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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN October 16, 1875-October 7, 1955 BY CHARLES GLEN KING HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN was born on a farm in Ash Grove, Virginia, near Washington, D.C., and lived there during his early school years. His parents, Franklin and Caroline Clapp Alvord Sherman, were the offspring of immigrants from Britain who settled in America during the early history of New England. A former professor of mathematics at Columbia Uni- versity, F. D. Sherman prepared a record of the family in "The Sherman Ancestry, 1420-1890." In Henry's immediate family there were five brothers and five sisters. As was true of many other American leaders, Sherman's early education was in a one-room, one-teacher, graceless school. His educational progress was rapid, however, as illustrated by his attainment of the Bachelor of Science degree from the Maryland Agricultural College (later the University of Mary- land) in 1893. During the two years that followed, he continued at Maryland in graduate studies while serving as an assistant in chemistry. He received a fellowship in chemistry at Columbia University (1895-1897), where he received his Master of Science degree in 1896. In 1897, Sherman received the Doctor of Philosophy degree from Columbiathe youngest person to be awarded that degree from the university. He continued as an assistant in analytical chemistry during 1897-1898 and, in the summer periods of 1898-1899, he served 397

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398 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS as an assistant with Dr. W. O. Atwater in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Sherman was particularly interested in organic analysis and the measurement of energy values. Strong friend- sh~ps and mutual interests with personnel in the department continued throughout his life. From 1899 until his retirement he served as a faculty mem- ber in the Department of Chemistry at Columbia University, successively as lecturer, instructor, adjunct professor of ana- lytical chemistry, professor of organic analysis, professor of food chemistry, Mitchell Professor of Chemistry, and Executive Officer of the Department of Chemistry (1919-1939~. The university awarded him the honorary degree of Doctor of Sci- ence in 1929. Leaves of absence during Dr. Sherman's service at Columbia University were extended to permit him to render important services during periods of national emergency. In 1917 with the rank of major he served with the American Red Cross Mission to Russia, and from April 1, 1943, to June 30, 1944, he was Chief of the Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics in the Department of Agriculture. He often recalled with pleasure an early experience in edu- cating the public in scientific matters when, in 1913, he served during the summer with Dr. S. N. Babcock and H. E. Alvord at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Dr. Sherman's early association with Dr. Atwater in the Department of Agriculture stimulated an interest in the ac- curate analysis of foods, feeds, and related products. Thirty- six of his first thirty-eight journal papers were on this general subject during the period from 1895 to 1910. The summer periods furnished background for his early papers and eventu- ally led him to emphasize laboratory training in quantitative organic analysis for graduate students. Dr. Arthur Thomas accepted chief responsibility in this area for the department as demands on Professor Sherman's time increased. This

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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN 399 Thomas did very effectively in parallel with his own teaching and intensive research in colloid chemistry. Dr. Sherman had a similar experience with another of his research projects. Beginning in 1910, when Edward C. Kendall was his graduate student, Dr. Sherman's interest in the chem- istry of enzymes, particularly in relation to the starch-splitting amylases from plant and animal sources, developed rapidly. Twenty papers appeared within the first seven years of Sher- man's research in this field. Then it was gradually accepted as a major field of emphasis by his former student and continuing faculty associate, Dr. Mary L. Caldwell. Their evidence that the enzyme was essentially a pure protein was one of the important contributions (in parallel with the evidence of James B. Sumner, John H. Northrop and others) that challenged the persistent views of Richard Willstatter and others in Europe that it was possible to prepare enzymes free from protein. Sherman pointed out two basic errors in Willstatter's interpretation: He and his associates had permitted hydrolysis of protein during long periods of dialysis, and then used tests for enzyme activity that were more sensitive than the tests used for protein. As the evidence became increasingly clear that deficiencies of protein, iron, calcium and vitamins were major health prob- lems, Sherman began to conduct short-term experiments on balances in relation to food intake. Then, he gradually turned to long-term quantitative studies of nutrition in relation to health. He also did much to encourage greater public and professional interest in these aspects of nutrition research. Two major types of life-span studies on food intake in relation to health in albino rats were emphasized: first, a comparison of experimental diets based on definite quantities of common foods through several generations and, second, observation of the im- provement that resulted from adding known quantities of specific nutrients thought to be marginally deficient. One group of rats was fed a diet (No. 16) based solely on one-sixth part by

