. Smith. Effect of cortisol on the plasma amino nitrogen of eviscerated adrenalectomized-diabetic rats. Endocrinology, 80:561-66. In memoriam: lane A. Russell. Endocrinology, 81:689-92. 1970 With C. Rosendorff and l. Mooney. Sites of action of leucocyte pyrogen in the genesis of fever in the conscious rabbit. Fed. Proc., 29:523, no. 1547. (A) 1971 With O. K. Smith. Renal gluconeogenesis in eviscerated diabetic rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 68: 1618-22.