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400 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS weight of whole milk powder plus five-sixths parts by weight of ground whole wheat, 1.3 percent of table salt and distilled water. This diet supported fairly good growth, prevented any specific signs of malnutrition, and permitted reproduction through more than 40 generations. But the record of this group of rats for early maturity, longevity and surviving offspring clearly was not as good as the record of a group fed diet No. 13, which contained one-third whole milk powder and two-thirds whole wheat, plus salt and distilled water. Addition of calcium or vitamin A to diet No. 16 resulted in distinct improvement. But addition of good quality protein, which accelerated early growth, caused less favorable recordsunless additional calcium was furnished to compensate for the early rapid growth and increased bone development. The meticulous care of experi- mental animals by H. Louise Campbell was of great assistance in these long-term studies that could not be readily conducted by graduate students. Another example of improving diets of marginal value was shown in relation to vitamin A. In life-span tests about four times as much of the vitamin, supplied as fish liver oil, was required for best performance, compared to the quantity that prevented physical signs of vitamin A deficiency. As there was no evidence of the exact nature of any of the vitamins at that time, and hence no certainty of chemical methods of measurement, Dr. Sherman recognized the need to develop reliable methods of biological assay, which would reflect a quantitative measure of the conjectured nutrient as- sociated with such specific deficiency diseases as scurvy, beriberi, rickets, xerophthalmia and pellagra. For example, "one unit" of vitamin C could represent one-tenth of the quantity of vitamin C required per day to prevent scurvy in a standard guinea pig. Sherman's assay methods for vitamin A, vitamin Be, vitamin Be (riboflavin), and vitamin C were widely adopted and made an important contribution to advancing nutrition on a

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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN 401 quantitative basis. The thoroughness with which he sought to identify the approximate range of optimum intake of in- dividual nutrients or specific types of food mixtures was re- markableparticularly in terms of numbers of animals used, length of time involved, number of surviving offspring, growth rate, longevity, tissue storage, and statistical evaluation of data as a basis for conclusions. His human balance experiments with calcium, phosphorus, iron and protein were regarded for many years as the best guides to health requirements for these minerals. When queried or chided by his friends for devoting so much of his time, energy, and resources to biological research, his enthusiastic reply was, "These animals are my burettes and balances. They give quantitative answers in chemical terms to many of man's greatest problems!" Sherman was not interested in spectacular discoveries as such, but he was wholeheartedly devoted to research that he was confident would result in sub- stantial advances in human health, greater efficiency in agri- culture, improvements in food technology, or, in time, would accelerate chemical understanding of life processes. Sherman was meticulous in his insistence on careful records from his graduate students in research (records were required in duplicate form, one for his files and one for the student), in the citation of others' publications, and in the exact wording of each manuscript. As reported by his associate, Dr. E. J. Quinn, when one of the students expressed a complaint at the require- ment of so many successive drafts for journal papers, Dr. Sher- man replied quietly, but with unmistakable firmness, "As many drafts may be required as there are paragraphs in the finished manuscript." Sherman's immediate interest in possible applications of research to improvements in the full gamut of food practices, from agriculture to the consumer, was illustrated in 1927 when he was shown the assay data confirming a high concentration

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402 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of vitamin C in green peppers. Knowing that this author had worked with peppers during earlier years on a farm, he asked a whole series of questions concerning how widely peppers could be grown in different areas, how well they met require- ments for marketing, and the variety of ways they might be utilized in food practices. And, when he learned that samples of powdered milk from newly developed spray driers showed a distinctly higher content of vitamin C than was contained in the product from conventional drum driers, he smiled and said quickly, "I think the Borden Company will be glad to know that!" Professor Sherman's keen interest in the relationship of food practices to health was evident in nearly all of his lectures and writing. Through many years, beginning in 1920, he joined with Professor C. E. A. Winslow and others in Reports on Nutrition Problems or reports on specific topics for the Amer- ican Public Health Association and its journal. His textbooks on nutrition soon became the most widely used in their re- spective spheres, and his books of a more general nature or on specific topics had wide acceptance. Sherman's first text, Methods of Organic Analysis (1905) was published in a second edition in 1912; the second text, Chemistry of Food and Nutri- tion (1911; 7th ea., 1946) was the most widely used of all. The monograph entitled The Vitamins, with S. L. Smith as co- author, was a notable contribution sponsored by the American Chemical Society through two editions (1922 and 1931~. Both as a public service and as a tribute to his outstanding contri- butions in nutrition education and research, Sherman's associ- ates, with assistance from the Nutrition Foundation, prepared for the Macmillan Company a single volume, Selected Works of Henry Clapp Sherman, published in 1948. His own evaluation of the science of nutrition is well ex- pressed in the introduction to the book: "There is already a world-wide awakening of interest in the potentialities of the

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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN 403 knowledge already gained, and of desire in almost every nation that the benefits of this newer knowledge of nutrition shall be brought within reach of all its people through more adequate and better-balanced food supplies. All over the earth there are now modern-minded men of affairs who, without necessarily having a scientific understanding of nutrition, have nevertheless grasped the fact of its significance for higher health and longer, more efficient life; and are working, both through education and governmental action to bring these benefits to their people. In the non-technical language of Lord Astor they see the im- portance to their people having, 'not only enough food, but further, enough of the right kinds of food.' Thinking nation- ally, each wants the higher efficiency of a better-nourished body of fellow-citizens. Thinking internationally, all are coming to want a more equitable distribution of the world's food among the world's people. Our increasingly scientific concept of better use of food and of resources for food production is keyed to the growing realization that all people live in one world." The faculty at Teacher's College of Columbia University contributed extensively to Dr. Sherman's accomplishments in nutrition education and in the joint sponsoring of students for graduate degrees and research. Mary Schwartz Rose, Grace MacLeod, Clara Mae Taylor, and Orrea Pye were recognized nationally and internationally as among the most energetic and effective leaders in nutrition education. Professor Sherman served as chairman of a special committee in the Graduate School with responsibility for establishing requirements for Ph.D. students in nutrition and for guiding them in the selec- tion of their course work. In chemistry and in other basic sciences, the students were required to meet the same standards in designated courses and examinations as other students in the respective disciplines. The large seminar originally chaired by Dr. Rose, but later by Dr. Sherman, in the chemistry depart- ment was interdepartmental and included faculty members and

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404 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS selected graduate students in other departments and in Teachers College. In addition to postdoctoral scientists who participated in research with Professor Sherman, a large number studied with him as their major adviser for the Ph.D. degree. E. C. Kendall and A. O. Gettler were among his first students. Among others were A. W. Thomas, V. K. LaMer, and M. L. Caldwell, who remained on the department staff, and P. L. Day, J. H. Axt- mayer, A. Spohn, R. T. Conner, M. Adams, M. D. Schlesinger, H. K. Stiebeling, E. L. Batchelder, E. N. Todhunter, M. L. Fincke, E. W. Toeper, F. L. MacLeod, and E. Woods. The intensity and persistence with which Dr. Sherman normally worked made one hesitant to interrupt or ask for an appointment unless a serious issue were at stake. His sincere personal interest in his students and faculty associates and his remarkable sense of courtesy were so clear, however, that de- mands on his time were always heavy. Hence, it was delightful, and one of his great gifts, to see how quickly and naturally he would relax at luncheon, dinner, or other break periods and show a continuing sense of subtle humor that made his friend- ship doubly rewarding. Sherman was by nature relatively quiet and shy, with a stead- fast sense of courtesy, honesty, discipline, and kindliness. Both his home life and his spontaneous relationships with others were characterized by these qualities. As a teacher, Sherman was a continuing inspiration to his students. His most famous student, Nobel Laureate Edward C. Ken- dall expressed his regard for Professor Sherman in terms that others would gladly endorse: "His scientific papers do not re- flect his genial capacity for friendship, his deep understanding of human nature, his lack of malice and intrigue, his sense of humor, his modesty and in short, his kindly spirit which en- deared him to his students and associates." And P. L. Day, an outstanding student, many years later wrote, "Although quick

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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN 405 of wit he did not indulge in breezy repartee; neither did he ever raise his voice in argument or anger." Beyond his direct services to Columbia University, Dr. Sherman accepted numerous professional appointments, in- cluding Research Associate with the Carnegie Institution, 1912- 1929, 1933-1939; member of the Committee on Food and Nutrition, National Research Council, 1920-1928, 1940-1943, and chairman of the Committee on Human Nutrition, chairman of the Committee on Nutrition Problems, American Public Health Association, 1919-1933; Scientific Advisory Committee of the Nutrition Foundation, 1942-1952; President of the Amer- ican Institute of Nutrition, 1931-1933; collaborator, U.S. Nu- trition Laboratory 1940-1942; and Chief, U.S. Bureau of Human Nutrition, 1943-1944. Special honors received by Dr. Sherman included medalist, American Chemical Society, 1934; Franklin Medal, Franklin Institute, 1946; Chandler Medal, Columbia University, 1949; Borden Award, American Institute of Nutrition, 1950; Vice- President, American Chemical Society, 1907-1908; President, American Society of Biological Chemists, 1926; member, Na- tional Academy of Sciences, 1933; honorary member, the Harvey Society. There were four children in the Sherman family, Phoebe (deceased, 1929), Henry Alvord, William Bowen (deceased, 1971), and Caroline Clapp (Mrs. Oscar E. Lanford, Jr.~. Henry, William, and Caroline all had outstanding careers, respectively, in chemical engineering, medicine, and biochemistry.

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406 KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY Am. Food .T- = The American Food Journal Am. J. Physiol. American Journal of Physiology Am. l. Public Health American journal of Public Health Am. Med. _ American Medicine Am. Public Health Assoc. Yearb. _ American Public Health Association Yearbook Ann. Rev. Biochem.Annual Review of Biochemistry Ann. Surv. Am. Chem. Annual Survey of American Chemistry Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. - Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb. - Carnegie Institution of Washington Year- book Child Health Bull. Child Health Bulletin Columbia Univ. Q. - Columbia University Quarterly I. Am. Chem. Soc. Journal of the American Chemical Society I. Am. Diet. Assoc. journal of the American Dietetic Association I. Am. Med. Assoc. journal of the American Medical Association I. Biol. Chem. journal of Biological Chemistry I. Chem. Educ. Journal of Chemical Education I. Franklin Inst. Journal of the Franklin Institute J. Home Econ. - Journal of Home Economics I- Ind. Eng. Chem. - Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry I. Nutr. Journal of Nutrition Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. - Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine Sch. Mines Q. School of Mines Quarterly Sci. Mon.- Science Monthly U.S. Dep. Agric. Bull. _ U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 1895 The determination of nitrogen in fertilizers containing nitrates. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 17:567-78. 1896 A study of methods for the determination of starch. Sch. Mines Q., 17:356. 1897 The insoluble carbohydrates of wheat. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 19:291- 324.

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420 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS report as research associate) Carnegie Inst. 27:359. 1929 Wash. Yearb., Food Products. New York, Macmillan Inc. 687 pp. With M. R. Sandels. Experiments with reference to the more heat-stable factor of the vitamin B group (factor P-P, vitamin B2 or G). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26:536-40. With D. B. Jones, T. P. B. ~ones, E. L. Fisk, and C. E. A. Winslow. Vitamins as factors in health and in food values. II. Am. J. Public Health, 19:482. The problem of sweets for children. Child Health Bull., 5:65. With H. K. Stiebeling. Quantitative studies of responses to dif- ferent intakes of vitamin D. l. Biol. Chem., 83:497-504. Food and Health. (De Lamar Lectures, 1928-1929) Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. Chemical investigation of amylases and related enzymes. (Annual report as research associate) Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 28:351. 1930 With H. K. Stiebeling. The relation of vitamin D to deposition of calcium in bone. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 27:663-65. With H. I. Campbell. Further experiments on the influence of food upon longevity. i. Nutr., 2:415-17. The vitamins as factors in nutrition. Illinois Department of Public Health, Educational Health Circular, 5:3. With M. L. Caldwell and H. H. Boynton. A quantitative study of the influence of acetate and of phosphate on the activity of malt amylase. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 52:1669-72. With M. L. Caldwell and M. Cleaveland. The influence of certain neutral salts upon the activity of malt amylase. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 52:2436-40. A glimpse of the social economics of Porto Rico, 1930. I. Home Econ., 22: 537-45. Some aspects of the chemistry of nutrition in relation to health. Porto Rico Journal of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 5:407. With M. L. Caldwell and M. Adams. Enzyme purification: further experiments with pancreatic amylase. I. Biol. Chem., 88:295- 304.

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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN 421 With H. K. Stiebeling. Quantitative differentiation of vitamins A and D. II. i. Biol. Chem., 88:683-93. Chemical investigation of the amylases and related enzymes. (Annual report as research associate) Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 29:370. The vitamins. In: Annual Survey of American Chemistry, vol. IV, pit; 312-21. New York, Chemical Catalog Company. 1931 Nutritional problems: new light on the significance of the protec- tive foods. Am. Public Health Assoc. Yearb., 1930-1931, p. 213. With M. L. Whitsitt. A study of the effect of nitrous acid upon components of the vitamin B complex. J. Biol. Chem., 90:153- 60. With M. R. Sandels. Further experimental differentiation of vitamins B and G. l. Nutr., 3:395~09. Chemistry. In: A Quarter Century of Learning, p. 275. New York, Columbia University Press. Enzymes and vitamins in present-day chemistry. 8:652. I. Chem. Ed~uc., With E. L. Batchelder. Further investigation of quantitative measurement of vitamin A values. I. Biol. Chem., 91:505-11. With M. L. Caldwell and L. E. Booher. Crystalline amylase. Science, 74:37. With L. E. Booher. The calcium content of the body in relation to that of the food. I. Biol. Chem., 93:93-103. With A. Bourgquin. Quantitative determination of vitamin G (Bid. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 53:3501-5. With E. F. Chase. A quantitative study of the determination of the antineuritic vitamin B. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 53:3506-10. Some recent advances in the chemistry of nutrition. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 97:1425-30. Emergency nutrition. Child Health Bull., 7:185-88. The vitamins. In: Annual Survey of American Chemistry, vol. V, pp. 333~2. New York, Chemical Catalog Company. 1932 With E. L. Fisk, C. E. A. Winslow, and E. M. Nelson. The practical significance of the vitamins to health. Am. Public Health Assoc. Yearb., 1931-1932, p. 126.

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422 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The vitamins from the view-point of the official chemist. (Wiley Memorial Lecture) journal of the Association of the Official Agricultural Chemists, 15: 103-12. Some recent advances in the chemistry of nutrition. The significance of protective foods. (Forsyth Lecture for 1930) Boston, Forsyth Dental Infirmary for Children. Calcium, phosphorus and vitamins as they promote the develop- ment and health of the teeth. Dental Survey, 8:29-30. With I. A. Derbigny. Studies on vitamin G (B2) with special refer- ence to protein intake. I. Biol. Chem., 99:165-71. 1933 The trend of recent advances in the chemistry of food and nutrition. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 9:373. With N. Halliday. Adsorption experiments with vitamins B (B~) and G (By. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 55:332-35. Food and health. Am. i. Public Health, 23:335-38. Guard against the hidden hunger. Child Health Bull., 9:135. Thomas Bruce Freas. Columbia Univ. Q., 25:230. Natural and induced variations in the vitamin values of milk. Am. I. Public Health, 23: 1031-34. A century of progress in the chemistry of nutrition. 442. Relation of food to length of life. 32:317. 1934 With L. N. Ellis. (By. J. Biol. Chem., 104:91-97. With M. L. Caldwell and W. E. Doebbeling. the purification and properties of malt amylase. 104:501-9. Sci. Mon., 37: Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., Necessary versus optimal intake of vitamin G Further studies upon J. Biol. Chem., Chemistry of the vitamins with special reference to quantitative aspects. (Nichols Medal Award Arl~lr~>~N r Tnr1 lither Chum 9~. 583. ~4 ~ ~ $~4~~ J 111~. ! 11~;. w11~111., flu. With H. L. Campbell. Observations upon growth from the view- point of statistical interpretation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 20: 413-16. The twentieth century science of nutrition. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science, 7:17-20.

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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN 423 General review of our present knowledge of the vitamins. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med., 10:457. With E. N. Todhunter. The determination of vitamin A values by a method of single feedings. J. Nutr., 8: 347-56. Foods for health protection. I. Home Econ., 26:493-96. Relation of food to length of life. 33:295. Food and Health. New York, Macmillan Inc. 290 pp. Food chemistry, 1933 and 1934. Ann. Surv. Am. Chem., 9:206. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 1935 Food as a far-reaching factor in health. Child Health Bull., 11: 1-4. With H. L. Campbell. Rate of growth and length of life. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 21:235-39. With M. L. Fincke. The availability of calcium from some typical foods. l. Biol. Chem., 110:421-28. With H. L. Campbell. Relation of food to regularity of nutri- tional response. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 21:434-36. With H. L. Campbell and O. A. Bessey. Adult rats of low calcium content. I. Biol. Chem., 110:703-6. With O. A. Bessey, C. G. King, and E. I. Quinn. The normal distribution of calcium between the skeleton and soft tissues. I. Biol. Chem., 111:115-18. Food supply and human progress. I. Ind. Eng. Chem., 27:995-96. With H. L. Campbell. Effects of increasing the calcium content of a diet in which calcium is one of the limiting factors. l. Nutr., 10: 363-71. With B. Bisbey. Experiments upon the extraction and stabilities of Vitamin B (B~) and of lactoflavin. I. Biol. Chem., 112:415-20. Relation of food to length of life. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 34:306. 1936 Calcium as a factor in the nutritional improvement of health. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 22:24-26. Lafayette Benedict Mendel. Science, 88:45-47. With M. Speirs. Calcium and phosphorus retention in growth in relation to the form of carbohydrate in the food. l. Nutr., 11:211-18.

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424 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Nutritional improvement in health and longevity. 97-107. With H. L. Campbell. Sci. Mon., 43: A further study of regularity of nutritional response to chemical intake. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 22: 478-81. With L. B. Whitcher and L. E. Booher. Further studies on the calcium content of the body in relation to calcium and phos- phorus content of the food. l. Biol. Chem., 115:679-84. With E. W. Toepfer. The effect of liberal intakes of calcium or calcium and phosphorus on growth and body calcium. i. Biol. Chem., 115:685-94. With R. T. Conner. Some aspects of protein intake in relation to growth and rate of calcification. Relation of food to length of life. 35:314. 1937 J. Biol. Chem., 115: 695-706. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., The bearing of the results of recent studies on nutrition on health and length of life. (Biggs Memorial Lecture) Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med., 13:311. With F. G. Benedict, H. L. Campbell, and A. Zmachinsky. Basal metabolism of rats in relation to old age and exercise during old age. J. Nutr., 14: 179-98. With H. L. Campbell and P. B. Rice. Nutritional well-being and length of life as influenced by different enrichments of an already adequate diet. J. Nutr., 14:609-20. With C. C. Sherman. The vitamins. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 6: 335-74. Relation of food to length of life. 36:323. 1938 Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., With E. V. Carlson. Riboflavin and a further growth essential in the tissues. i. Nutr., 15: 57-65. With H. C. Kao and R. T. Conner. The availability of calcium from Chinese cabbage. i. Biol. Chem., 123:221-28. Human nutrition. In: Seventh International Management Congress Proceed ings and Papers, vol. 3: Agriculture Papers, p. 117. Spon- sored by the National Management Council of the U.S.A. Balti- more, Waverly Press, Inc.

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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN 425 With C. S. Lanford. Further studies of the calcium content of the body as influenced by that of the food. I. Biol. Chem., 126: 381-87. With H. L. Campbell. Nutritional effects of the addition of meat and green vegetables to a wheat and milk diet. l. Nutr., 16: 603-12. The influence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the normal body. In: Cooperation in research, papers prepared in honor of John Campbell Merriam by staff members and research associates, pp. 415-23. Carnegie Institution of Washing- ton Publication 501. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington. Relation of nutrition to optimal health. Physical Education, 9:406-7. J journal of Health and Influence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the normal body. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 37:331. 1939 With H. L. Campbell and C. S. Lanford. Experiments on the relation of nutrition to the composition of the body and the length of life. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 25:16-20. With L. N. Ellis. Responses to different levels of nutritional intake of riboflavin (formerly called vitamin G). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 25:420-22. Research on influence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the normal body. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 38:297. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of human nutrition. In: United States Department of Agriculture Yearbook for 1939, p. 187. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Once. 1940 With H. C. Kao. Influence of nutritional intake upon concentra- tion of vitamin A in body tissues. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 45:589-91. Research on influence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the normal body. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb.j 39:257. With C. S. Lanford. Essentials of Nutrition. New York, Mac- millan Inc. 504 pp.

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426 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1941 Significance of different levels of vitamin intake. l. Am. Diet. Assoc., 17: 1. With K. E. Briwa. The calcium content of the normal growing body at a given age. J. Nutr., 21: 155-62. With C. S. Lanford and B. Finkelstein. Riboflavin contents of some typical fruits. l. Nutr., 21: 175-77. With C. S. Lanford and H. L. Campbell. Influence of different nutritional conditions upon the level of attainment in the normal increase of calcium in the growing body. l. Biol. Chem., 137:627-34 With F. O. Van Duyne, C. S. Lanford, and E. W. Toepfer. Life- time experiments upon the problem of optimal calcium intake. J. Nutr., 21:221-24. Some aspects of the present significance of nutrition. l. Franklin Inst., 231:305. With R. T. Conner and H. C. Kao. Further studies on the rela- tionship of the plane of protein intake to the rate of normal calcification during growth. I. Biol. Chem., 139:835-41. With F. O. Van Duyne. Riboflavin contents of tissues as stabilized in the adult at liberal levels of intake. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 27:289-91. With H. C. Kao and R. T. Conner. Influence of protein intake upon growth, reproduction and longevity. J. Nutr., 22:327-31. Progress in the chemistry of food and nutrition. The American Scholar, 10:369. Mary Swartz Rose. J. Biol. Chem., 140:687-88. Some relations of food chemistry to the time of aging and the length of life. News Edition, American Chemical Society, 19:1081-82. Research on influence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the normal body. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 40:287. 1942 With M. S. Ragan. Quantitative distribution of phosphorus and calcium in certain fruits and vegetables. l. Nutr., 23:283-92. With N. iolliffe and T. S. McLester. The prevalence of malnutri- tion. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 118:944-50. Adequate nutrition and human welfare. Proceedings of the Na-

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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN 427 tional Nutrition Conference for Defence, May 1941, p. 30. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office. Research on influence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the normal body. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 41:245. With C. S. Pearson. Modern Bread from the Viewpoint of Nutri- tion. New York, Macmillan Inc. vi + 118 pp. The training of analytical chemists from an industrial point of view. J. Chem. Educ., 19:589-97. Training and opportunities for women in chemistry. In: The Chem- ist at Work, by R. I. Grady, J. W. Chittum, and others, pp. 368- 72. Easton, Pennsylvania, Journal of Chemical Education. 1943 The Science of Nutrition. New York, Columbia University Press. 253 pp. With L. N. Ellis and A. Zmachinsky. Experiments upon the sig- nificance of liberal levels of intake of riboflavin. i. Nutr., 25: 153-60. With R. W. Little and A. W. Thomas. Spectrophotometric studies of the storage of vitamin A in the body. 441-43. Foods of animal origin. J lion, 122:228-31. With A. B. Rohrer. The bodily store of vitamin A as influenced by age and by food. J. Nutr., 25:605-9. With C. S. Lanford. Nutrition, 1941 and 1942. Ann. Rev. Bio- chem., 12: 397-424. With H. L. Campbell and C. S. Pearson. J. Biol. Chem., 148: T. Am. Med. Assoc. Handbool; of Nutri- Effect of increasing cal- cium content of diet upon rate of growth and length of life of unmated females. l. Nutr., 26:323-25. With C. S. Lanford. An Introduction to Foods and Nutrition. New York, Macmillan Inc. 1944 Principles of nutrition and nutritive value of food. United States Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication no. 546. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office. 40 pp. Nutritional engineering, I-IV. l. Franklin Inst., 238: 37-38, 97- 105,273-89,319-24.

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428 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Nutritional principles in wartime food problems. Chemical and Engineering News, 22:2011-12. Research on influence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the normal body. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 43:165. 1945 With H. L. Campbell, M. Udiljak, and H. Yarmolinsky. Vitamin A in relation to aging and to length of life. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 31:107-9. With H. L. CampbelL Stabilizing influence of liberal intake of vitamin A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 31: 164-66. Food and nutrition today and tomorrow. (Isabel Bevier Memorial Lecture) Urbana, University of Illinois. With H. L. Campbell. Influence of the calcium intake level upon the complete life cycle of the albino rat. Am. l. Physiol., 144: 717-19. With H. L. Campbell, M. Udiljak, and H. Yarmolinsky. Bodily storage of vitamin A in relation to diet and age, studied by the assay method of single feedings. I. Nutr., 30:343-48. With A. B. Caldwell and G. MacLeod. Bodily storage of vitamin A in relation to diet and age, studied by means of the antimony bichloride reaction using a photoelectric calorimeter. J. Nutr., 30: 349-53. Research on influence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the normal body. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearb., 44:160. 1946 With M. S. Ragan. Further studies of the influence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the body. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 33:266-68. With A. E. H. Houk and A. W. Thomas. Some interrelationships of dietary iron, copper and cobalt in metabolism. i. Nutr., 31 :609-20. \\lith A. Z. Murray and W. C. Zmachinsky. Riboflavin as a factor in the adequacy of the American food supply. Sci. Mon., 63: 151-53. Research for better nutrition. i. Franklin Inst., 242:1. The expanding opportunity of the science of nutrition. Nutrition Reviews, 4:225-27.

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HENRY CLAPP SHERMAN 429 The nutritional improvement of life. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 22:577- 81. With A. Z. Murray and L. M. Greenstein. Fluorometric studies of the riboflavin contents of muscle and liver. I. Biol. Chem., 165:91-94. Increasing the useful life span. In: The Science of Nutrition; Papers Presented at Meetings of the Nutrition Foundation, Nov. 13-14, lD46, pp. 31-35. New York, Nutrition Foundation, Inc. Nutrition policy. In: Nutrition for Young and Old, pp. 53-59. Albany, New York State Joint Legislative Committee on Nutri- tion. Foods: Their Value and Management. New York, Columbia Uni- versity Press. viii + 221 pp. 1947 With M. S. Ragan and M. E. Ball Effect of increasing food protein upon the calcium content of the body. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 33:356-58; Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, 18:128. Calcium and Phosphorus in Foods and Nutrition. New York, Columbia University Press. 117 pp. 1949 With H. Y. Trupp. Long term experiments at or near optimal level of intake of vitamin A. l. Nutr., 37:467-74. With H. C. Campbell and M. S. Ragan. Analytical and experi- mental study of the effects of increased protein with liberal calcium and riboflavin intakes: complete life cycles. l. Nutr., 37:317-27. 1950 The Nutritional Improvement of Life. versity Press. 270 pp. New York, Columbia Uni- With C. S. Pearson and M. E. Ball Quantitative effects of protein enrichment of diet upon growth and early adult life. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 36: 106-9.

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